The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: tyrosine 3-monooxygenase
Reaction: L-tyrosine + a 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine + O2 = L-dopa + a 4a-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine
For diagram of dopa biosynthesis, click here and for diagram of biopterin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: L-dopa = 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
Other name(s): L-tyrosine hydroxylase; tyrosine 3-hydroxylase; tyrosine hydroxylase
Systematic name: L-tyrosine,tetrahydropteridine:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating)
Comments: The active centre contains mononuclear iron(II). The enzyme is activated by phosphorylation, catalysed by EC, [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] kinase. The 4a-hydroxytetrahydropteridine formed can dehydrate to 6,7-dihydropteridine, both spontaneously and by the action of EC, 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin dehydratase. The 6,7-dihydropteridine must be enzymically reduced back to tetrahydropteridine, by EC, 6,7-dihydropteridine reductase, before it slowly rearranges into the more stable but inactive compound 7,8-dihydropteridine.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9036-22-0
1.  El Mestikawy, S., Glowinski, J. and Hamon, M. Tyrosine hydroxylase activation in depolarized dopaminergic terminals -involvement of Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation. Nature (Lond.) 302 (1983) 830–832. [PMID: 6133218]
2.  Ikeda, M., Levitt, M. and Udenfriend, S. Phenylalanine as substrate and inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 120 (1967) 420–427. [DOI] [PMID: 6033458]
3.  Nagatsu, T., Levitt, M. and Udenfriend, S. Tyrosine hydroxylase. The initial step in norepinephrine biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 239 (1964) 2910–2917. [PMID: 14216443]
4.  Pigeon, D., Drissi-Daoudi, R., Gros, F. and Thibault, J. Copurification of tyrosine hydroxylase from rat pheochromocytoma by protein kinase. C. R. Acad. Sci. III 302 (1986) 435–438. [PMID: 2872947]
5.  Goodwill, K.E., Sabatier, C., Marks, C., Raag, R., Fitzpatrick, P.F. and Stevens, R.C. Crystal structure of tyrosine hydroxylase at 2.3 Å and its implications for inherited neurodegenerative diseases. Nat. Struct. Biol. 4 (1997) 578–585. [PMID: 9228951]
[EC created 1972, modified 2003, modified 2019]

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