The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.1.1.22     
Accepted name: UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + 2 NAD+ + H2O = UDP-α-D-glucuronate + 2 NADH + 2 H+
For diagram of the biosynthesis of UDP-α-D-glucose, UDP-α-D-galactose and UDP-α-D-glucuronate, click here
Other name(s): UDP-glucose dehydrogenase; uridine diphosphoglucose dehydrogenase; UDPG dehydrogenase; UDPG:NAD oxidoreductase; UDP-α-D-glucose:NAD oxidoreductase; UDP-glucose:NAD+ oxidoreductase; uridine diphosphate glucose dehydrogenase; UDP-D-glucose dehydrogenase; uridine diphosphate D-glucose dehydrogenase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:NAD+ 6-oxidoreductase
Comments: Also acts on UDP-α-D-2-deoxyglucose.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9028-26-6
References:
1.  Druzhinina, T.N., Kusov, Y.Y., Shibaev, V.N., Kochetkov, N.K., Biely, P., Kucar, S. and Bauer, S. Uridine diphosphate 2-deoxyglucose. Chemical synthesis, enzymic oxidation and epimerization. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 381 (1975) 301–307. [DOI] [PMID: 1091296]
2.  Maxwell, E.S., Kalckar, H.M. and Strominger, J.L. Some properties of uridine diphosphoglucose dehydrogenase. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 65 (1956) 2–10. [DOI] [PMID: 13373402]
3.  Strominger, J.L. and Mapson, L.W. Uridine diphosphoglucose dehydrogenase of pea seedlings. Biochem. J. 66 (1957) 567–572. [PMID: 13459898]
4.  Strominger, J.L., Maxwell, E.S., Axelrod, J. and Kalckar, H.M. Enzymatic formation of uridine diphosphogluconic acid. J. Biol. Chem. 224 (1957) 79–90. [PMID: 13398389]
[EC 1.1.1.22 created 1961]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.136     
Accepted name: UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 6-dehydrogenase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + 2 NAD+ + H2O = UDP-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-glucuronate + 2 NADH + 2 H+
For diagram of UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine and UDP-N-acetylmannosamine biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine dehydrogenase; UDP-acetylglucosamine dehydrogenase; UDP-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose:NAD oxidoreductase; UDP-GlcNAc dehydrogenase; WbpA; WbpO
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:NAD+ 6-oxidoreductase
Comments: This enzyme participates in the biosynthetic pathway for UDP-α-D-ManNAc3NAcA (UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-mannuronic acid), an important precursor of B-band lipopolysaccharide.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9054-83-5
References:
1.  Fan, D.-F., John, C.E., Zalitis, J. and Feingold, D.S. UDPacetylglucosamine dehydrogenase from Achromobacter georgiopolitanum. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 135 (1969) 45–49. [DOI] [PMID: 4312076]
2.  Miller, W.L., Wenzel, C.Q., Daniels, C., Larocque, S., Brisson, J.R. and Lam, J.S. Biochemical characterization of WbpA, a UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-dehydrogenase involved in O-antigen biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 37551–37558. [DOI] [PMID: 15226302]
[EC 1.1.1.136 created 1972, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.158      
Transferred entry: UDP-N-acetylmuramate dehydrogenase. Now EC 1.3.1.98, UDP-N-acetylmuramate dehydrogenase
[EC 1.1.1.158 created 1976, modified 1983, modified 2002, deleted 2013]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.305     
Accepted name: UDP-glucuronic acid dehydrogenase (UDP-4-keto-hexauronic acid decarboxylating)
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucuronate + NAD+ = UDP-β-L-threo-pentapyranos-4-ulose + CO2 + NADH + H+
For diagram of UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinose biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): UDP-GlcUA decarboxylase; ArnADH; UDP-glucuronate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucuronate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating)
Comments: The activity is part of a bifunctional enzyme also performing the reaction of EC 2.1.2.13 (UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose formyltransferase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Breazeale, S.D., Ribeiro, A.A., McClerren, A.L. and Raetz, C.R.H. A formyltransferase required for polymyxin resistance in Escherichia coli and the modification of lipid A with 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose. Identification and function of UDP-4-deoxy-4-formamido-L-arabinose. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 14154–14167. [DOI] [PMID: 15695810]
2.  Gatzeva-Topalova, P.Z., May, A.P. and Sousa, M.C. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli ArnA (PmrI) decarboxylase domain. A key enzyme for lipid A modification with 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose and polymyxin resistance. Biochemistry 43 (2004) 13370–13379. [DOI] [PMID: 15491143]
3.  Williams, G.J., Breazeale, S.D., Raetz, C.R.H. and Naismith, J.H. Structure and function of both domains of ArnA, a dual function decarboxylase and a formyltransferase, involved in 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 23000–23008. [DOI] [PMID: 15809294]
4.  Gatzeva-Topalova, P.Z., May, A.P. and Sousa, M.C. Structure and mechanism of ArnA: conformational change implies ordered dehydrogenase mechanism in key enzyme for polymyxin resistance. Structure 13 (2005) 929–942. [DOI] [PMID: 15939024]
5.  Yan, A., Guan, Z. and Raetz, C.R.H. An undecaprenyl phosphate-aminoarabinose flippase required for polymyxin resistance in Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 36077–36089. [DOI] [PMID: 17928292]
[EC 1.1.1.305 created 2010]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.335     
Accepted name: UDP-N-acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxyglucuronate dehydrogenase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxy-α-D-glucuronate + NAD+ = UDP-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-ribo-hex-3-uluronate + NADH + H+
For diagram of UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronate biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): WlbA; WbpB
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxy-α-D-glucuronate:NAD+ 3-oxidoreductase
Comments: This enzyme participates in the biosynthetic pathway for UDP-α-D-ManNAc3NAcA (UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-mannuronic acid), an important precursor of B-band lipopolysaccharide. The enzymes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotype O5 and Thermus thermophilus form a complex with the the enzyme catalysing the next step the pathway (EC 2.6.1.98, UDP-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-ribo-hexuluronate aminotransferase). The enzyme also possesses an EC 1.1.99.2 (L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase) activity, and utilizes the 2-oxoglutarate produced by EC 2.6.1.98 to regenerate the tightly bound NAD+. The enzymes from Bordetella pertussis and Chromobacterium violaceum do not bind NAD+ as tightly and do not require 2-oxoglutarate to function.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Westman, E.L., McNally, D.J., Charchoglyan, A., Brewer, D., Field, R.A. and Lam, J.S. Characterization of WbpB, WbpE, and WbpD and reconstitution of a pathway for the biosynthesis of UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronic acid in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 11854–11862. [DOI] [PMID: 19282284]
2.  Larkin, A. and Imperiali, B. Biosynthesis of UDP-GlcNAc(3NAc)A by WbpB, WbpE, and WbpD: enzymes in the Wbp pathway responsible for O-antigen assembly in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Biochemistry 48 (2009) 5446–5455. [DOI] [PMID: 19348502]
3.  Thoden, J.B. and Holden, H.M. Structural and functional studies of WlbA: A dehydrogenase involved in the biosynthesis of 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronic acid. Biochemistry 49 (2010) 7939–7948. [DOI] [PMID: 20690587]
4.  Thoden, J.B. and Holden, H.M. Biochemical and structural characterization of WlbA from Bordetella pertussis and Chromobacterium violaceum: enzymes required for the biosynthesis of 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronic acid. Biochemistry 50 (2011) 1483–1491. [DOI] [PMID: 21241053]
[EC 1.1.1.335 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.336     
Accepted name: UDP-N-acetyl-D-mannosamine dehydrogenase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosamine + 2 NAD+ + H2O = UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosaminuronate + 2 NADH + 2 H+
For diagram of UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine and UDP-N-acetylmannosamine biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): UDP-ManNAc 6-dehydrogenase; wecC (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosamine:NAD+ 6-oxidoreductase
Comments: Part of the pathway for acetamido sugar biosynthesis in bacteria and archaea. The enzyme has no activity with NADP+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Namboori, S.C. and Graham, D.E. Acetamido sugar biosynthesis in the Euryarchaea. J. Bacteriol. 190 (2008) 2987–2996. [DOI] [PMID: 18263721]
[EC 1.1.1.336 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.367     
Accepted name: UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-β-L-arabino-hexul-4-ose reductase
Reaction: UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-β-L-talose + NAD(P)+ = UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-β-L-arabino-hexul-4-ose + NAD(P)H + H+
For diagram of UDP-N-acetyl-β-L-fucosamine biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-β-L-talose = UDP-N-acetyl-β-L-pneumosamine
Other name(s): WbjC; Cap5F
Systematic name: UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-L-talose:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Part of the biosynthesis of UDP-N-acetyl-L-fucosamine. Isolated from the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Kneidinger, B., O'Riordan, K., Li, J., Brisson, J.R., Lee, J.C. and Lam, J.S. Three highly conserved proteins catalyze the conversion of UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to precursors for the biosynthesis of O antigen in Pseudomonas aeruginosa O11 and capsule in Staphylococcus aureus type 5. Implications for the UDP-N-acetyl-L-fucosamine biosynthetic pathway. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 3615–3627. [DOI] [PMID: 12464616]
2.  Mulrooney, E.F., Poon, K.K., McNally, D.J., Brisson, J.R. and Lam, J.S. Biosynthesis of UDP-N-acetyl-L-fucosamine, a precursor to the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotype O11. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 19535–19542. [DOI] [PMID: 15778500]
3.  Miyafusa, T., Tanaka, Y., Kuroda, M., Ohta, T. and Tsumoto, K. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis of CapF, a capsular polysaccharide-synthesis enzyme from Staphylococcus aureus. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 64 (2008) 512–515. [DOI] [PMID: 18540063]
[EC 1.1.1.367 created 2014]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.374     
Accepted name: UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 3-dehydrogenase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + NAD+ = UDP-2-acetamido-3-dehydro-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranose + NADH + H+
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:NAD+ 3-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme from the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis is activated by KCl (200 mM).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Namboori, S.C. and Graham, D.E. Enzymatic analysis of uridine diphosphate N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Anal. Biochem. 381 (2008) 94–100. [DOI] [PMID: 18634748]
[EC 1.1.1.374 created 2014]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.426     
