The Enzyme Database

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EC 2.4.1.36     
Accepted name: α,α-trehalose-phosphate synthase (GDP-forming)
Reaction: GDP-glucose + glucose 6-phosphate = GDP + α,α-trehalose 6-phosphate
Other name(s): GDP-glucose—glucose-phosphate glucosyltransferase; guanosine diphosphoglucose-glucose phosphate glucosyltransferase; trehalose phosphate synthase (GDP-forming)
Systematic name: GDP-glucose:D-glucose-6-phosphate 1-α-D-glucosyltransferase
Comments: See also EC 2.4.1.15 [α,α-trehalose-phosphate synthase (UDP-forming)].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37257-32-2
References:
1.  Elbein, A.D. Carbohydrate metabolism in Streptomyces hygroscopicus. I. Enzymatic synthesis of trehalose phosphate from guanosine diphosphate D-glucose-14C. J. Biol. Chem. 242 (1967) 403–406. [PMID: 6022837]
[EC 2.4.1.36 created 1972]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.360     
Accepted name: 2-hydroxyflavanone C-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + a 2′-hydroxy-β-oxodihydrochalcone = UDP + a 3′-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2′-hydroxy-β-oxodihydrochalcone
Glossary: 2′-hydroxy-β-oxodihydrochalcone = 1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-phenypropan-1,3-dione
3′-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2′-hydroxy-β-oxodihydrochalcone = 1-(3-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-phenylpropan-1,3-dione
Other name(s): OsCGT
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:2′-hydroxy-β-oxodihydrochalcone C6/8-β-D-glucosyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme has been characterized in Oryza sativa (rice), various Citrus spp., Glycine max (soybean), and Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat). Flavanone substrates require a 2-hydroxy group. The meta-stable flavanone substrates such as 2-hydroxynaringenin exist in an equilibrium with open forms such as 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)propane-1,3-dione, which are the actual substrates for the glucosyl-transfer reaction (see EC 1.14.14.162, flavanone 2-hydroxylase). The enzyme can also act on dihydrochalcones. The enzymes from citrus plants can catalyse a second C-glycosylation reaction at position 5.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Brazier-Hicks, M., Evans, K.M., Gershater, M.C., Puschmann, H., Steel, P.G. and Edwards, R. The C-glycosylation of flavonoids in cereals. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 17926–17934. [PMID: 19411659]
2.  Nagatomo, Y., Usui, S., Ito, T., Kato, A., Shimosaka, M. and Taguchi, G. Purification, molecular cloning and functional characterization of flavonoid C-glucosyltransferases from Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat) cotyledon. Plant J. 80 (2014) 437–448. [PMID: 25142187]
3.  Hirade, Y., Kotoku, N., Terasaka, K., Saijo-Hamano, Y., Fukumoto, A. and Mizukami, H. Identification and functional analysis of 2-hydroxyflavanone C-glucosyltransferase in soybean (Glycine max). FEBS Lett. 589 (2015) 1778–1786. [PMID: 25979175]
4.  Ito, T., Fujimoto, S., Suito, F., Shimosaka, M. and Taguchi, G. C-Glycosyltransferases catalyzing the formation of di-C-glucosyl flavonoids in citrus plants. Plant J. 91 (2017) 187–198. [PMID: 28370711]
[EC 2.4.1.360 created 2018]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.361     
Accepted name: GDP-mannose:di-myo-inositol-1,3′-phosphate β-1,2-mannosyltransferase
Reaction: 2 GDP-α-D-mannose + bis(myo-inositol) 1,3′-phosphate = 2 GDP + 2-O-(β-D-mannosyl-(1→2)-β-D-mannosyl)-bis(myo-inositol) 1,3′-phosphate (overall reaction)
(1a) GDP-α-D-mannose + bis(myo-inositol) 1,3′-phosphate = GDP + 2-O-(β-D-mannosyl)-bis(myo-inositol) 1,3′-phosphate
(1b) GDP-α-D-mannose + 2-O-(β-D-mannosyl)-bis(myo-inositol) 1,3′-phosphate = GDP + 2-O-(β-D-mannosyl-(1→2)-β-D-mannosyl)-bis(myo-inositol) 1,3′-phosphate
Other name(s): MDIP synthase
Systematic name: GDP-α-D-mannose:bis(myo-inositol)-1,3′-phosphate 2-β-D-mannosyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima is involved in the synthesis of the solutes 2-O-(β-D-mannosyl)-bis(myo-inositol) 1,3′-phosphate and 2-O-(β-D-mannosyl-(1→2)-β-D-mannosyl)-bis(myo-inositol) 1,3′-phosphate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Rodrigues, M.V., Borges, N., Almeida, C.P., Lamosa, P. and Santos, H. A unique β-1,2-mannosyltransferase of Thermotoga maritima that uses di-myo-inositol phosphate as the mannosyl acceptor. J. Bacteriol. 191 (2009) 6105–6115. [PMID: 19648237]
