The Enzyme Database

Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB)

Proposed Changes to the Enzyme List

The entries below are proposed additions and amendments to the Enzyme Nomenclature list. They were prepared for the NC-IUBMB by Kristian Axelsen, Richard Cammack, Ron Caspi, Masaaki Kotera, Andrew McDonald, Gerry Moss, Dietmar Schomburg, Ida Schomburg and Keith Tipton. Comments and suggestions on these draft entries should be sent to Dr Andrew McDonald (Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland). The date on which an enzyme will be made official is appended after the EC number. To prevent confusion please do not quote new EC numbers until they are incorporated into the main list.

An asterisk before 'EC' indicates that this is an amendment to an existing enzyme rather than a new enzyme entry.


Contents

*EC 1.1.1.170 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating)
EC 1.1.1.417 3β-hydroxysteroid-4β-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating)
EC 1.1.1.418 plant 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating)
EC 1.14.13.246 4β-methylsterol monooxygenase
EC 1.14.14.171 β-amyrin 16α-hydroxylase
*EC 1.14.18.9 4α-methylsterol monooxygenase
EC 1.14.18.10 plant 4,4-dimethylsterol C-4α-methyl-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.18.11 plant 4α-monomethylsterol monooxygenase
*EC 1.20.4.1 arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin)
*EC 1.20.4.4 arsenate reductase (thioredoxin)
*EC 2.3.1.9 acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase
*EC 2.3.1.16 acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase
EC 2.3.1.286 protein acetyllysine N-acetyltransferase
EC 2.3.1.287 phthioceranic/hydroxyphthioceranic acid synthase
EC 2.4.1.363 ginsenoside 20-O-glucosyltransferase
EC 2.4.1.364 protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside 3-O-glucosyltransferase
EC 2.4.1.365 protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside-3-O-glucoside 2′′-O-glucosyltransferase
EC 2.4.1.366 ginsenoside F1 6-O-glucosyltransferase
EC 2.4.1.367 ginsenoside 6-O-glucosyltransferase
EC 2.4.1.368 oleanolate 3-O-glucosyltransferase
EC 3.1.1.106 O-acetyl-ADP-ribose deacetylase
EC 3.6.3.16 transferred
EC 3.6.3.17 transferred
EC 3.7.1.24 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol hydrolase
EC 3.7.1.25 2-hydroxy-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoate hydrolase
EC 4.2.3.201 hydropyrene synthase
EC 4.2.3.202 hydropyrenol synthase
EC 4.2.3.203 isoelisabethatriene synthase
EC 6.2.1.57 long-chain fatty acid adenylase/transferase FadD23
*EC 6.3.2.38 N2-citryl-N6-acetyl-N6-hydroxylysine synthase
EC 6.3.2.57 staphyloferrin A synthase
EC 7.3.2.7 arsenite-transporting ATPase
EC 7.4.2.10 ABC-type glutathione transporter
EC 7.4.2.11 ABC-type methionine transporter
EC 7.4.2.12 ABC-type cystine transporter
EC 7.5.2.7 ABC-type D-ribose transporter
EC 7.5.2.8 ABC-type D-allose transporter
EC 7.5.2.9 ABC-type D-galactofuranose transporter
EC 7.5.2.10 ABC-type D-xylose transporter
EC 7.5.2.11 ABC-type D-galactose transporter
EC 7.5.2.12 ABC-type L-arabinose transporter
EC 7.5.2.13 ABC-type D-xylose/L-arabinose transporter
EC 7.6.2.13 ABC-type autoinducer-2 transporter