Accepted name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-quinovosamine dehydrogenase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-quinovosamine + NAD(P)+ = UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-α-D-xylohex-4-ulose + NAD(P)H + H+
Glossary: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-quinovosamine = UDP-N-acetyl-6-deoxy-α-D-glucosamine
Other name(s): wbpV (gene name); wreQ (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-quinovosamine:NAD(P)+ 4-dehydrogenase
Comments: The enzyme participates in the biosynthesis of N-acetyl-α-D-quinovosamine, a 6-deoxy sugar that is present in the O antigens of many Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotypes O6 and O10, Rhizobium etli, and Brucella abortus.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Belanger, M., Burrows, L.L. and Lam, J.S. Functional analysis of genes responsible for the synthesis of the B-band O antigen of Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotype O6 lipopolysaccharide. Microbiology (Reading) 145 (1999) 3505–3521. [DOI] [PMID: 10627048]
2.  Forsberg, L.S., Noel, K.D., Box, J. and Carlson, R.W. Genetic locus and structural characterization of the biochemical defect in the O-antigenic polysaccharide of the symbiotically deficient Rhizobium etli mutant, CE166. Replacement of N-acetylquinovosamine with its hexosyl-4-ulose precursor. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 51347–51359. [DOI] [PMID: 14551189]
3.  Li, T., Simonds, L., Kovrigin, E.L. and Noel, K.D. In vitro biosynthesis and chemical identification of UDP-N-acetyl-D-quinovosamine (UDP-D-QuiNAc). J. Biol. Chem. 289 (2014) 18110–18120. [DOI] [PMID: 24817117]
[EC 1.1.1.426 created 2021]
 
 
EC 1.1.2.10     
Accepted name: lanthanide-dependent methanol dehydrogenase
Reaction: methanol + 2 oxidized cytochrome cL = formaldehyde + 2 reduced cytochrome cL
Other name(s): XoxF; XoxF-MDH; Ce-MDH; La3+-dependent MDH; Ce3+-induced methanol dehydrogenase; cerium dependent MDH
Systematic name: methanol:cytochrome cL oxidoreductase
Comments: Isolated from the bacterium Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum and many Methylobacterium species. Requires La3+, Ce3+, Pr3+ or Nd3+. The higher lanthanides show decreasing activity with Sm3+, Eu3+ and Gd3+. The lanthanide is coordinated by the enzyme and pyrroloquinoline quinone. Shows little activity with Ca2+, the required cofactor of EC 1.1.2.7, methanol dehydrogenase (cytochrome c).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Hibi, Y., Asai, K., Arafuka, H., Hamajima, M., Iwama, T. and Kawai, K. Molecular structure of La3+-induced methanol dehydrogenase-like protein in Methylobacterium radiotolerans. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 111 (2011) 547–549. [PMID: 21256798]
2.  Nakagawa, T., Mitsui, R., Tani, A., Sasa, K., Tashiro, S., Iwama, T., Hayakawa, T. and Kawai, K. A catalytic role of XoxF1 as La3+-dependent methanol dehydrogenase in Methylobacterium extorquens strain AM1. PLoS One 7:e50480 (2012). [PMID: 23209751]
3.  Pol, A., Barends, T.R., Dietl, A., Khadem, A.F., Eygensteyn, J., Jetten, M.S. and Op den Camp, H.J. Rare earth metals are essential for methanotrophic life in volcanic mudpots. Environ. Microbiol. 16 (2014) 255–264. [PMID: 24034209]
4.  Bogart, J.A., Lewis, A.J. and Schelter, E.J. DFT study of the active site of the XoxF-type natural, cerium-dependent methanol dehydrogenase enzyme. Chemistry Eur. J. 21 (2015) 1743–1748. [PMID: 25421364]
5.  Prejano, M., Marino, T. and Russo, N. How can methanol dehydrogenase from Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum work with the alien Ce(III) ion in the active center? A theoretical study. Chemistry 23 (2017) 8652–8657. [PMID: 28488399]
6.  Masuda, S., Suzuki, Y., Fujitani, Y., Mitsui, R., Nakagawa, T., Shintani, M. and Tani, A. Lanthanide-dependent regulation of methylotrophy in Methylobacterium aquaticum strain 22A. mSphere 3 (2018) e00462. [PMID: 29404411]
[EC 1.1.2.10 created 2019]
 
 
EC 1.1.99.36     
Accepted name: alcohol dehydrogenase (nicotinoprotein)
Reaction: ethanol + acceptor = acetaldehyde + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): NDMA-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase; nicotinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase; np-ADH; ethanol:N,N-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline oxidoreductase
Systematic name: ethanol:acceptor oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains Zn2+. Nicotinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases are unique medium-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (MDR) alcohol dehydrogenases that have a tightly bound NAD+/NADH cofactor that does not dissociate during the catalytic process. Instead, the cofactor is regenerated by a second substrate or electron carrier. While the in vivo electron acceptor is not known, N,N-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline (NDMA), which is reduced to 4-(hydroxylamino)-N,N-dimethylaniline, can serve this function in vitro. The enzyme from the Gram-positive bacterium Amycolatopsis methanolica can accept many primary alcohols as substrates, including benzylalcohol [1].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Van Ophem, P.W., Van Beeumen, J. and Duine, J.A. Nicotinoprotein [NAD(P)-containing] alcohol/aldehyde oxidoreductases. Purification and characterization of a novel type from Amycolatopsis methanolica. Eur. J. Biochem. 212 (1993) 819–826. [DOI] [PMID: 8385013]
2.  Piersma, S.R., Visser, A.J., de Vries, S. and Duine, J.A. Optical spectroscopy of nicotinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase from Amycolatopsis methanolica: a comparison with horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase and UDP-galactose epimerase. Biochemistry 37 (1998) 3068–3077. [DOI] [PMID: 9485460]
3.  Schenkels, P. and Duine, J.A. Nicotinoprotein (NADH-containing) alcohol dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis DSM 1069: an efficient catalyst for coenzyme-independent oxidation of a broad spectrum of alcohols and the interconversion of alcohols and aldehydes. Microbiology 146 (2000) 775–785. [DOI] [PMID: 10784035]
4.  Piersma, S.R., Norin, A., de Vries, S., Jornvall, H. and Duine, J.A. Inhibition of nicotinoprotein (NAD+-containing) alcohol dehydrogenase by trans-4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-cinnamaldehyde binding to the active site. J. Protein Chem. 22 (2003) 457–461. [PMID: 14690248]
5.  Norin, A., Piersma, S.R., Duine, J.A. and Jornvall, H. Nicotinoprotein (NAD+ -containing) alcohol dehydrogenase: structural relationships and functional interpretations. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 60 (2003) 999–1006. [DOI] [PMID: 12827287]
[EC 1.1.99.36 created 2010]
 
 
EC 1.3.1.98     
Accepted name: UDP-N-acetylmuramate dehydrogenase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-muramate + NADP+ = UDP-N-acetyl-3-O-(1-carboxyvinyl)-α-D-glucosamine + NADPH + H+
Other name(s): MurB reductase; UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvoylglucosamine reductase; UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-enoylpyruvate reductase; UDP-GlcNAc-enoylpyruvate reductase; uridine diphosphoacetylpyruvoylglucosamine reductase; uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine-enolpyruvate reductase; uridine-5′-diphospho-N-acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxy-3-O-lactylglucose:NADP-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-muramate:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). NADH can to a lesser extent replace NADPH.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 39307-28-3
References:
1.  Taku, A. and Anwar, R.A. Biosynthesis of uridine diphospho-N-acetylmuramic acid. IV. Activation of uridine diphospho-N-acetylenolpyruvylglucosamine reductase by monovalent cations. J. Biol. Chem. 248 (1973) 4971. [PMID: 4717533]
2.  Taku, A., Gunetileke, K.G. and Anwar, R.A. Biosynthesis of uridine diphospho-N-acetylmuramic acid. 3. Purification and properties of uridine diphospho-N-acetylenolpyruvyl-glucosamine reductase. J. Biol. Chem. 245 (1970) 5012–5016. [PMID: 4394163]
3.  van Heijenoort, J. Recent advances in the formation of the bacterial peptidoglycan monomer unit. Nat. Prod. Rep. 18 (2001) 503–519. [PMID: 11699883]
[EC 1.3.1.98 created 1976 as EC 1.1.1.158, modified 1983, modified 2002, transferred 2013 to EC 1.3.1.98]
 
 
EC 1.17.4.1     
Accepted name: ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase
Reaction: 2′-deoxyribonucleoside 5′-diphosphate + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O = ribonucleoside 5′-diphosphate + thioredoxin
Other name(s): ribonucleotide reductase (ambiguous); CDP reductase; ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase; UDP reductase; ADP reductase; nucleoside diphosphate reductase; ribonucleoside 5′-diphosphate reductase; ribonucleotide diphosphate reductase; 2′-deoxyribonucleoside-diphosphate:oxidized-thioredoxin 2′-oxidoreductase; RR; nrdB (gene name); nrdF (gene name); nrdJ (gene name)
Systematic name: 2′-deoxyribonucleoside-5′-diphosphate:thioredoxin-disulfide 2′-oxidoreductase
Comments: This enzyme is responsible for the de novo conversion of ribonucleoside diphosphates into deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates, which are essential for DNA synthesis and repair. There are three types of this enzyme differing in their cofactors. Class Ia enzymes contain a diiron(III)-tyrosyl radical, class Ib enzymes contain a dimanganese-tyrosyl radical, and class II enzymes contain adenosylcobalamin. In all cases the cofactors are involved in generation of a transient thiyl (sulfanyl) radical on a cysteine residue, which attacks the substrate, forming a ribonucleotide 3′-radical, followed by water loss to form a ketyl (α-oxoalkyl) radical. The ketyl radical is reduced to 3′-keto-deoxynucleotide concomitant with formation of a disulfide anion radical between two cysteine residues. A proton-coupled electron-transfer from the disulfide radical to the substrate generates a 3′-deoxynucleotide radical, and the final product is formed when the hydrogen atom that was initially removed from the 3′-position of the nucleotide by the thiyl radical is returned to the same position. The disulfide bridge is reduced by the action of thioredoxin. cf. EC 1.1.98.6, ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase (formate) and EC 1.17.4.2, ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase (thioredoxin).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9047-64-7
References:
1.  Larsson, A. and Reichard, P. Enzymatic synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides. IX. Allosteric effects in the reduction of pyrimidine ribonucleotides by the ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase system of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 241 (1966) 2533–2539. [PMID: 5330119]
2.  Larsson, A. and Reichard, P. Enzymatic synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides. X. Reduction of purine ribonucleotides; allosteric behavior and substrate specificity of the enzyme system from Escherichia coli B. J. Biol. Chem. 241 (1966) 2540–2549. [PMID: 5330120]
3.  Moore, E.C. and Hurlbert, R.B. Regulation of mammalian deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis by nucleotides as activators and inhibitors. J. Biol. Chem. 241 (1966) 4802–4809. [PMID: 5926184]
4.  Larsson, A. Ribonucleotide reductase from regenerating rat liver. II. Substrate phosphorylation level and effect of deoxyadenosine triphosphate. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 324 (1973) 447–451. [DOI] [PMID: 4543472]
5.  Lammers, M. and Follmann, H. The ribonucleotide reductases - a unique group of metalloenzymes essential for cell-proliferation. Struct. Bonding 54 (1983) 27–91.