[EC 2.4.1.361 created 2019]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.362     
Accepted name: α-(1→3) branching sucrase
Reaction: sucrose + a (1→6)-α-D-glucan = D-fructose + a (1→6)-α-D-glucan containing a (1→3)-α-D-glucose branch
Other name(s): branching sucrase A; BRS-A; brsA (gene name)
Systematic name: sucrose:(1→6)-α-D-glucan 3-α-D-[(1→3)-α-D-glucosyl]-transferase
Comments: The enzyme from Leuconostoc spp. is responsible for producing α-(1→3) branches in α-(1→6) glucans by transferring the glucose residue from fructose to a 3-hydroxyl group of a glucan.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Vuillemin, M., Claverie, M., Brison, Y., Severac, E., Bondy, P., Morel, S., Monsan, P., Moulis, C. and Remaud-Simeon, M. Characterization of the first α-(1→3) branching sucrases of the GH70 family. J. Biol. Chem 291 (2016) 7687–7702. [PMID: 26763236]
2.  Moulis, C., Andre, I. and Remaud-Simeon, M. GH13 amylosucrases and GH70 branching sucrases, atypical enzymes in their respective families. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 73 (2016) 2661–2679. [PMID: 27141938]
[EC 2.4.1.362 created 2019]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.363     
Accepted name: ginsenoside 20-O-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + (20S)-protopanaxadiol = UDP + ginsenoside C-K
Glossary: (20S)-protopanaxadiol = (3β,12β)-dammar-24-ene-3,12,20-triol
ginsenoside C-K = (3β,12β)-3,12-dihydroxydammar-24-en-20-yl β-D-glucopyranoside
Other name(s): UGT71A27 (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:(20S)-protopanaxadiol 20-O-glucosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plant Panax ginseng, transfers a glucosyl moiety to the free C20(S)-OH group of dammarane derivative substrates, including protopanaxatriol, dammarenediol II, (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2, and (20S)-ginsenoside Rg3. It does not act on the 20R epimer of protopanaxadiol, or on ginsenosides that are glucosylated at the C-6 position, such as ginsenoside Rh1 or ginsenoside Rg2.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Yan, X., Fan, Y., Wei, W., Wang, P., Liu, Q., Wei, Y., Zhang, L., Zhao, G., Yue, J. and Zhou, Z. Production of bioactive ginsenoside compound K in metabolically engineered yeast. Cell Res 24 (2014) 770–773. [PMID: 24603359]
2.  Wei, W., Wang, P., Wei, Y., Liu, Q., Yang, C., Zhao, G., Yue, J., Yan, X. and Zhou, Z. Characterization of Panax ginseng UDP-glycosyltransferases catalyzing protopanaxatriol and biosyntheses of bioactive ginsenosides F1 and Rh1 in metabolically engineered yeasts. Mol. Plant 8 (2015) 1412–1424. [PMID: 26032089]
[EC 2.4.1.363 created 2019]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.364     
Accepted name: protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside 3-O-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: (1) UDP-α-D-glucose + (20S)-protopanaxadiol = UDP + (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2
(2) UDP-α-D-glucose + ginsenoside C-K = UDP + ginsenoside F2
Glossary: (20S)-protopanaxadiol = (3β,12β)-dammar-24-ene-3,12,20-triol
ginsenoside C-K = (3β,12β)-3,12-dihydroxydammar-24-en-20-yl β-D-glucopyranoside
Other name(s): UGT74AE2 (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside 3-O-glucosyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plant Panax ginseng, transfers a glucosyl moiety to the free C-3-OH group of (20S)-protopanaxadiol and ginsenoside C-K.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Jung, S.C., Kim, W., Park, S.C., Jeong, J., Park, M.K., Lim, S., Lee, Y., Im, W.T., Lee, J.H., Choi, G. and Kim, S.C. Two ginseng UDP-glycosyltransferases synthesize ginsenoside Rg3 and Rd. Plant Cell Physiol 55 (2014) 2177–2188. [PMID: 25320211]
[EC 2.4.1.364 created 2019]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.365     
Accepted name: protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside-3-O-glucoside 2′′-O-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: (1) UDP-α-D-glucose + (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2 = UDP + (20S)-ginsenoside Rg3
(2) UDP-α-D-glucose + ginsenoside F2 = UDP + ginsenoside Rd