*EC 1.1.1.170 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating)
Reaction: a 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate + NAD(P)+ = a 3-oxosteroid + CO2 + NAD(P)H
For diagram of sterol ring A modification, click here
Other name(s): 3β-hydroxy-4β-methylcholestenecarboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating); 3β-hydroxy-4β-methylcholestenoate dehydrogenase; sterol 4α-carboxylic decarboxylase; sterol-4α-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) (ambiguous); ERG26 (gene name); NSDHL (gene name)
Systematic name: 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate:NAD(P)+ 3-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating)
Comments: The enzyme participates in the biosynthesis of several important sterols such as ergosterol and cholesterol. It is part of a three enzyme system that removes methyl groups from the C-4 position of steroid molecules. The first enzyme, EC 1.14.18.9, 4α-methylsterol monooxygenase, catalyses three successive oxidations of the methyl group, resulting in a carboxyl group; the second enzyme, EC 1.1.1.170, catalyses an oxidative decarboxylation that results in a reduction of the 3β-hydroxy group at the C-3 carbon to an oxo group; and the last enzyme, EC 1.1.1.270, 3β-hydroxysteroid 3-dehydrogenase, reduces the 3-oxo group back to a 3β-hydroxyl. If a second methyl group remains at the C-4 position, this enzyme also catalyses its epimerization from 4β to 4α orientation, so it could serve as a substrate for a second round of demethylation. cf. EC 1.1.1.418, plant 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 71822-23-6
References:
1.  Sharpless, K.B., Snyder, T.E., Spencer, T.A., Maheshwari, K.K. and Nelson, J.A. Biological demethylation of 4,4-dimethyl sterols, Evidence for enzymic epimerization of the 4β-methyl group prior to its oxidative removal. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 91 (1969) 3394–3396. [PMID: 5791927]
2.  Rahimtula, A.D. and Gaylor, J.L. Partial purification of a microsomal sterol 4α-carboxylic acid decarboxylase. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 9–15. [PMID: 4401584]
3.  Brady, D.R., Crowder, R.D. and Hayes, W.J. Mixed function oxidases in sterol metabolism. Source of reducing equivalents. J. Biol. Chem. 255 (1980) 10624–10629. [PMID: 7430141]
4.  Gachotte, D., Barbuch, R., Gaylor, J., Nickel, E. and Bard, M. Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ERG26 gene encoding the C-3 sterol dehydrogenase (C-4 decarboxylase) involved in sterol biosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95 (1998) 13794–13799. [DOI] [PMID: 9811880]
5.  Caldas, H. and Herman, G.E. NSDHL, an enzyme involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, traffics through the Golgi and accumulates on ER membranes and on the surface of lipid droplets. Hum. Mol. Genet. 12 (2003) 2981–2991. [DOI] [PMID: 14506130]
[EC 1.1.1.170 created 1978, modified 2002, modified 2012, modified 2019]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.417 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: 3β-hydroxysteroid-4β-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating)
Reaction: a 3β-hydroxy-4α-methylsteroid-4β-carboxylate + NAD(P)+ = a 4α-methyl-3-oxosteroid + NAD(P)H + CO2 + H+
Other name(s): sdmB (gene name)
Systematic name: 3β-hydroxysteroid-4β-carboxylate:NAD(P)+ 3-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating)
Comments: This bacterial enzyme participates in the biosynthesis of bacterial sterols. Together with EC 1.14.13.246, 4β-methylsterol monooxygenase (SdmA) it forms an enzyme system that removes one methyl group from the C-4 position of 4,4-dimethylated steroid molecules. SdmA catalyses three successive oxidations of the C-4β methyl group, turning it into a carboxylate group; SdmB is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyses two different activities. As EC 1.1.1.417 it catalyses an oxidative decarboxylation that results in reduction of the 3β-hydroxy group at the C-3 carbon to an oxo group. As EC 1.1.1.270, 3β-hydroxysteroid 3-dehydrogenase, it reduces the 3-oxo group back to a 3β-hydroxyl. Since the remaining methyl group at C-4 is in an α orientation, it cannot serve as a substrate for a second round of demethylation by this system.
References:
1.  Lee, A.K., Banta, A.B., Wei, J.H., Kiemle, D.J., Feng, J., Giner, J.L. and Welander, P.V. C-4 sterol demethylation enzymes distinguish bacterial and eukaryotic sterol synthesis. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 115 (2018) 5884–5889. [PMID: 29784781]
[EC 1.1.1.417 created 2019]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.418 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: plant 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating)
Reaction: a 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate + NAD+ = a 3-oxosteroid + CO2 + NADH
For diagram of sterol ring A modification, click here
Other name(s): 3β-HSD/D1 (gene name); 3β-HSD/D2 (gene name); 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases/C-4 decarboxylase (ambiguous)
Systematic name: 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate:NAD+ 3-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating)
Comments: The enzyme, found in plants, catalyses multiple reactions during plant sterol biosynthesis. Unlike the fungal/animal enzyme EC 1.1.1.170, 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), the plant enzyme is specific for NAD+.
References:
1.  Rondet, S., Taton, M. and Rahier, A. Identification, characterization, and partial purification of 4 α-carboxysterol-C3-dehydrogenase/ C4-decarboxylase from Zea mays. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 366 (1999) 249–260. [PMID: 10356290]
2.  Rahier, A., Darnet, S., Bouvier, F., Camara, B. and Bard, M. Molecular and enzymatic characterizations of novel bifunctional 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases/C-4 decarboxylases from Arabidopsis thaliana. J. Biol. Chem 281 (2006) 27264–27277. [PMID: 16835224]
3.  Rahier, A., Bergdoll, M., Genot, G., Bouvier, F. and Camara, B. Homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis reveal catalytic key amino acids of 3β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase/C4-decarboxylase from Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 149 (2009) 1872–1886. [PMID: 19218365]
[EC 1.1.1.418 created 2019]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.246 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: 4β-methylsterol monooxygenase
Reaction: a 3β-hydroxy-4,4-dimethylsteroid + 3 NADH + 3 H+ + 3 O2 = a 3β-hydroxy-4α-methylsteroid-4β-carboxylate + 3 NAD+ + 4 H2O (overall reaction)
(1a) a 3β-hydroxy-4,4-dimethylsteroid + NADH + H+ + O2 = a 3β-hydroxy-4β-hydroxymethyl-4α-methylsteroid + NAD+ + H2O
(1b) a 3β-hydroxy-4β-hydroxymethyl-4α-methylsteroid + NADH + H+ + O2 = a 3β-hydroxy-4β-formyl-4α-methylsteroid + NAD+ + 2 H2O
(1c) a 3β-hydroxy-4β-formyl-4α-methylsteroid + NADH + H+ + O2 = a 3β-hydroxy-4α-methylsteroid-4β-carboxylate + NAD+ + H2O
Other name(s): sdmA (gene name)
Systematic name: 3β-hydroxy-4,4-dimethylsteroid,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (C-4mβ-hydroxylating)
Comments: Contains a Rieske [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster. This bacterial enzyme (SdmA) participates in the biosynthesis of bacterial sterols. Together with SdmB it forms an enzyme system that removes one methyl group from the C-4 position of 4,4-dimethylated steroid molecules. SdmA catalyses three successive oxidations of the C-4β methyl group, turning it into a carboxylate group; the second enzyme, SdmB, is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyses two different activities. As EC 1.1.1.417, 3β-hydroxysteroid-4β-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), it catalyses an oxidative decarboxylation that results in reduction of the 3β-hydroxy group at the C-3 carbon to an oxo group. As EC 1.1.1.270, 3β-hydroxysteroid 3-dehydrogenase, it reduces the 3-oxo group back to a 3β-hydroxyl. Unlike the animal/fungal enzyme EC 1.14.18.9, 4α-methylsterol monooxygenase, and the plant enzymes EC 1.14.18.10, plant 4,4-dimethylsterol C-4α-methyl-monooxygenase, and EC 1.14.18.11, plant 4α-monomethylsterol monooxygenase, this enzyme acts preferentially on the 4β-methyl group. Since no epimerization of the remaining C-4α methyl group occurs, the enzyme can only remove one methyl group, leaving a 4α-monomethylated product. Known substrates include 4,4-dimethyl-5α-cholest-8-en-3β-ol and 14-demethyllanosterol.
References:
1.  Lee, A.K., Banta, A.B., Wei, J.H., Kiemle, D.J., Feng, J., Giner, J.L. and Welander, P.V. C-4 sterol demethylation enzymes distinguish bacterial and eukaryotic sterol synthesis. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 115 (2018) 5884–5889. [PMID: 29784781]
[EC 1.14.13.246 created 2019]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.171 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: β-amyrin 16α-hydroxylase
Reaction: β-amyrin + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = 16α-hydroxy-β-amyrin + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
Glossary: 16α-hydroxy-β-amyrin = olean-12-ene-3β,16α-diol
Other name(s): CYP87D16
Systematic name: β-amyrin,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (16α-hydroxylating)
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein isolated from the plant Maesa lanceolata (false assegai). Involved in the biosynthesis of maesasaponins. It also acts on some derivatives of β-amyrin such as erythrodiol or oleanolic acid.
References:
1.  Moses, T., Pollier, J., Almagro, L., Buyst, D., Van Montagu, M., Pedreño, M.A., Martins, J.C., Thevelein, J.M. and Goossens, A. Combinatorial biosynthesis of sapogenins and saponins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a C-16α hydroxylase from Bupleurum falcatum. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111 (2014) 1634–1639. [PMID: 24434554]
2.  Moses, T., Pollier, J., Faizal, A., Apers, S., Pieters, L., Thevelein, J.M., Geelen, D. and Goossens, A. Unraveling the triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis of the African shrub Maesa lanceolata. Mol. Plant 8 (2015) 122–135. [DOI] [PMID: 25578277]
[EC 1.14.14.171 created 2019]
 