6.  Stubbe, J., Ator, M. and Krenitsky, T. Mechanism of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase from Escherichia coli. Evidence for 3′-C--H bond cleavage. J. Biol. Chem. 258 (1983) 1625–1631. [PMID: 6337142]
7.  Lenz, R. and Giese, B. Studies on the Mechanism of Ribonucleotide Reductases. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119 (1997) 2784–2794.
8.  Lawrence, C.C., Bennati, M., Obias, H.V., Bar, G., Griffin, R.G. and Stubbe, J. High-field EPR detection of a disulfide radical anion in the reduction of cytidine 5′-diphosphate by the E441Q R1 mutant of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999) 8979–8984. [DOI] [PMID: 10430881]
9.  Qiu, W., Zhou, B., Darwish, D., Shao, J. and Yen, Y. Characterization of enzymatic properties of human ribonucleotide reductase holoenzyme reconstituted in vitro from hRRM1, hRRM2, and p53R2 subunits. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 340 (2006) 428–434. [DOI] [PMID: 16376858]
[EC 1.17.4.1 created 1972, modified 2017]
 
 
EC 2.1.2.13     
Accepted name: UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose formyltransferase
Reaction: 10-formyltetrahydrofolate + UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinopyranose = 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate + UDP-4-deoxy-4-formamido-β-L-arabinopyranose
For diagram of UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinose biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): UDP-L-Ara4N formyltransferase; ArnAFT
Systematic name: 10-formyltetrahydrofolate:UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinose N-formyltransferase
Comments: The activity is part of a bifunctional enzyme also performing the reaction of EC 1.1.1.305 [UDP-glucuronic acid dehydrogenase (UDP-4-keto-hexauronic acid decarboxylating)].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Breazeale, S.D., Ribeiro, A.A., McClerren, A.L. and Raetz, C.R.H. A formyltransferase required for polymyxin resistance in Escherichia coli and the modification of lipid A with 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose. Identification and function of UDP-4-deoxy-4-formamido-L-arabinose. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 14154–14167. [DOI] [PMID: 15695810]
2.  Gatzeva-Topalova, P.Z., May, A.P. and Sousa, M.C. Crystal structure and mechanism of the Escherichia coli ArnA (PmrI) transformylase domain. An enzyme for lipid A modification with 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose and polymyxin resistance. Biochemistry 44 (2005) 5328–5338. [DOI] [PMID: 15807526]
3.  Williams, G.J., Breazeale, S.D., Raetz, C.R.H. and Naismith, J.H. Structure and function of both domains of ArnA, a dual function decarboxylase and a formyltransferase, involved in 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 23000–23008. [DOI] [PMID: 15809294]
4.  Gatzeva-Topalova, P.Z., May, A.P. and Sousa, M.C. Structure and mechanism of ArnA: conformational change implies ordered dehydrogenase mechanism in key enzyme for polymyxin resistance. Structure 13 (2005) 929–942. [DOI] [PMID: 15939024]
5.  Yan, A., Guan, Z. and Raetz, C.R.H. An undecaprenyl phosphate-aminoarabinose flippase required for polymyxin resistance in Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 36077–36089. [DOI] [PMID: 17928292]
[EC 2.1.2.13 created 2010]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.4     
Accepted name: glucosamine-phosphate N-acetyltransferase
Reaction: acetyl-CoA + D-glucosamine 6-phosphate = CoA + N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
For diagram of the biosynthesis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, click here
Other name(s): phosphoglucosamine transacetylase; phosphoglucosamine acetylase; glucosamine-6-phosphate acetylase; D-glucosamine-6-P N-acetyltransferase; aminodeoxyglucosephosphate acetyltransferase; glucosamine 6-phosphate acetylase; glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase; N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate synthase; phosphoglucosamine N-acetylase; glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase
Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:D-glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9031-91-8
References:
1.  Davidson, E.A. Glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetylase. Methods Enzymol. 9 (1966) 704–707.
2.  Davidson, E.A., Blumenthal, H.J. and Roseman, F. Glucosamine metabolism. II. Studies of glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetylase. J. Biol. Chem. 226 (1957) 125–133. [PMID: 13428743]
3.  Pattabiraman, T.N. and Bachhawat, B.K. Purification of glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetylase from sheep brain. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 59 (1962) 681–689. [DOI] [PMID: 14484387]
4.  Boehmelt, G., Fialka, I., Brothers, G., McGinley, M.D., Patterson, S.D., Mo, R., Hui, C.C., Chung, S., Huber, L.A., Mak, T.W. and Iscove, N.N. Cloning and characterization of the murine glucosamine-6-phosphate acetyltransferase EMeg32. Differential expression and intracellular membrane association. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 12821–12832. [DOI] [PMID: 10777580]
[EC 2.3.1.4 created 1961, modified 2002]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.72     
Accepted name: indoleacetylglucose—inositol O-acyltransferase
Reaction: 1-O-(indol-3-yl)acetyl-β-D-glucose + myo-inositol = D-glucose + O-(indol-3-yl)acetyl-myo-inositol
Other name(s): indole-3-acetyl-β-1-D-glucoside:myo-inositol indoleacetyltransferase; 1-O-(indol-3-ylacetyl)-β-D-glucose:myo-inositol indole-3-ylacetyltransferase
Systematic name: 1-O-(indol-3-yl)acetyl-β-D-glucose:myo-inositol (indol-3-yl)acetyltransferase
Comments: The position of acylation is indeterminate because of the ease of acyl transfer between hydroxy groups.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 74082-57-8
References:
1.  Michalczuk, L. and Bandurski, R.S. Enzymic synthesis of 1-O-indol-3-ylacetyl-β-D-glucose and indol-3-ylacetyl-myo-inositol. Biochem. J. 207 (1982) 273–281. [PMID: 6218801]
2.  Michalczuk, L. and Bandurski, R.S. UDP-glucose: indoleacetic acid glucosyl transferase and indoleacetyl-glucose: myo-inositol indoleacetyl transferase. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 93 (1980) 588–592. [DOI] [PMID: 6446303]
[EC 2.3.1.72 created 1984, modified 2003]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.129     
Accepted name: acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]—UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase
Reaction: a (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine = an [acyl-carrier protein] + a UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine
For diagram of lipid IVA biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): lpxA (gene name); UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine acyltransferase; acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]-UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase; (R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]:UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 3-O-(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)transferase
Systematic name: (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine 3-O-(3-hydroxyacyl)transferase
Comments: Involved with EC 2.4.1.182, lipid-A-disaccharide synthase, and EC 2.7.1.130, tetraacyldisaccharide 4′-kinase, in the biosynthesis of the phosphorylated glycolipid, Lipid A, in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 105843-69-4
References:
1.  Anderson, M.S., Bulawa, C.E. and Raetz, C.R.H. The biosynthesis of gram-negative endotoxin. Formation of lipid A precursors from UDP-GlcNAc in extracts of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 15536–15541. [PMID: 3905795]
2.  Anderson, M.S., Bull, H.G., Galloway, S.M., Kelly, T.M., Mohan, S., Radika, K. and Raetz, C.R. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase of Escherichia coli. The first step of endotoxin biosynthesis is thermodynamically unfavorable. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 19858–19865. [PMID: 8366124]
3.  Raetz, C.R. and Roderick, S.L. A left-handed parallel β helix in the structure of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase. Science 270 (1995) 997–1000. [DOI] [PMID: 7481807]
4.  Williams, A.H. and Raetz, C.R. Structural basis for the acyl chain selectivity and mechanism of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104 (2007) 13543–13550. [DOI] [PMID: 17698807]
5.  Bainbridge, B.W., Karimi-Naser, L., Reife, R., Blethen, F., Ernst, R.K. and Darveau, R.P. Acyl chain specificity of the acyltransferases LpxA and LpxD and substrate availability contribute to lipid A fatty acid heterogeneity in Porphyromonas gingivalis. J. Bacteriol. 190 (2008) 4549–4558. [DOI] [PMID: 18456814]
[EC 2.3.1.129 created 1990, modified 2021]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.157     
Accepted name: glucosamine-1-phosphate N-acetyltransferase
Reaction: acetyl-CoA + α-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate = CoA + N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
For diagram of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine biosynthesis, click here
Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:α-D-glucosamine-1-phosphate N-acetyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme from several bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Haemophilus influenzae) has been shown to be bifunctional and also to possess the activity of EC 2.7.7.23, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine diphosphorylase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9031-91-8
References:
1.  Mengin-Lecreulx, D. and van Heijenoort, J. Copurification of glucosamine-1-phosphate acetyltransferase and N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase activities of Escherichia coli: characterization of the glmU gene product as a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing two subsequent steps in the pathway for UDP-N-acetylglucosamine synthesis. J. Bacteriol. 176 (1994) 5788–5795. [DOI] [PMID: 8083170]
2.  Gehring, A.M., Lees, W.J., Mindiola, D.J., Walsh, C.T. and Brown, E.D. Acetyltransfer precedes uridylyltransfer in the formation of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine in separable active sites of the bifunctional GlmU protein of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry 35 (1996) 579–585. [DOI] [PMID: 8555230]
3.  Olsen, L.R. and Roderick, S.L. Structure of the Escherichia coli GlmU pyrophosphorylase and acetyltransferase active sites. Biochemistry 40 (2001) 1913–1921. [DOI] [PMID: 11329257]
[EC 2.3.1.157 created 2001]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.191     
Accepted name: UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxyacyl)glucosamine N-acyltransferase