Glossary: (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2 = (3β,12β)-12,20-dihydroxydammar-24-en-3-yl β-D-glucopyranoside
ginsenoside F2 = (3β,12β)-20-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-12-hydroxydammar-24-en-3-yl β-D-glucopyranoside
Other name(s): UGT94Q2 (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:3-O-glucosyl-protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside 2′′-O-glucosyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plant Panax ginseng, transfers a glucosyl moiety to the 2′′ position of the glucose moiety in the protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside-3-O-glucosides (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2 and ginsenoside F2.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Jung, S.C., Kim, W., Park, S.C., Jeong, J., Park, M.K., Lim, S., Lee, Y., Im, W.T., Lee, J.H., Choi, G. and Kim, S.C. Two ginseng UDP-glycosyltransferases synthesize ginsenoside Rg3 and Rd. Plant Cell Physiol 55 (2014) 2177–2188. [PMID: 25320211]
[EC 2.4.1.365 created 2019]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.366     
Accepted name: ginsenoside F1 6-O-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + ginsenoside F1 = UDP + (20S)-ginsenoside Rg1
Glossary: ginsenoside F1 = 3β,6α,12β-trihydroxydammar-24-en-20-yl β-D-glucopyranoside
Other name(s): UGTPg101 (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:ginsenoside F1 6-O-glucosyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plant Panax ginseng, glucosylates the C-6 position of ginsenoside F1. The enzyme also glucosylates the C-20 position of protopanaxatriol, which forms ginsenoside F1 (cf. EC 2.4.1.363, ginsenoside 20-O-glucosyltransferase). However, unlike EC 2.4.1.367, ginsenoside 6-O-glucosyltransferase, it is not able to glucosylate the C-6 position of protopanaxatriol when position C-20 is not glucosylated.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Wei, W., Wang, P., Wei, Y., Liu, Q., Yang, C., Zhao, G., Yue, J., Yan, X. and Zhou, Z. Characterization of Panax ginseng UDP-glycosyltransferases catalyzing protopanaxatriol and biosyntheses of bioactive ginsenosides F1 and Rh1 in metabolically engineered yeasts. Mol. Plant 8 (2015) 1412–1424. [PMID: 26032089]
[EC 2.4.1.366 created 2019]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.367     
Accepted name: ginsenoside 6-O-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: (1) UDP-α-D-glucose + protopanaxatriol = UDP + ginsenoside Rh1
(2) UDP-α-D-glucose + ginsenoside F1 = UDP + (20S)-ginsenoside Rg1
Glossary: protopanaxatriol = (3β,6α,12β)-dammar-24-ene-3,6,12,20-tetrol
ginsenoside F1 = (3β,6α,12β)-trihydroxydammar-24-en-20-yl β-D-glucopyranoside
Other name(s): UGTPg100 (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:ginsenoside 6-O-glucosyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plant Panax ginseng, glucosylates the C-6 position of protopanaxatriol and ginsenoside F1.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Wei, W., Wang, P., Wei, Y., Liu, Q., Yang, C., Zhao, G., Yue, J., Yan, X. and Zhou, Z. Characterization of Panax ginseng UDP-glycosyltransferases catalyzing protopanaxatriol and biosyntheses of bioactive ginsenosides F1 and Rh1 in metabolically engineered yeasts. Mol. Plant 8 (2015) 1412–1424. [PMID: 26032089]
[EC 2.4.1.367 created 2019]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.368     
Accepted name: oleanolate 3-O-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + oleanolate = UDP + oleanolate 3-O-β-D-glucoside
Glossary: oleanolate = 3β-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oate
Other name(s): UGT73C10 (gene name); UGT73C11 (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:oleanolate 3-O-glucosyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme has been characterized from the saponin-producing crucifer plant Barbarea vulgaris.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Augustin, J.M., Drok, S., Shinoda, T., Sanmiya, K., Nielsen, J.K., Khakimov, B., Olsen, C.E., Hansen, E.H., Kuzina, V., Ekstrom, C.T., Hauser, T. and Bak, S. UDP-glycosyltransferases from the UGT73C subfamily in Barbarea vulgaris catalyze sapogenin 3-O-glucosylation in saponin-mediated insect resistance. Plant Physiol. 160 (2012) 1881–1895. [PMID: 23027665]
[EC 2.4.1.368 created 2019]
 
 


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