 
*EC 1.14.18.9 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: 4α-methylsterol monooxygenase
Reaction: 4,4-dimethyl-5α-cholest-7-en-3β-ol + 6 ferrocytochrome b5 + 3 O2 + 6 H+ = 3β-hydroxy-4β-methyl-5α-cholest-7-ene-4α-carboxylate + 6 ferricytochrome b5 + 4 H2O (overall reaction)
(1a) 4,4-dimethyl-5α-cholest-7-en-3β-ol + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = 4α-hydroxymethyl-4β-methyl-5α-cholest-7-en-3β-ol + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + H2O
(1b) 4α-hydroxymethyl-4β-methyl-5α-cholest-7-en-3β-ol + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = 3β-hydroxy-4β-methyl-5α-cholest-7-ene-4α-carbaldehyde + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
(1c) 3β-hydroxy-4β-methyl-5α-cholest-7-ene-4α-carbaldehyde + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = 3β-hydroxy-4β-methyl-5α-cholest-7-ene-4α-carboxylate + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + H2O
For diagram of sterol ring A modification, click here
Other name(s): methylsterol hydroxylase (ambiguous); 4-methylsterol oxidase (ambiguous); 4,4-dimethyl-5α-cholest-7-en-3β-ol,hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase (hydroxylating) (ambiguous); methylsterol monooxygenase (ambiguous); ERG25 (gene name); MSMO1 (gene name); 4,4-dimethyl-5α-cholest-7-en-3β-ol,ferrocytochrome-b5:oxygen oxidoreductase (hydroxylating) (ambiguous)
Systematic name: 4,4-dimethyl-5α-cholest-7-en-3β-ol,ferrocytochrome-b5:oxygen oxidoreductase (C4α-methyl-hydroxylating)
Comments: This enzyme is found in fungi and animals and catalyses a step in the biosynthesis of important sterol molecules such as ergosterol and cholesterol, respectively. The enzyme acts on the 4α-methyl group. Subsequent decarboxylation by EC 1.1.1.170, 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), occurs concomitantly with epimerization of the remaining 4β-methyl into the 4α position, thus making it a suitable substrate for a second round of catalysis. cf. EC 1.14.13.246, 4β-methylsterol monooxygenase; EC 1.14.18.10, plant 4,4-dimethylsterol C-4α-methyl-monooxygenase; and EC 1.14.18.11, plant 4α-monomethylsterol monooxygenase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37256-80-7
References:
1.  Miller, W.L., Kalafer, M.E., Gaylor, J.L. and Delwicke, C.V. Investigation of the component reactions of oxidative sterol demethylation. Study of the aerobic and anaerobic processes. Biochemistry 6 (1967) 2673–2678. [PMID: 4383278]
2.  Gaylor, J.L. and Mason, H.S. Investigation of the component reactions of oxidative sterol demethylation. Evidence against participation of cytochrome P-450. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (1968) 4966–4972. [PMID: 4234469]
3.  Sharpless, K.B., Snyder, T.E., Spencer, T.A., Maheshwari, K.K. and Nelson, J.A. Biological demethylation of 4,4-dimethyl sterols, Evidence for enzymic epimerization of the 4β-methyl group prior to its oxidative removal. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 91 (1969) 3394–3396. [PMID: 5791927]
4.  Brady, D.R., Crowder, R.D. and Hayes, W.J. Mixed function oxidases in sterol metabolism. Source of reducing equivalents. J. Biol. Chem. 255 (1980) 10624–10629. [PMID: 7430141]
5.  Fukushima, H., Grinstead, G.F. and Gaylor, J.L. Total enzymic synthesis of cholesterol from lanosterol. Cytochrome b5-dependence of 4-methyl sterol oxidase. J. Biol. Chem. 256 (1981) 4822–4826. [PMID: 7228857]
6.  Kawata, S., Trzaskos, J.M. and Gaylor, J.L. Affinity chromatography of microsomal enzymes on immobilized detergent-solubilized cytochrome b5. J. Biol. Chem. 261 (1986) 3790–3799. [PMID: 3949790]
[EC 1.14.18.9 created 1972 as EC 1.14.99.16, transferred 2002 to EC 1.14.13.72, transferred 2017 to EC 1.14.18.9, modified 2019]
 