Reaction: a (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + a UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-α-D-glucosamine = a UDP-2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-α-D-glucosamine + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein]
For diagram of lipid IVA biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): lpxD (gene name); UDP-3-O-acyl-glucosamine N-acyltransferase; UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-glucosamine N-acyltransferase; acyltransferase LpxD; acyl-ACP:UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxyacyl)-GlcN N-acyltransferase; firA (gene name); (3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-α-D-glucosamine N-acetyltransferase; UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine N-acyltransferase; (3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucosamine N-acetyltransferase
Systematic name: (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-α-D-glucosamine N-acyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme catalyses a step of lipid A biosynthesis. LpxD from Escherichia coli prefers (3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] [3], but it does not have an absolute specificity for 14-carbon hydroxy fatty acids, as it can transfer other fatty acids, including odd-chain fatty acids, if they are available to the organism [5].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Kelly, T.M., Stachula, S.A., Raetz, C.R. and Anderson, M.S. The firA gene of Escherichia coli encodes UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-glucosamine N-acyltransferase. The third step of endotoxin biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 19866–19874. [PMID: 8366125]
2.  Buetow, L., Smith, T.K., Dawson, A., Fyffe, S. and Hunter, W.N. Structure and reactivity of LpxD, the N-acyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104 (2007) 4321–4326. [DOI] [PMID: 17360522]
3.  Bartling, C.M. and Raetz, C.R. Steady-state kinetics and mechanism of LpxD, the N-acyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis. Biochemistry 47 (2008) 5290–5302. [DOI] [PMID: 18422345]
4.  Bainbridge, B.W., Karimi-Naser, L., Reife, R., Blethen, F., Ernst, R.K. and Darveau, R.P. Acyl chain specificity of the acyltransferases LpxA and LpxD and substrate availability contribute to lipid A fatty acid heterogeneity in Porphyromonas gingivalis. J. Bacteriol. 190 (2008) 4549–4558. [DOI] [PMID: 18456814]
5.  Bartling, C.M. and Raetz, C.R. Crystal structure and acyl chain selectivity of Escherichia coli LpxD, the N-acyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis. Biochemistry 48 (2009) 8672–8683. [DOI] [PMID: 19655786]
6.  Badger, J., Chie-Leon, B., Logan, C., Sridhar, V., Sankaran, B., Zwart, P.H. and Nienaber, V. Structure determination of LpxD from the lipopolysaccharide-synthesis pathway of Acinetobacter baumannii. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 69 (2013) 6–9. [DOI] [PMID: 23295477]
7.  Kroeck, K.G., Sacco, M.D., Smith, E.W., Zhang, X., Shoun, D., Akhtar, A., Darch, S.E., Cohen, F., Andrews, L.D., Knox, J.E. and Chen, Y. Discovery of dual-activity small-molecule ligands of Pseudomonas aeruginosa LpxA and LpxD using SPR and X-ray crystallography. Sci. Rep. 9:15450 (2019). [DOI] [PMID: 31664082]
[EC 2.3.1.191 created 2010, modified 2021]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.201     
Accepted name: UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-glucuronate N-acetyltransferase
Reaction: acetyl-CoA + UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucuronate = CoA + UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucuronate
For diagram of UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronate biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): WbpD; WlbB
Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucuronate N-acetyltransferase
Comments: This enzyme participates in the biosynthetic pathway for UDP-α-D-ManNAc3NAcA (UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-mannuronic acid), an important precursor of B-band lipopolysaccharide.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Westman, E.L., McNally, D.J., Charchoglyan, A., Brewer, D., Field, R.A. and Lam, J.S. Characterization of WbpB, WbpE, and WbpD and reconstitution of a pathway for the biosynthesis of UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronic acid in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 11854–11862. [DOI] [PMID: 19282284]
2.  Larkin, A. and Imperiali, B. Biosynthesis of UDP-GlcNAc(3NAc)A by WbpB, WbpE, and WbpD: enzymes in the Wbp pathway responsible for O-antigen assembly in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Biochemistry 48 (2009) 5446–5455. [DOI] [PMID: 19348502]
[EC 2.3.1.201 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.202     
Accepted name: UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine N-acetyltransferase
Reaction: acetyl-CoA + UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine = CoA + UDP-2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-β-L-altropyranose
Other name(s): PseH
Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine N-acetyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from Helicobacter pylori. The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of pseudaminic acid.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Schoenhofen, I.C., McNally, D.J., Brisson, J.R. and Logan, S.M. Elucidation of the CMP-pseudaminic acid pathway in Helicobacter pylori: synthesis from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine by a single enzymatic reaction. Glycobiology 16 (2006) 8C–14C. [DOI] [PMID: 16751642]
[EC 2.3.1.202 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.203     
Accepted name: UDP-N-acetylbacillosamine N-acetyltransferase
Reaction: acetyl-CoA + UDP-N-acetylbacillosamine = CoA + UDP-N,N′-diacetylbacillosamine
For diagram of legionaminic acid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: UDP-N-acetylbacillosamine = UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine
UDP-N,N′-diacetylbacillosamine = UDP-2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine N-acetyltransferase; pglD (gene name)
Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine N-acetyltransferase
Comments: The product, UDP-N,N′-diacetylbacillosamine, is an intermediate in protein glycosylation pathways in several bacterial species, including N-linked glycosylation of certain L-asparagine residues in Campylobacter species [1,2] and O-linked glycosylation of certain L-serine residues in Neisseria species [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Olivier, N.B., Chen, M.M., Behr, J.R. and Imperiali, B. In vitro biosynthesis of UDP-N,N′-diacetylbacillosamine by enzymes of the Campylobacter jejuni general protein glycosylation system. Biochemistry 45 (2006) 13659–13669. [DOI] [PMID: 17087520]
2.  Rangarajan, E.S., Ruane, K.M., Sulea, T., Watson, D.C., Proteau, A., Leclerc, S., Cygler, M., Matte, A. and Young, N.M. Structure and active site residues of PglD, an N-acetyltransferase from the bacillosamine synthetic pathway required for N-glycan synthesis in Campylobacter jejuni. Biochemistry 47 (2008) 1827–1836. [DOI] [PMID: 18198901]
3.  Hartley, M.D., Morrison, M.J., Aas, F.E., Borud, B., Koomey, M. and Imperiali, B. Biochemical characterization of the O-linked glycosylation pathway in Neisseria gonorrhoeae responsible for biosynthesis of protein glycans containing N,N′-diacetylbacillosamine. Biochemistry 50 (2011) 4936–4948. [DOI] [PMID: 21542610]
[EC 2.3.1.203 created 2012, modified 2013]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.276     
Accepted name: galactosamine-1-phosphate N-acetyltransferase
Reaction: acetyl-CoA + α-D-galactosamine 1-phosphate = CoA + N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine 1-phosphate
Other name(s): ST0452 (locus name)
Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:α-D-galactosamine-1-phosphate N-acetyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii, is also active toward α-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate (cf. EC 2.3.1.157, glucosamine-1-phosphate N-acetyltransferase). In addition, that enzyme contains a second domain that catalyses the activities of EC 2.7.7.23, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine diphosphorylase, EC 2.7.7.24, glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase, and EC 2.7.7.83, UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine diphosphorylase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Zhang, Z., Tsujimura, M., Akutsu, J., Sasaki, M., Tajima, H. and Kawarabayasi, Y. Identification of an extremely thermostable enzyme with dual sugar-1-phosphate nucleotidylyltransferase activities from an acidothermophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 9698–9705. [PMID: 15598657]
2.  Zhang, Z., Akutsu, J. and Kawarabayasi, Y. Identification of novel acetyltransferase activity on the thermostable protein ST0452 from Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7. J. Bacteriol. 192 (2010) 3287–3293. [PMID: 20400541]
3.  Dadashipour, M., Iwamoto, M., Hossain, M.M., Akutsu, J.I., Zhang, Z. and Kawarabayasi, Y. Identification of a direct biosynthetic pathway for UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine from glucosamine-6-phosphate in thermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii. J. Bacteriol. 200 (2018) . [PMID: 29507091]
[EC 2.3.1.276 created 2018]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.305     
Accepted name: acyl-[acyl-carrier protein]—UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose N-acyltransferase
Reaction: a (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose = an [acyl-carrier protein] + a UDP-2-acetamido-2,3-dideoxy-3-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-α-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): lpxA (gene name) (ambiguous)
Systematic name: (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]:UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose 3-N-[(3R)-hydroxyacyl]transferase
Comments: The enzyme is found in bacterial species whose lipid A contains 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucopyranose. Some enzymes, such as that from Leptospira interrogans, are highly specific for 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucopyranose, while others, such as the enzyme from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, are also able to accept UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine (cf. EC 2.3.1.129, acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]—UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase). The enzymes from different organisms also differ in their specificity for the acyl donor. The enzyme from Leptospira interrogans is highly specific for (3R)-3-hydroxydodecanoyl-[acp], while that from Mesorhizobium loti functions almost equally well with 10-, 12-, and 14-carbon 3-hydroxyacyl-[acp]s.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Sweet, C.R., Williams, A.H., Karbarz, M.J., Werts, C., Kalb, S.R., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. Enzymatic synthesis of lipid A molecules with four amide-linked acyl chains. LpxA acyltransferases selective for an analog of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine in which an amine replaces the 3"-hydroxyl group. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 25411–25419. [DOI] [PMID: 15044493]