 
EC 1.14.18.10 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: plant 4,4-dimethylsterol C-4α-methyl-monooxygenase
Reaction: 24-methylidenecycloartanol + 6 ferrocytochrome b5 + 3 O2 + 6 H+ = 3β-hydroxy-4β,14α-dimethyl-9β,19-cyclo-5α-ergost-24(241)-en-4α-carboxylate + 6 ferricytochrome b5 + 4 H2O (overall reaction)
(1a) 24-methylidenecycloartanol + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = 4α-(hydroxymethyl)-4β,14α-dimethyl-9β,19-cyclo-5α-ergost-24(241)-en-3β-ol + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + H2O
(1b) 4α-(hydroxymethyl)-4β,14α-dimethyl-9β,19-cyclo-5α-ergost-24(241)-en-3β-ol + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = 4α-formyl-4β,14α-dimethyl-9β,19-cyclo-5α-ergost-24(241)-en-3β-ol + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
(1c) 4α-formyl-4β,14α-dimethyl-9β,19-cyclo-5α-ergost-24(241)-en-3β-ol + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = 3β-hydroxy-4β,14α-dimethyl-9β,19-cyclo-5α-ergost-24(241)-en-4α-carboxylate + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + H2O
Glossary: 24-methylidenecycloartanol = 4α,4β,14α-trimethyl-9β,19-cyclo-5α-ergost-24(241)-en-3β-ol
Other name(s): SMO1 (gene name)
Systematic name: 24-methylidenecycloartanol,ferrocytochrome-b5:oxygen oxidoreductase (C-4α-methyl-hydroxylating)
Comments: This plant enzyme catalyses a step in the biosynthesis of sterols. It acts on the 4α-methyl group of the 4,4-dimethylated intermediate 24-methylidenecycloartanol and catalyses three successive oxidations, turning it into a carboxyl group. The carboxylate is subsequently removed by EC 1.1.1.418, plant 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), which also catalyses the epimerization of the remaining 4β-methyl into the 4α position. Unlike the fungal/animal enzyme EC 1.14.18.9, 4α-methylsterol monooxygenase, this enzyme is not able to remove the methyl group from C-4-monomethylated substrates. That activity is performed in plants by a second enzyme, EC 1.14.18.11, plant 4α-monomethylsterol monooxygenase.
References:
1.  Pascal, S., Taton, M. and Rahier, A. Plant sterol biosynthesis. Identification and characterization of two distinct microsomal oxidative enzymatic systems involved in sterol C4-demethylation. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 11639–11654. [PMID: 8505296]
2.  Rahier, A., Smith, M. and Taton, M. The role of cytochrome b5 in 4α-methyl-oxidation and C5(6) desaturation of plant sterol precursors. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 236 (1997) 434–437. [DOI] [PMID: 9240456]
3.  Darnet, S., Bard, M. and Rahier, A. Functional identification of sterol-4α-methyl oxidase cDNAs from Arabidopsis thaliana by complementation of a yeast erg25 mutant lacking sterol-4α-methyl oxidation. FEBS Lett. 508 (2001) 39–43. [PMID: 11707264]
4.  Darnet, S. and Rahier, A. Plant sterol biosynthesis: identification of two distinct families of sterol 4α-methyl oxidases. Biochem. J. 378 (2004) 889–898. [PMID: 14653780]
[EC 1.14.18.10 created 2019]
 
 
EC 1.14.18.11 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: plant 4α-monomethylsterol monooxygenase
Reaction: 24-methylidenelophenol + 6 ferrocytochrome b5 + 3 O2 + 6 H+ = 3β-hydroxyergosta-7,24(241)-dien-4α-carboxylate + 6 ferricytochrome b5 + 4 H2O (overall reaction)
(1a) 24-methylidenelophenol + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = 4α-(hydroxymethyl)ergosta-7,24(241)-dien-3β-ol + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + H2O
(1b) 4α-(hydroxymethyl)ergosta-7,24(241)-dien-3β-ol + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = 4α-formylergosta-7,24(241)-dien-3β-ol + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
(1c) 4α-formylergosta-7,24(241)-dien-3β-ol + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = 3β-hydroxyergosta-7,24(241)-dien-4α-carboxylate + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + H2O
Glossary: 24-methylidenelophenol = 4α-methyl-5α-ergosta-7,24-dien-3β-ol
Other name(s): SMO2 (gene name)
Systematic name: 24-ethylidenelophenol,ferrocytochrome-b5:oxygen oxidoreductase (C-4α-methyl-hydroxylating)
Comments: This plant enzyme catalyses a step in the biosynthesis of sterols. It acts on the methyl group of the 4α-methylated intermediates 24-ethylidenelophenol and 24-methylidenelophenol and catalyses three successive oxidations, turning it into a carboxyl group. The carboxylate is subsequently removed by EC 1.1.1.418, plant 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating). Unlike the fungal/animal enzyme EC 1.14.18.9, 4α-methylsterol monooxygenase, this enzyme is not able to act on 4,4-dimethylated substrates. That activity, which occurs earlier in the pathway, is performed in plants by a second enzyme, EC 1.14.18.10, plant 4,4-dimethylsterol C-4α-methyl-monooxygenase.
References:
1.  Pascal, S., Taton, M. and Rahier, A. Plant sterol biosynthesis. Identification and characterization of two distinct microsomal oxidative enzymatic systems involved in sterol C4-demethylation. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 11639–11654. [PMID: 8505296]
2.  Rahier, A., Smith, M. and Taton, M. The role of cytochrome b5 in 4α-methyl-oxidation and C5(6) desaturation of plant sterol precursors. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 236 (1997) 434–437. [DOI] [PMID: 9240456]
3.  Darnet, S., Bard, M. and Rahier, A. Functional identification of sterol-4α-methyl oxidase cDNAs from Arabidopsis thaliana by complementation of a yeast erg25 mutant lacking sterol-4α-methyl oxidation. FEBS Lett. 508 (2001) 39–43. [PMID: 11707264]
4.  Darnet, S. and Rahier, A. Plant sterol biosynthesis: identification of two distinct families of sterol 4α-methyl oxidases. Biochem. J. 378 (2004) 889–898. [PMID: 14653780]
[EC 1.14.18.11 created 2019]
 
 
*EC 1.20.4.1 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin)
Reaction: arsenate + glutaredoxin = arsenite + glutaredoxin disulfide + H2O
For diagram of arsenate catabolism, click here
Other name(s): ArsC (ambiguous)
Systematic name: arsenate:glutaredoxin oxidoreductase
Comments: A molybdoenzyme. The enzyme is part of a system for detoxifying arsenate. Although the arsenite formed is more toxic than arsenate, it can be extruded from some bacteria by EC 7.3.2.7, arsenite-transporting ATPase; in other organisms, arsenite can be methylated by EC 2.1.1.137, arsenite methyltransferase, in a pathway that produces non-toxic organoarsenical compounds. cf. EC 1.20.4.4, arsenate reductase (thioredoxin).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 146907-46-2
References:
1.  Gladysheva, T., Liu, J.Y. and Rosen, B.P. His-8 lowers the pKa of the essential Cys-12 residue of the ArsC arsenate reductase of plasmid R773. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 33256–33260. [DOI] [PMID: 8969183]
2.  Gladysheva, T.B., Oden, K.L. and Rosen, B.P. Properties of the arsenate reductase of plasmid R773. Biochemistry 33 (1994) 7288–7293. [PMID: 8003492]
3.  Holmgren, A. and Aslund, F. Glutaredoxin. Methods Enzymol. 252 (1995) 283–292. [DOI] [PMID: 7476363]
4.  Krafft, T. and Macy, J.M. Purification and characterization of the respiratory arsenate reductase of Chrysiogenes arsenatis. Eur. J. Biochem. 255 (1998) 647–653. [DOI] [PMID: 9738904]
5.  Martin, J.L. Thioredoxin - a fold for all reasons. Structure 3 (1995) 245–250. [DOI] [PMID: 7788290]
6.  Radabaugh, T.R. and Aposhian, H.V. Enzymatic reduction of arsenic compounds in mammalian systems: reduction of arsenate to arsenite by human liver arsenate reductase. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 13 (2000) 26–30. [DOI] [PMID: 10649963]
7.  Sato, T. and Kobayashi, Y. The ars operon in the skin element of Bacillus subtilis confers resistance to arsenate and arsenite. J. Bacteriol. 180 (1998) 1655–1661. [PMID: 9537360]
8.  Shi, J., Vlamis-Gardikas, V., Aslund, F., Holmgren, A. and Rosen, B.P. Reactivity of glutaredoxins 1, 2, and 3 from Escherichia coli shows that glutaredoxin 2 is the primary hydrogen donor to ArsC-catalyzed arsenate reduction. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 36039–36042. [DOI] [PMID: 10593884]
[EC 1.20.4.1 created 2000 as EC 1.97.1.5, transferred 2001 to EC 1.20.4.1, modified 2015, modified 2019]
 
 
*EC 1.20.4.4 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: arsenate reductase (thioredoxin)
Reaction: arsenate + thioredoxin = arsenite + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O
For diagram of arsenate catabolism, click here
Other name(s): ArsC (ambiguous)
Systematic name: arsenate:thioredoxin oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized in bacteria of the Firmicutes phylum, is specific for thioredoxin [1]. It has no activity with glutaredoxin [cf. EC 1.20.4.1, arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin)]. Although the arsenite formed is more toxic than arsenate, it can be extruded from some bacteria by EC 7.3.2.7, arsenite-transporting ATPase; in other organisms, arsenite can be methylated by EC 2.1.1.137, arsenite methyltransferase, in a pathway that produces non-toxic organoarsenical compounds. The enzyme also has the activity of EC 3.1.3.48, protein-tyrosine-phosphatase [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, UM-BBD
References:
1.  Ji, G., Garber, E.A., Armes, L.G., Chen, C.M., Fuchs, J.A. and Silver, S. Arsenate reductase of Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258. Biochemistry 33 (1994) 7294–7299. [PMID: 8003493]
2.  Messens, J., Hayburn, G., Desmyter, A., Laus, G. and Wyns, L. The essential catalytic redox couple in arsenate reductase from Staphylococcus aureus. Biochemistry 38 (1999) 16857–16865. [DOI] [PMID: 10606519]
3.  Zegers, I., Martins, J.C., Willem, R., Wyns, L. and Messens, J. Arsenate reductase from S. aureus plasmid pI258 is a phosphatase drafted for redox duty. Nat. Struct. Biol. 8 (2001) 843–847. [DOI] [PMID: 11573087]
4.  Messens, J., Martins, J.C., Van Belle, K., Brosens, E., Desmyter, A., De Gieter, M., Wieruszeski, J.M., Willem, R., Wyns, L. and Zegers, I. All intermediates of the arsenate reductase mechanism, including an intramolecular dynamic disulfide cascade. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99 (2002) 8506–8511. [DOI] [PMID: 12072565]
[EC 1.20.4.4 created 2015, modified 2019]
 