2.  Robins, L.I., Williams, A.H. and Raetz, C.R. Structural basis for the sugar nucleotide and acyl-chain selectivity of Leptospira interrogans LpxA. Biochemistry 48 (2009) 6191–6201. [DOI] [PMID: 19456129]
[EC 2.3.1.305 created 2021]
 
 
EC 2.3.2.10     
Accepted name: UDP-N-acetylmuramoylpentapeptide-lysine N6-alanyltransferase
Reaction: L-alanyl-tRNAAla + UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-muramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine = tRNAAla + UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-muramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-N6-(L-alanyl)-L-lysyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine
Other name(s): alanyl-transfer ribonucleate-uridine diphosphoacetylmuramoylpentapeptide transferase; UDP-N-acetylmuramoylpentapeptide lysine N6-alanyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylmuramoylpentapeptide lysine N6-alanyltransferase; L-alanyl-tRNA:UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine 6-N-alanyltransferase; L-alanyl-tRNA:UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine N6-alanyltransferase
Systematic name: L-alanyl-tRNAAla:UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-muramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine N6-alanyltransferase
Comments: Also acts on L-seryl-tRNASer.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37257-26-4
References:
1.  Plapp, R. and Strominger, J.L. Biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls. 18. Purification and properties of L-alanyl transfer ribonucleic acid-uridine diphosphate-N-acetylmuramyl-pentapeptide transferase from Lactobacillus viridescens. J. Biol. Chem. 245 (1970) 3675–3682. [PMID: 4248527]
[EC 2.3.2.10 created 1972, modified 2013]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.11     
Accepted name: glycogen(starch) synthase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + [(1→4)-α-D-glucosyl]n = UDP + [(1→4)-α-D-glucosyl]n+1
For diagram of glycogen, click here
Other name(s): UDP-glucose—glycogen glucosyltransferase; glycogen (starch) synthetase; UDP-glucose-glycogen glucosyltransferase; UDP-glycogen synthase; UDPG-glycogen synthetase; UDPG-glycogen transglucosylase; uridine diphosphoglucose-glycogen glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose:glycogen 4-α-D-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:glycogen 4-α-D-glucosyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: The accepted name varies according to the source of the enzyme and the nature of its synthetic product (cf. EC 2.4.1.1, phosphorylase). Glycogen synthase from animal tissues is a complex of a catalytic subunit and the protein glycogenin. The enzyme requires glucosylated glycogenin as a primer; this is the reaction product of EC 2.4.1.186 (glycogenin glucosyltransferase). A similar enzyme utilizes ADP-glucose (EC 2.4.1.21, starch synthase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9014-56-6
References:
1.  Algranati, I.D. and Cabib, E. The synthesis of glycogen in yeast. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 43 (1960) 141–142. [DOI] [PMID: 13682402]
2.  Basu, D.K. and Bachhawat, B.K. Purification of uridine diphosphoglucose-glycogen transglucosylase from sheep brain. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 50 (1961) 123–128. [DOI] [PMID: 13687710]
3.  Leloir, L.F. and Cardini, C.E. UDPG-glycogen transglucosylase. In: Boyer, P.D., Lardy, H. and Myrbäck, K. (Ed.), The Enzymes, 2nd edn, vol. 6, Academic Press, New York, 1962, pp. 317–326.
4.  Leloir, L.F. and Goldemberg, S.H. Synthesis of glycogen from uridine diphosphate glucose in liver. J. Biol. Chem. 235 (1960) 919–923. [PMID: 14415527]
5.  Pitcher, J., Smythe, C. and Cohen, P. Glycogenin is the priming glucosyltransferase required for the initiation of glycogen biogenesis in rabbit skeletal muscle. Eur. J. Biochem. 176 (1988) 391–395. [DOI] [PMID: 2970965]
[EC 2.4.1.11 created 1961]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.12     
Accepted name: cellulose synthase (UDP-forming)
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + [(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl]n = UDP + [(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl]n+1
Other name(s): UDP-glucose—β-glucan glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose-cellulose glucosyltransferase; GS-I; β-1,4-glucosyltransferase; uridine diphosphoglucose-1,4-β-glucan glucosyltransferase; β-1,4-glucan synthase; β-1,4-glucan synthetase; β-glucan synthase; 1,4-β-D-glucan synthase; 1,4-β-glucan synthase; glucan synthase; UDP-glucose-1,4-β-glucan glucosyltransferase; uridine diphosphoglucose-cellulose glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose:1,4-β-D-glucan 4-β-D-glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose:(1→4)-β-D-glucan 4-β-D-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:(1→4)-β-D-glucan 4-β-D-glucosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: Involved in the synthesis of cellulose. A similar enzyme utilizes GDP-glucose [EC 2.4.1.29 cellulose synthase (GDP-forming)].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9027-19-4
References:
1.  Glaser, L. The synthesis of cellulose in cell-free extracts of Acetobacter xylinum. J. Biol. Chem. 232 (1958) 627–636. [PMID: 13549448]
[EC 2.4.1.12 created 1961]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.13     
Accepted name: sucrose synthase
Reaction: NDP-α-D-glucose + D-fructose = NDP + sucrose
Other name(s): UDPglucose-fructose glucosyltransferase; sucrose synthetase; sucrose-UDP glucosyltransferase; sucrose-uridine diphosphate glucosyltransferase; uridine diphosphoglucose-fructose glucosyltransferase; NDP-glucose:D-fructose 2-α-D-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: NDP-α-D-glucose:D-fructose 2-α-D-glucosyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: Although UDP is generally considered to be the preferred nucleoside diphosphate for sucrose synthase, numerous studies have shown that ADP serves as an effective acceptor molecule to produce ADP-glucose [3-9]. Sucrose synthase has a dual role in producing both UDP-glucose (necessary for cell wall and glycoprotein biosynthesis) and ADP-glucose (necessary for starch biosynthesis) [10].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9030-05-1
References:
1.  Avigad, G. and Milner, Y. UDP-glucose:fructose transglucosylase from sugar beet roots. Methods Enzymol. 8 (1966) 341–345.
2.  Cardini, C.E., Leloir, L.F. and Chiriboga, J. The biosynthesis of sucrose. J. Biol. Chem. 214 (1955) 149–155. [PMID: 14367373]
3.  Delmer, D.P. The purification and properties of sucrose synthetase from etiolated Phaseolus aureus seedlings. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 3822–3828. [PMID: 4624446]
4.  Murata, T., Sugiyama, T., Minamikawa, T. and Akazawa, T. Enzymic mechanism of starch synthesis in ripening rice grains. Mechanism of the sucrose-starch conversion. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 113 (1966) 34–44. [DOI] [PMID: 5941994]
5.  Nakai, T., Konishi, T., Zhang, X.-Q., Chollet, R., Tonouchi, N., Tsuchida, T., Yoshinaga, F., Mori, H., Sakai, F. and Hayashi, T. An increase in apparent affinity for sucrose of mung bean sucrose synthase is caused by in vitro phosphorylation or directed mutagenesis of Ser11. Plant Cell Physiol. 39 (1998) 1337–1341. [PMID: 10050318]
6.  Porchia, A.C., Curatti, L. and Salerno, G.L. Sucrose metabolism in cyanobacteria: sucrose synthase from Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7119 is remarkably different from the plant enzymes with respect to substrate affinity and amino-terminal sequence. Planta 210 (1999) 34–40. [DOI] [PMID: 10592030]
7.  Ross, H.A. and Davies, H.V. Purification and characterization of sucrose synthase from the cotyledons of Vicia fava L. Plant Physiol. 100 (1992) 1008–1013. [PMID: 16653008]
8.  Silvius, J.E. and Snyder, F.W. Comparative enzymic studies of sucrose metabolism in the taproots and fibrous roots of Beta vulgaris L. Plant Physiol. 64 (1979) 1070–1073. [PMID: 16661094]
9.  Tanase, K. and Yamaki, S. Purification and characterization of two sucrose synthase isoforms from Japanese pear fruit. Plant Cell Physiol. 41 (2000) 408–414. [DOI] [PMID: 10845453]
10.  Baroja-Fernández, E., Muñnoz, F.J., Saikusa, T., Rodríguez-López, M., Akazawa, T. and Pozueta-Romero, J. Sucrose synthase catalyzes the de novo production of ADPglucose linked to starch biosynthesis in heterotrophic tissues of plants. Plant Cell Physiol. 44 (2003) 500–509. [PMID: 12773636]
[EC 2.4.1.13 created 1961, modified 2003]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.14     
Accepted name: sucrose-phosphate synthase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + D-fructose 6-phosphate = UDP + sucrose 6F-phosphate
Other name(s): UDP-glucose—fructose-phosphate glucosyltransferase; sucrosephosphate—UDP glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose-fructose-phosphate glucosyltransferase; SPS; uridine diphosphoglucose-fructose phosphate glucosyltransferase; sucrose 6-phosphate synthase; sucrose phosphate synthetase; sucrose phosphate-uridine diphosphate glucosyltransferase; sucrose phosphate synthase; UDP-glucose:D-fructose-6-phosphate 2-α-D-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:D-fructose-6-phosphate 2-α-D-glucosyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: Requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ for maximal activity [2]. The enzyme from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 is not specific for UDP-glucose as it can use ADP-glucose and, to a lesser extent, GDP-glucose as substrates [2]. The enzyme from rice leaves is activated by glucose 6-phosphate but that from cyanobacterial species is not [2]. While the reaction catalysed by this enzyme is reversible, the enzyme usually works in concert with EC 3.1.3.24, sucrose-phosphate phosphatase, to form sucrose, making the above reaction essentially irreversible [3]. The F in sucrose 6F-phosphate is used to indicate that the fructose residue of sucrose carries the substituent.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9030-06-2
References:
1.  Mendicino, J. Sucrose phosphate synthesis in wheat germ and green leaves. J. Biol. Chem. 235 (1960) 3347–3352. [PMID: 13769376]