 
*EC 2.3.1.9 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase
Reaction: 2 acetyl-CoA = CoA + acetoacetyl-CoA (overall reaction)
(1a) acetyl-CoA + [acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase]-L-cysteine = [acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase]-S-acetyl-L-cysteine + CoA
(1b) [acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase]-S-acetyl-L-cysteine + acetyl-CoA = acetoacetyl-CoA + [acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase]-L-cysteine
For diagram of the 3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanoate cycle and dicarboxylate/4-hydroxybutanoate cycle in archaea, click here and for diagram of mevalonate biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase; β-acetoacetyl coenzyme A thiolase; 2-methylacetoacetyl-CoA thiolase [misleading]; 3-oxothiolase; acetyl coenzyme A thiolase; acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase; acetyl-CoA:N-acetyltransferase; thiolase II; type II thiolase
Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, catalyses the Claisen condensation of an acetyl-CoA and an acyl-CoA (often another acetyl-CoA), leading to the formation of an acyl-CoA that is longer by two carbon atoms. The reaction starts with the acylation of a nucleophilic cysteine at the active site, usually by acetyl-CoA but potentially by a different acyl-CoA, with concomitant release of CoA. In the second step the acyl group is transferred to an acetyl-CoA molecule. cf. EC 2.3.1.16, acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 9027-46-7
References:
1.  Lynen, F. and Ochoa, S. Enzymes of fatty acid metabolism. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 12 (1953) 299–314. [DOI] [PMID: 13115439]
2.  Stern, J.R., Drummond, G.I., Coon, M.J. and del Campillo, A. Enzymes of ketone body metabolism. I. Purification of an acetoacetate-synthesizing enzyme from ox liver. J. Biol. Chem. 235 (1960) 313–317. [PMID: 13834445]
[EC 2.3.1.9 created 1961, modified 2019]
 