2.  Curatti, L., Folco, E., Desplats, P., Abratti, G., Limones, V., Herrera-Estrella, L. and Salerno, G. Sucrose-phosphate synthase from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803: identification of the spsA gene and characterization of the enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 180 (1998) 6776–6779. [PMID: 9852031]
3.  Huber, S.C. and Huber, J.L. Role and regulation of sucrose-phosphate synthase in higher plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 47 (1996) 431–444. [DOI] [PMID: 15012296]
4.  Cumino, A., Curatti, L., Giarrocco, L. and Salerno, G.L. Sucrose metabolism: Anabaena sucrose-phosphate synthase and sucrose-phosphate phosphatase define minimal functional domains shuffled during evolution. FEBS Lett. 517 (2002) 19–23. [DOI] [PMID: 12062401]
5.  Chua, T.K., Bujnicki, J.M., Tan, T.C., Huynh, F., Patel, B.K. and Sivaraman, J. The structure of sucrose phosphate synthase from Halothermothrix orenii reveals its mechanism of action and binding mode. Plant Cell 20 (2008) 1059–1072. [DOI] [PMID: 18424616]
[EC 2.4.1.14 created 1961, modified 2008]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.15     
Accepted name: α,α-trehalose-phosphate synthase (UDP-forming)
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + D-glucose 6-phosphate = UDP + α,α-trehalose 6-phosphate
Other name(s): UDP-glucose—glucose-phosphate glucosyltransferase; trehalosephosphate-UDP glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose-glucose-phosphate glucosyltransferase; α,α-trehalose phosphate synthase (UDP-forming); phosphotrehalose-uridine diphosphate transglucosylase; trehalose 6-phosphate synthase; trehalose 6-phosphate synthetase; trehalose phosphate synthase; trehalose phosphate synthetase; trehalose phosphate-uridine diphosphate glucosyltransferase; trehalose-P synthetase; transglucosylase; uridine diphosphoglucose phosphate glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose:D-glucose-6-phosphate 1-α-D-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:D-glucose-6-phosphate 1-α-D-glucosyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: See also EC 2.4.1.36 [α,α-trehalose-phosphate synthase (GDP-forming)].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9030-07-3
References:
1.  Cabib, E. and Leloir, L.F. The biosynthesis of trehalose phosphate. J. Biol. Chem. 231 (1958) 259–275. [PMID: 13538966]
2.  Candy, D.J. and Kilby, B.A. The biosynthesis of trehalose in the locust fat body. Biochem. J. 78 (1961) 531–536. [PMID: 13690400]
3.  Lornitzo, F.A. and Goldman, D.S. Purification and properties of the transglucosylase inhibitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Biol. Chem. 239 (1964) 2730–2734. [PMID: 14216421]
4.  Murphy, T.A. and Wyatt, G.R. The enzymes of glycogen and trehalose synthesis in silk moth fat body. J. Biol. Chem. 240 (1965) 1500–1508. [PMID: 14285483]
[EC 2.4.1.15 created 1961]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.16     
Accepted name: chitin synthase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + [(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl]n = UDP + [(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl]n+1
Glossary: chitin = [(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl]n
Other name(s): chitin-UDP N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; chitin-uridine diphosphate acetylglucosaminyltransferase; chitin synthetase; trans-N-acetylglucosaminosylase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:chitin 4-β-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase; UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:chitin 4-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:chitin 4-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: Converts UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine into chitin and UDP.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9030-18-6
References:
1.  Glaser, L. and Brown, D.H. The synthesis of chitin in cell-free extracts of Neurospora crassa. J. Biol. Chem. 228 (1957) 729–742. [PMID: 13475355]
2.  Sburlati, A. and Cabib, E. Chitin synthetase 2, a presumptive participant in septum formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 261 (1986) 15147–15152. [PMID: 2945823]
[EC 2.4.1.16 created 1961]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.17     
Accepted name: glucuronosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucuronate + acceptor = UDP + acceptor β-D-glucuronoside
Other name(s): 1-naphthol glucuronyltransferase; 1-naphthol-UDP-glucuronosyltransferase; 17β-hydroxysteroid UDP-glucuronosyltransferase; 3α-hydroxysteroid UDP-glucuronosyltransferase; 4-hydroxybiphenyl UDP-glucuronosyltransferase; 4-methylumbelliferone UDP-glucuronosyltransferase; 4-nitrophenol UDP-glucuronyltransferase; 4-nitrophenol UDPGT; 17-OH steroid UDPGT; 3-OH androgenic UDPGT; bilirubin uridine diphosphoglucuronyltransferase; bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase; bilirubin monoglucuronide glucuronyltransferase; bilirubin UDPGT; bilirubin glucuronyltransferase; ciramadol UDP-glucuronyltransferase; estriol UDP-glucuronosyltransferase; estrone UDP-glucuronosyltransferase; uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase; uridine diphosphoglucuronate-bilirubin glucuronoside glucuronosyltransferase; uridine diphosphoglucuronate-bilirubin glucuronosyltransferase; uridine diphosphoglucuronate-estriol glucuronosyltransferase; uridine diphosphoglucuronate-estradiol glucuronosyltransferase; uridine diphosphoglucuronate-4-hydroxybiphenyl glucuronosyltransferase; uridine diphosphoglucuronate-1,2-diacylglycerol glucuronosyltransferase; uridine diphosphoglucuronate-estriol 16α-glucuronosyltransferase; GT; morphine glucuronyltransferase; p-hydroxybiphenyl UDP glucuronyltransferase; p-nitrophenol UDP-glucuronosyltransferase; p-nitrophenol UDP-glucuronyltransferase; p-nitrophenylglucuronosyltransferase; p-phenylphenol glucuronyltransferase; phenyl-UDP-glucuronosyltransferase; PNP-UDPGT; UDP glucuronate-estradiol-glucuronosyltransferase; UDP glucuronosyltransferase; UDP glucuronate-estriol glucuronosyltransferase; UDP glucuronic acid transferase; UDP glucuronyltransferase; UDP-glucuronate-4-hydroxybiphenyl glucuronosyltransferase; UDP-glucuronate-bilirubin glucuronyltransferase; UDP-glucuronosyltransferase; UDP-glucuronyltransferase; UDPGA transferase; UDPGA-glucuronyltransferase; UDPGT; uridine diphosphoglucuronyltransferase; uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase; uridine 5′-diphosphoglucuronyltransferase; UDP-glucuronate β-D-glucuronosyltransferase (acceptor-unspecific)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucuronate β-D-glucuronosyltransferase (acceptor-unspecific; configuration-inverting)
Comments: This entry denotes a family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines and fatty acids. Some of the activities catalysed were previously listed separately as EC 2.4.1.42, EC 2.4.1.59, EC 2.4.1.61, EC 2.4.1.76, EC 2.4.1.77, EC 2.4.1.84, EC 2.4.1.107 and EC 2.4.1.108. A temporary nomenclature for the various forms, whose delineation is in a state of flux, is suggested in Ref. 1.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9030-08-4
References:
1.  Bock, K.W., Burchell, B., Dutton, G.J., Hanninen, O., Mulder, G.J., Owens, I.S., Siest, G. and Jephly, T.R. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activities. Guidelines for consistent interim terminology and assay conditions. Biochem. Pharmacol. 32 (1983) 953–955. [DOI] [PMID: 6404284]
2.  Bock, K.W., Josting, D., Lilienblum, W. and Pfeil, H. Purification of rat-liver microsomal UDP-glucuronyltransferase. Separation of two enzyme forms inducible by 3-methylcholanthrene or phenobarbital. Eur. J. Biochem. 98 (1979) 19–26. [DOI] [PMID: 111930]
3.  Burchell, B. Identification and purification of multiple forms of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase. Rev. Biochem. Toxicol. 3 (1981) 1–32.
4.  Dutton, G.J. Glucuronidation of Drugs and Other Compounds, C.R.C. Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1980.
5.  Green, M.D., Falany, C.N., Kirkpatrick, R.B. and Tephly, T.R. Strain differences in purified rat hepatic 3α-hydroxysteroid UDP-glucuronosyltransferase. Biochem. J. 230 (1985) 403–409. [PMID: 3931633]
6.  Jansen, P.L.M. The enzyme-catalyzed formation of bilirubin diglucuronide by a solublized preparation from cat liver microsomes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 338 (1974) 170–182.
[EC 2.4.1.17 created 1961 (EC 2.4.1.42, EC 2.4.1.59 and EC 2.4.1.61 all created 1972, EC 2.4.1.76, EC 2.4.1.77 and EC 2.4.1.84 all created 1976, EC 2.4.1.107 and EC 2.4.1.108 both created 1983, all incorporated 1984)]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.21     
Accepted name: starch synthase (glycosyl-transferring)
Reaction: ADP-α-D-glucose + [(1→4)-α-D-glucosyl]n = ADP + [(1→4)-α-D-glucosyl]n+1
Other name(s): ADP-glucose—starch glucosyltransferase; adenosine diphosphate glucose-starch glucosyltransferase; adenosine diphosphoglucose-starch glucosyltransferase; ADP-glucose starch synthase; ADP-glucose transglucosylase; ADP-glucose-starch glucosyltransferase; ADPG starch synthetase; ADPG-starch glucosyltransferase; starch synthetase; ADP-glucose:1,4-α-D-glucan 4-α-D-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: ADP-α-D-glucose:(1→4)-α-D-glucan 4-α-D-glucosyltransferase
Comments: The accepted name varies according to the source of the enzyme and the nature of its synthetic product, e.g. starch synthase, bacterial glycogen synthase. Similar to EC 2.4.1.11 [glycogen(starch) synthase] but the preferred or mandatory nucleoside diphosphate sugar substrate is ADP-α-D-glucose. The entry covers starch and glycogen synthases utilizing ADP-α-D-glucose.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9030-10-8, 37338-93-5
References:
1.  Chambers, J.C. and Elbein, A.D. Biosynthesis of glucans in mung bean seedlings. Formation of β-(1,4)-glucans from GDP-glucose and β-(1,3)-glucans from UDP-glucose. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 138 (1970) 620–631. [DOI] [PMID: 4317490]
2.  Frydman, R.B. and Cardini, C.E. Studies on adenosine diphosphate D-glucose: α-1,4-glucan α-4-glucosyltransferase of sweet-corn endosperm. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 96 (1965) 294–303. [DOI] [PMID: 14298833]
3.  Greenberg, E. and Preiss, J. Biosynthesis of bacterial glycogen. II. Purification and properties of the adenosine diphosphoglucose:glycogen transglucosylase of arthrobacter species NRRL B1973. J. Biol. Chem. 240 (1965) 2341–2348. [PMID: 14304835]
4.  Leloir, L.F., de Fekete, M.A. and Cardini, C.E. Starch and oligosaccharide synthesis from uridine diphosphate glucose. J. Biol. Chem. 236 (1961) 636–641. [PMID: 13760681]
5.  Preiss, J., Govins, S., Eidels, L., Lammel, C., Greenberg, E., Edelmann, P. and Sabraw, A. Regulatory mechanisms in the biosynthesis of α-1,4-glucans in bacteria and plants. In: Whelan, W.J. and Schultz, J. (Ed.), Miami Winter Symposia, vol. 1, North Holland, Utrecht, 1970, pp. 122–138.
[EC 2.4.1.21 created 1965]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.22     
Accepted name: lactose synthase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-galactose + D-glucose = UDP + lactose
Other name(s): UDP-galactose—glucose galactosyltransferase; N-acetyllactosamine synthase; uridine diphosphogalactose-glucose galactosyltransferase; lactose synthetase; UDP-galactose:D-glucose 4-β-D-galactotransferase; UDP-galactose:D-glucose 4-β-D-galactosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-galactose:D-glucose 4-β-D-galactosyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme is a complex of two proteins, A and B. In the absence of the B protein (α-lactalbumin), the enzyme catalyses the transfer of galactose from UDP-α-D-galactose to N-acetylglucosamine (EC 2.4.1.90 N-acetyllactosamine synthase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9030-11-9
References:
1.  Fitzgerald, D.K., Brodbeck, U., Kiyosawa, I., Mawal, R., Colvin, B. and Ebner, K.E. α-Lactalbumin and the lactose synthetase reaction. J. Biol. Chem. 245 (1970) 2103–2108. [PMID: 5440844]
2.  Hill, R.L. and Brew, K. Lactose synthetase. Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Areas Mol. Biol. 43 (1975) 411–490. [PMID: 812340]
3.  Watkins, W.M. and Hassid, W.Z. The synthesis of lactose by particulate enzyme preparations from guinea pig and bovine mammary glands. J. Biol. Chem. 237 (1962) 1432–1440. [PMID: 14005251]
[EC 2.4.1.22 created 1965]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.23     
Accepted name: sphingosine β-galactosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-galactose + sphingosine = UDP + psychosine
Other name(s): psychosine—UDP galactosyltransferase; galactosyl-sphingosine transferase; psychosine-uridine diphosphate galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:sphingosine O-galactosyl transferase; uridine diphosphogalactose-sphingosine β-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:sphingosine 1-β-galactotransferase; UDP-galactose:sphingosine 1-β-galactosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-galactose:sphingosine 1-β-galactosyltransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9032-90-0
References:
1.  Cleland, W.W. and Kennedy, E.P. The enzymatic synthesis of psychosine. J. Biol. Chem. 235 (1960) 45–51. [PMID: 13810623]
[EC 2.4.1.23 created 1965]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.26     
Accepted name: DNA α-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: Transfers an α-D-glucosyl residue from UDP-glucose to an hydroxymethylcytosine residue in DNA
Other name(s): uridine diphosphoglucose-deoxyribonucleate α-glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose-DNA α-glucosyltransferase; uridine diphosphoglucose-deoxyribonucleate α-glucosyltransferase; T2-HMC-α-glucosyl transferase; T4-HMC-α-glucosyl transferase; T6-HMC-α-glucosyl transferase
Systematic name: UDP-glucose:DNA α-D-glucosyltransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9030-13-1
References:
1.  Kornberg, S.R., Zimmerman, S.B. and Kornberg, A. Glucosylation of deoxyribonucleic acid by enzymes from bacteriophage-infected Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 236 (1961) 1487–1493. [PMID: 13753193]
[EC 2.4.1.26 created 1965]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.27     
Accepted name: DNA β-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: Transfers a β-D-glucosyl residue from UDP-α-D-glucose to an hydroxymethylcytosine residue in DNA
Other name(s): T4-HMC-β-glucosyl transferase; T4-β-glucosyl transferase; T4 phage β-glucosyltransferase; UDP glucose-DNA β-glucosyltransferase; uridine diphosphoglucose-deoxyribonucleate β-glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose:DNA β-D-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:DNA β-D-glucosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9030-14-2
References:
1.  Kornberg, S.R., Zimmerman, S.B. and Kornberg, A. Glucosylation of deoxyribonucleic acid by enzymes from bacteriophage-infected Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 236 (1961) 1487–1493. [PMID: 13753193]
[EC 2.4.1.27 created 1965]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.28     
Accepted name: glucosyl-DNA β-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: Transfers a β-D-glucosyl residue from UDP-α-D-glucose to a glucosylhydroxymethylcytosine residue in DNA
Other name(s): T6-glucosyl-HMC-β-glucosyl transferase; T6-β-glucosyl transferase; uridine diphosphoglucose-glucosyldeoxyribonucleate β-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:D-glucosyl-DNA β-D-glucosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9030-15-3
References:
1.  Kornberg, S.R., Zimmerman, S.B. and Kornberg, A. Glucosylation of deoxyribonucleic acid by enzymes from bacteriophage-infected Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 236 (1961) 1487–1493. [PMID: 13753193]
[EC 2.4.1.28 created 1965]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.29     
Accepted name: cellulose synthase (GDP-forming)
Reaction: GDP-α-D-glucose + [(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl]n = GDP + [(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl]n+1
Other name(s): cellulose synthase (guanosine diphosphate-forming); cellulose synthetase; guanosine diphosphoglucose-1,4-β-glucan glucosyltransferase; guanosine diphosphoglucose-cellulose glucosyltransferase; GDP-glucose:1,4-β-D-glucan 4-β-D-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: GDP-α-D-glucose:(1→4)-β-D-glucan 4-β-D-glucosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: Involved in the synthesis of cellulose. A similar enzyme [EC 2.4.1.12, cellulose synthase (UDP-forming)] utilizes UDP-α-D-glucose.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9027-18-3
References:
1.  Chambers, J.C. and Elbein, A.D. Biosynthesis of glucans in mung bean seedlings. Formation of β-(1,4)-glucans from GDP-glucose and β-(1,3)-glucans from UDP-glucose. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 138 (1970) 620–631. [DOI] [PMID: 4317490]
2.  Flowers, H.M., Batra, K.K., Kemp, J. and Hassid, W.Z. Biosynthesis of cellulose in vitro from guanosine diphosphate D-glucose with enzymic preparations from Phaseolus aureus and Lupinus albus. J. Biol. Chem. 244 (1969) 4969. [PMID: 5824571]
[EC 2.4.1.29 created 1965]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.34     
Accepted name: 1,3-β-glucan synthase
Reaction: UDP-glucose + [(1→3)-β-D-glucosyl]n = UDP + [(1→3)-β-D-glucosyl]n+1
Other name(s): 1,3-β-D-glucan—UDP glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose—1,3-β-D-glucan glucosyltransferase; callose synthetase; 1,3-β-D-glucan-UDP glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose-1,3-β-D-glucan glucosyltransferase; paramylon synthetase; UDP-glucose-β-glucan glucosyltransferase; GS-II; (1,3)-β-glucan (callose) synthase; β-1,3-glucan synthase; β-1,3-glucan synthetase; 1,3-β-D-glucan synthetase; 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase; 1,3-β-glucan-uridine diphosphoglucosyltransferase; callose synthase; UDP-glucose-1,3-β-glucan glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose:(1,3)β-glucan synthase; uridine diphosphoglucose-1,3-β-glucan glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose:1,3-β-D-glucan 3-β-D-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-glucose:(1→3)-β-D-glucan 3-β-D-glucosyltransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9037-30-3
References:
1.  Maréchal, L.R. and Goldemberg, S.H. Uridine diphosphate glucose-β-1,3-glucan β-3-glucosyltransferase from Euglena gracilis. J. Biol. Chem. 239 (1964) 3163–3167. [PMID: 14245356]
[EC 2.4.1.34 created 1972]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.35     
Accepted name: phenol β-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-glucose + a phenol = UDP + an aryl β-D-glucoside
Other name(s): UDPglucosyltransferase (ambiguous); phenol-β-D-glucosyltransferase; UDP glucosyltransferase (ambiguous); UDP-glucose glucosyltransferase (ambiguous); uridine diphosphoglucosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-glucose:phenol β-D-glucosyltransferase
Comments: Acts on a wide range of phenols.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9046-69-9
References:
1.  Dutton, G.J. Uridine diphosphate glucose and the synthesis of phenolic glucosides by mollusks. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 116 (1966) 399–405. [DOI] [PMID: 5961845]
[EC 2.4.1.35 created 1972]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.36     
Accepted name: α,α-trehalose-phosphate synthase (GDP-forming)
Reaction: GDP-glucose + glucose 6-phosphate = GDP + α,α-trehalose 6-phosphate
Other name(s): GDP-glucose—glucose-phosphate glucosyltransferase; guanosine diphosphoglucose-glucose phosphate glucosyltransferase; trehalose phosphate synthase (GDP-forming)
Systematic name: GDP-glucose:D-glucose-6-phosphate 1-α-D-glucosyltransferase
Comments: See also EC 2.4.1.15 [α,α-trehalose-phosphate synthase (UDP-forming)].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37257-32-2
References:
1.  Elbein, A.D. Carbohydrate metabolism in Streptomyces hygroscopicus. I. Enzymatic synthesis of trehalose phosphate from guanosine diphosphate D-glucose-14C. J. Biol. Chem. 242 (1967) 403–406. [PMID: 6022837]
[EC 2.4.1.36 created 1972]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.37     
Accepted name: fucosylgalactoside 3-α-galactosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-galactose + α-L-fucosyl-(1→2)-D-galactosyl-R = UDP + α-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-[α-L-fucosyl(1→2)]-D-galactosyl-R (where R can be OH, an oligosaccharide or a glycoconjugate)
Other name(s): UDP-galactose:O-α-L-fucosyl(1→2)D-galactose α-D-galactosyltransferase; UDPgalactose:glycoprotein-α-L-fucosyl-(1,2)-D-galactose 3-α-D-galactosyltransferase; [blood group substance] α-galactosyltransferase; blood-group substance B-dependent galactosyltransferase; glycoprotein-fucosylgalactoside α-galactosyltransferase; histo-blood group B transferase; histo-blood substance B-dependent galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:α-L-fucosyl-1,2-D-galactoside 3-α-D-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:α-L-fucosyl-(1→2)-D-galactoside 3-α-D-galactosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-galactose:α-L-fucosyl-(1→2)-D-galactoside 3-α-D-galactosyltransferase
Comments: Acts on blood group substance, and can use a number of 2-fucosyl-galactosides as acceptors.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37257-33-3
References:
1.  Race, C., Ziderman, D. and Watkins, W.M. An α-D-galactosyltransferase associated with the blood-group B character. Biochem. J. 107 (1968) 733–735. [PMID: 16742598]
[EC 2.4.1.37 created 1972, modified 1999, modified 2002]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.38     