 
*EC 2.3.1.16 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase
Reaction: acyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA = CoA + 3-oxoacyl-CoA (overall reaction)
(1a) [acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase]-S-acyl-L-cysteine + acetyl-CoA = 3-oxoacyl-CoA + [acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase]-L-cysteine
(1b) acyl-CoA + [acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase]-L-cysteine = [acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase]-S-acyl-L-cysteine + CoA
For diagram of aerobic phenylacetate catabolism, click here and for diagram of Benzoyl-CoA catabolism, click here
Other name(s): β-ketothiolase; 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase; KAT; β-ketoacyl coenzyme A thiolase; β-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase; β-ketoadipyl coenzyme A thiolase; β-ketoadipyl-CoA thiolase; 3-ketoacyl CoA thiolase; 3-ketoacyl coenzyme A thiolase; 3-ketoacyl thiolase; 3-ketothiolase; 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase; 3-oxoacyl-coenzyme A thiolase; 6-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase; acetoacetyl-CoA β-ketothiolase; acetyl-CoA acyltransferase; ketoacyl-CoA acyltransferase; ketoacyl-coenzyme A thiolase; long-chain 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase; oxoacyl-coenzyme A thiolase; pro-3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase; thiolase I; type I thiolase; 2-methylacetoacetyl-CoA thiolase [misleading]
Systematic name: acyl-CoA:acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, found in both eukaryotes and in prokaryotes, is involved in degradation pathways such as fatty acid β-oxidation. The enzyme acts on 3-oxoacyl-CoAs to produce acetyl-CoA and an acyl-CoA shortened by two carbon atoms. The reaction starts with the acylation of a nucleophilic cysteine at the active site by a 3-oxoacyl-CoA, with the concomitant release of acetyl-CoA. In the second step the acyl group is transferred to CoA. Most enzymes have a broad substrate range for the 3-oxoacyl-CoA. cf. EC 2.3.1.9, acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 9029-97-4
References:
1.  Beinert, H., Bock, R.M., Goldman, D.S., Green, D.E., Mahler, H.R., Mii, S., Stansly, P.G. and Wakil, S.J. A synthesis of dl-cortisone acetate. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 75 (1953) 4111–4112.
2.  Goldman, D.S. Studies on the fatty acid oxidizing system of animal tissue. VII. The β-ketoacyl coenzyme A cleavage enzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 208 (1954) 345–357. [PMID: 13174544]
3.  Stern, J.R., Coon, M.J. and del Campillo, A. Enzymatic breakdown and synthesis of acetoacetate. Nature 171 (1953) 28–30. [PMID: 13025466]
[EC 2.3.1.16 created 1961, modified 2019]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.286 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: protein acetyllysine N-acetyltransferase
Reaction: [protein]-N6-acetyl-L-lysine + NAD+ + H2O = [protein]-L-lysine + 2′′-O-acetyl-ADP-D-ribose + nicotinamide (overall reaction)
(1a) [protein]-N6-acetyl-L-lysine + NAD+ = [protein]-N6-[1,1-(5-adenosylyl-α-D-ribose-1,2-di-O-yl)ethyl]-L-lysine + nicotinamide
(1b) [protein]-N6-[1,1-(5-adenosylyl-α-D-ribose-1,2-di-O-yl)ethyl]-L-lysine + H2O = [protein]-L-lysine + 2′′-O-acetyl-ADP-D-ribose
Other name(s): Sir2; protein lysine deacetylase; NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase
Systematic name: [protein]-N6-acetyl-L-lysine:NAD+ N-acetyltransferase (NAD+-hydrolysing; 2′′-O-acetyl-ADP-D-ribose-forming)
Comments: The enzyme, found in all domains of life, is involved in gene regulation by deacetylating proteins. Some of the 2′′-O-acetyl-ADP-D-ribose converts non-enzymically to 3′′-O-acetyl-ADP-D-ribose.
References:
1.  Landry, J., Slama, J.T. and Sternglanz, R. Role of NAD+ in the deacetylase activity of the SIR2-like proteins. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 278 (2000) 685–690. [PMID: 11095969]
2.  Sauve, A.A., Celic, I., Avalos, J., Deng, H., Boeke, J.D. and Schramm, V.L. Chemistry of gene silencing: the mechanism of NAD+-dependent deacetylation reactions. Biochemistry 40 (2001) 15456–15463. [PMID: 11747420]
3.  Min, J., Landry, J., Sternglanz, R. and Xu, R.M. Crystal structure of a SIR2 homolog-NAD complex. Cell 105 (2001) 269–279. [PMID: 11336676]
4.  Jackson, M.D., Schmidt, M.T., Oppenheimer, N.J. and Denu, J.M. Mechanism of nicotinamide inhibition and transglycosidation by Sir2 histone/protein deacetylases. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 50985–50998. [PMID: 14522996]
5.  Sauve, A.A., Wolberger, C., Schramm, V.L. and Boeke, J.D. The biochemistry of sirtuins. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 75 (2006) 435–465. [PMID: 16756498]
[EC 2.3.1.286 created 2019]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.287 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: phthioceranic/hydroxyphthioceranic acid synthase
Reaction: (1) 8 (S)-methylmalonyl-CoA + palmitoyl-[(hydroxy)phthioceranic acid synthase] + 16 NADPH + 16 H+ = 8 CoA + C40-phthioceranyl-[(hydroxy)phthioceranic acid synthase] + 16 NADP+ + 8 CO2 + 8 H2O
(2) 7 (S)-methylmalonyl-CoA + palmitoyl-[(hydroxy)phthioceranic acid synthase] + 14 NADPH + 14 H+ = 7 CO2 + C37-phthioceranyl-[(hydroxy)phthioceranic acid synthase] + 14 NADP+ + 7 CoA + 7 H2O
Other name(s): msl2 (gene name); PKS2
Systematic name: (S)-methylmalonyl-CoA:palmitoyl-[(hydroxy)phthioceranic acid synthase] methylmalonyltransferase (phthioceranyl-[(hydroxy)phthioceranic acid synthase]-forming)
Comments: This mycobacterial polyketide enzyme produces the hepta- and octa-methylated fatty acids known as phthioceranic acids, and presumably their hydroxylated versions. Formation of hepta- and octamethylated products depends on whether the enzyme incorporates seven or eight methylmalonyl-CoA extender units, respectively. Formation of hydroxylated products may result from the enzyme skipping the dehydratase (DH) and enoylreductase (ER) domains during the first cycle of condensation [2].
References:
1.  Sirakova, T.D., Thirumala, A.K., Dubey, V.S., Sprecher, H. and Kolattukudy, P.E. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis pks2 gene encodes the synthase for the hepta- and octamethyl-branched fatty acids required for sulfolipid synthesis. J. Biol. Chem 276 (2001) 16833–16839. [DOI] [PMID: 11278910]
2.  Gokhale, R.S., Saxena, P., Chopra, T. and Mohanty, D. Versatile polyketide enzymatic machinery for the biosynthesis of complex mycobacterial lipids. Nat. Prod. Rep. 24 (2007) 267–277. [PMID: 17389997]
3.  Passemar, C., Arbues, A., Malaga, W., Mercier, I., Moreau, F., Lepourry, L., Neyrolles, O., Guilhot, C. and Astarie-Dequeker, C. Multiple deletions in the polyketide synthase gene repertoire of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveal functional overlap of cell envelope lipids in host-pathogen interactions. Cell Microbiol 16 (2014) 195–213. [PMID: 24028583]
[EC 2.3.1.287 created 2019]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.363 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: ginsenoside 20-O-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + (20S)-protopanaxadiol = UDP + ginsenoside C-K