Accepted name: β-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide β-1,4-galactosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-galactose + N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide = UDP + β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
Other name(s): UDP-galactose—glycoprotein galactosyltransferase; glycoprotein 4-β-galactosyl-transferase; β-N-acetyl-β1-4-galactosyltransferase; thyroid glycoprotein β-galactosyltransferase; glycoprotein β-galactosyltransferase; thyroid galactosyltransferase; uridine diphosphogalactose-glycoprotein galactosyltransferase; β-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide β-1,4-galactosyltransferase; GalT; UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide β-1,4-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide 4-β-galactosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-galactose:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide 4-β-galactosyltransferase
Comments: Terminal N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl residues in polysaccharides, glycoproteins and glycopeptides can act as acceptor. High activity is shown towards such residues in branched-chain polysaccharides when these are linked by β-1,6-links to galactose residues; lower activity towards residues linked to galactose by β-1,3-links. A component of EC 2.4.1.22 (lactose synthase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37237-43-7
References:
1.  Beyer, T.A., Sadler, J.E., Rearick, J.I., Paulson, J.C. and Hill, R.L. Glucosyltransferases and their uses in assessing oligosaccharide structure and structure-function relationship. Adv. Enzymol. 52 (1981) 23–175. [PMID: 6784450]
2.  Blanken, W.M., Hooghwinkel, G.J.M. and van den Eijnden, D.H. Biosynthesis of blood-group I and i substances. Specificity of bovine colostrum β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminide β1→4 galactosyltransferase. Eur. J. Biochem. 127 (1982) 547–552. [DOI] [PMID: 6816588]
3.  Blanken, W.M. and van den Eijnden, D.H. Biosynthesis of terminal Gal α 1→3Gal β 1→4GlcNAc-R oligosaccharide sequences on glycoconjugates. Purification and acceptor specificity of a UDP-Gal:N-acetyllactosaminide α 1→3-galactosyltransferase from calf thymus. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 12927–12934. [PMID: 3932335]
4.  Spiro, M.H. and Spiro, R.G. Glycoprotein biosynthesis: studies on thyroglobulin. Thyroid galactosyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (1968) 6529–6537. [PMID: 5726898]
[EC 2.4.1.38 created 1972, modified 1976, modified 1980, modified 1986]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.39     
Accepted name: steroid N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + estradiol-17α 3-D-glucuronoside = UDP + 17α-(N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl)-estradiol 3-D-glucuronoside
Other name(s): hydroxy steroid acetylglucosaminyltransferase; steroid acetylglucosaminyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-steroid acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:estradiol-17α-3-D-glucuronoside 17α-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9033-56-1
References:
1.  Collins, D.C., Jirku, H. and Layne, D.S. Steroid N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase. Localization and some properties of the enzyme in rabbit tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (1968) 2928–2933. [PMID: 5660254]
[EC 2.4.1.39 created 1972]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.40     
Accepted name: glycoprotein-fucosylgalactoside α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine + glycoprotein-α-L-fucosyl-(1→2)-D-galactose = UDP + glycoprotein-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl-(1→3)-[α-L-fucosyl-(1→2)]-D-galactose
Other name(s): A-transferase; histo-blood group A glycosyltransferase (Fucα1→2Galα1→3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase); UDP-GalNAc:Fucα1→2Galα1→3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; α-3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; blood-group substance α-acetyltransferase; blood-group substance A-dependent acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; fucosylgalactose acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; histo-blood group A acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; histo-blood group A transferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:α-L-fucosyl-1,2-D-galactose 3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:glycoprotein-α-L-fucosyl-(1,2)-D-galactose 3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:glycoprotein-α-L-fucosyl-(1→2)-D-galactose 3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase
Comments: Acts on blood group substance, and can use a number of 2-fucosyl-galactosides as acceptors.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9067-69-0
References:
1.  Kobata, A., Grollman, E.F. and Ginsburg, V. An enzymic basis for blood type A in humans. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 124 (1968) 609–612. [DOI] [PMID: 5661629]
2.  Takeya, A., Hosomi, O. and Ishiura, M. Complete purification and characterization of α-3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase encoded by the human blood group A gene. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 107 (1990) 360–368. [PMID: 2341371]
3.  Yates, A.D., Feeney, J., Donald, A.S.R. and Watkins, W.M. Characterization of a blood-group A-active tetrasaccharide synthesized by a blood-group-B gene-specified glycosyltransferase. Carbohydr. Res. 130 (1984) 251–260. [DOI] [PMID: 6434182]
[EC 2.4.1.40 created 1972, modified 1999]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.41     
Accepted name: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
Reaction: (1) UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine + [protein]-L-serine = UDP + [protein]-3-O-(N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl)-L-serine
(2) UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine + [protein]-L-threonine = UDP + [protein]-3-O-(N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl)-L-threonine
Other name(s): protein-UDP acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase; UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:κ-casein polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylgalactosamine-glycoprotein acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; glycoprotein acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; polypeptide-N-acetylgalactosamine transferase; UDP-acetylgalactosamine-glycoprotein acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; UDP-acetylgalactosamine:peptide-N-galactosaminyltransferase; UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine-glycoprotein N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine-protein N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:protein N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase; ppGalNAc-T; UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-α-acetyl-D-galactosamine:[protein]-3-O-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl transferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: Requires both Mn2+ and Ca2+. The glycosyl residue is transferred to threonine or serine hydroxy groups on the polypeptide core of submaxillary mucin, κ-casein, apofetuin and some other acceptors of high molecular mass.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9075-15-4
References:
1.  Sugiura, M., Kawasaki, T. and Yamashina, I. Purification and characterization of UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosamine transferase from an ascites hepatoma, AH 66. J. Biol. Chem. 257 (1982) 9501–9507. [PMID: 6809738]
2.  Takeuchi, M., Yoshikawa, M., Sasaki, R. and Chiba, H. Purification and characterization of UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine-κ-casein polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase from mammary-gland of lactating cow. Agric. Biol. Chem. 49 (1985) 1059–1069.
[EC 2.4.1.41 created 1972, modified 1989]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.42      
Deleted entry:  UDP-glucuronate—estriol 17β-D-glucuronosyltransferase. Now included with EC 2.4.1.17, glucuronosyltransferase
[EC 2.4.1.42 created 1972, deleted 1984]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.43     
Accepted name: polygalacturonate 4-α-galacturonosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-galacturonate + [(1→4)-α-D-galacturonosyl]n = UDP + [(1→4)-α-D-galacturonosyl]n+1
Other name(s): UDP galacturonate-polygalacturonate α-galacturonosyltransferase; uridine diphosphogalacturonate-polygalacturonate α-galacturonosyltransferase; UDP-D-galacturonate:1,4-α-poly-D-galacturonate 4-α-D-galacturonosyltransferase; UDP-D-galacturonate:(1→4)-α-poly-D-galacturonate 4-α-D-galacturonosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-galacturonate:(1→4)-α-poly-D-galacturonate 4-α-D-galacturonosyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37277-53-5
References:
1.  Villemez, C.L., Swanson, A.L. and Hassid, W.Z. Properties of a polygalacturonic acid-synthesizing enzyme system from Phaseolus aureus seedlings. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 116 (1966) 446–452. [DOI] [PMID: 5961848]
[EC 2.4.1.43 created 1972]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.44     
Accepted name: lipopolysaccharide 3-α-galactosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-galactose + lipopolysaccharide = UDP + 3-α-D-galactosyl-[lipopolysaccharide glucose]
Other name(s): UDP-galactose:lipopolysaccharide α,3-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:polysaccharide galactosyltransferase; uridine diphosphate galactose:lipopolysaccharide α-3-galactosyltransferase; uridine diphosphogalactose-lipopolysaccharide α,3-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:lipopolysaccharide 3-α-D-galactosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-galactose:lipopolysaccharide 3-α-D-galactosyltransferase
Comments: Transfers α-D-galactosyl residues to D-glucose in the partially completed core of lipopolysaccharide [cf. EC 2.4.1.56 (lipopolysaccharide N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase), EC 2.4.1.58 (lipopolysaccharide glucosyltransferase I) and EC 2.4.1.73 (lipopolysaccharide glucosyltransferase II)].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9073-98-7
References:
1.  Endo, A. and Rothfield, L. Studies of a phospholipid-requiring bacterial enzyme. I. Purification and properties of uridine diphosphate galactose: lipopolysaccharide α-3-galactosyl transferase. Biochemistry 8 (1969) 3500–3507. [PMID: 4898284]
2.  Wollin, R., Creeger, E.S., Rothfield, L.I., Stocker, B.A.D. and Lindberg, A.A. Salmonella typhimurium mutants defective in UDP-D-galactose:lipopolysaccharide α-1,6-D-galactosyltransferase. Structural, immunochemical, and enzymologic studies of rfaB mutants. J. Biol. Chem. 258 (1983) 3769–3774. [PMID: 6403519]
[EC 2.4.1.44 created 1972, modified 2002]
 
 


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