Glossary: (20S)-protopanaxadiol = (3β,12β)-dammar-24-ene-3,12,20-triol
ginsenoside C-K = (3β,12β)-3,12-dihydroxydammar-24-en-20-yl β-D-glucopyranoside
Other name(s): UGT71A27 (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:(20S)-protopanaxadiol 20-O-glucosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plant Panax ginseng, transfers a glucosyl moiety to the free C20(S)-OH group of dammarane derivative substrates, including protopanaxatriol, dammarenediol II, (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2, and (20S)-ginsenoside Rg3. It does not act on the 20R epimer of protopanaxadiol, or on ginsenosides that are glucosylated at the C-6 position, such as ginsenoside Rh1 or ginsenoside Rg2.
References:
1.  Yan, X., Fan, Y., Wei, W., Wang, P., Liu, Q., Wei, Y., Zhang, L., Zhao, G., Yue, J. and Zhou, Z. Production of bioactive ginsenoside compound K in metabolically engineered yeast. Cell Res 24 (2014) 770–773. [PMID: 24603359]
2.  Wei, W., Wang, P., Wei, Y., Liu, Q., Yang, C., Zhao, G., Yue, J., Yan, X. and Zhou, Z. Characterization of Panax ginseng UDP-glycosyltransferases catalyzing protopanaxatriol and biosyntheses of bioactive ginsenosides F1 and Rh1 in metabolically engineered yeasts. Mol. Plant 8 (2015) 1412–1424. [PMID: 26032089]
[EC 2.4.1.363 created 2019]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.364 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside 3-O-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: (1) UDP-α-D-glucose + (20S)-protopanaxadiol = UDP + (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2
(2) UDP-α-D-glucose + ginsenoside C-K = UDP + ginsenoside F2
Glossary: (20S)-protopanaxadiol = (3β,12β)-dammar-24-ene-3,12,20-triol
ginsenoside C-K = (3β,12β)-3,12-dihydroxydammar-24-en-20-yl β-D-glucopyranoside
Other name(s): UGT74AE2 (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside 3-O-glucosyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plant Panax ginseng, transfers a glucosyl moiety to the free C-3-OH group of (20S)-protopanaxadiol and ginsenoside C-K.
References:
1.  Jung, S.C., Kim, W., Park, S.C., Jeong, J., Park, M.K., Lim, S., Lee, Y., Im, W.T., Lee, J.H., Choi, G. and Kim, S.C. Two ginseng UDP-glycosyltransferases synthesize ginsenoside Rg3 and Rd. Plant Cell Physiol 55 (2014) 2177–2188. [PMID: 25320211]
[EC 2.4.1.364 created 2019]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.365 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside-3-O-glucoside 2′′-O-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: (1) UDP-α-D-glucose + (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2 = UDP + (20S)-ginsenoside Rg3
(2) UDP-α-D-glucose + ginsenoside F2 = UDP + ginsenoside Rd
Glossary: (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2 = (3β,12β)-12,20-dihydroxydammar-24-en-3-yl β-D-glucopyranoside
ginsenoside F2 = (3β,12β)-20-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-12-hydroxydammar-24-en-3-yl β-D-glucopyranoside
Other name(s): UGT94Q2 (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:3-O-glucosyl-protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside 2′′-O-glucosyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plant Panax ginseng, transfers a glucosyl moiety to the 2′′ position of the glucose moiety in the protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside-3-O-glucosides (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2 and ginsenoside F2.
References:
1.  Jung, S.C., Kim, W., Park, S.C., Jeong, J., Park, M.K., Lim, S., Lee, Y., Im, W.T., Lee, J.H., Choi, G. and Kim, S.C. Two ginseng UDP-glycosyltransferases synthesize ginsenoside Rg3 and Rd. Plant Cell Physiol 55 (2014) 2177–2188. [PMID: 25320211]
[EC 2.4.1.365 created 2019]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.366 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: ginsenoside F1 6-O-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + ginsenoside F1 = UDP + (20S)-ginsenoside Rg1
Glossary: ginsenoside F1 = 3β,6α,12β-trihydroxydammar-24-en-20-yl β-D-glucopyranoside
Other name(s): UGTPg101 (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:ginsenoside F1 6-O-glucosyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plant Panax ginseng, glucosylates the C-6 position of ginsenoside F1. The enzyme also glucosylates the C-20 position of protopanaxatriol, which forms ginsenoside F1 (cf. EC 2.4.1.363, ginsenoside 20-O-glucosyltransferase). However, unlike EC 2.4.1.367, ginsenoside 6-O-glucosyltransferase, it is not able to glucosylate the C-6 position of protopanaxatriol when position C-20 is not glucosylated.
References:
1.  Wei, W., Wang, P., Wei, Y., Liu, Q., Yang, C., Zhao, G., Yue, J., Yan, X. and Zhou, Z. Characterization of Panax ginseng UDP-glycosyltransferases catalyzing protopanaxatriol and biosyntheses of bioactive ginsenosides F1 and Rh1 in metabolically engineered yeasts. Mol. Plant 8 (2015) 1412–1424. [PMID: 26032089]
[EC 2.4.1.366 created 2019]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.367 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: ginsenoside 6-O-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: (1) UDP-α-D-glucose + protopanaxatriol = UDP + ginsenoside Rh1
(2) UDP-α-D-glucose + ginsenoside F1 = UDP + (20S)-ginsenoside Rg1
Glossary: protopanaxatriol = (3β,6α,12β)-dammar-24-ene-3,6,12,20-tetrol
ginsenoside F1 = (3β,6α,12β)-trihydroxydammar-24-en-20-yl β-D-glucopyranoside
Other name(s): UGTPg100 (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:ginsenoside 6-O-glucosyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plant Panax ginseng, glucosylates the C-6 position of protopanaxatriol and ginsenoside F1.
References:
1.  Wei, W., Wang, P., Wei, Y., Liu, Q., Yang, C., Zhao, G., Yue, J., Yan, X. and Zhou, Z. Characterization of Panax ginseng UDP-glycosyltransferases catalyzing protopanaxatriol and biosyntheses of bioactive ginsenosides F1 and Rh1 in metabolically engineered yeasts. Mol. Plant 8 (2015) 1412–1424. [PMID: 26032089]
[EC 2.4.1.367 created 2019]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.368 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: oleanolate 3-O-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + oleanolate = UDP + oleanolate 3-O-β-D-glucoside
Glossary: oleanolate = 3β-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oate
Other name(s): UGT73C10 (gene name); UGT73C11 (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:oleanolate 3-O-glucosyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme has been characterized from the saponin-producing crucifer plant Barbarea vulgaris.
References:
1.  Augustin, J.M., Drok, S., Shinoda, T., Sanmiya, K., Nielsen, J.K., Khakimov, B., Olsen, C.E., Hansen, E.H., Kuzina, V., Ekstrom, C.T., Hauser, T. and Bak, S. UDP-glycosyltransferases from the UGT73C subfamily in Barbarea vulgaris catalyze sapogenin 3-O-glucosylation in saponin-mediated insect resistance. Plant Physiol. 160 (2012) 1881–1895. [PMID: 23027665]
[EC 2.4.1.368 created 2019]
 
 
EC 3.1.1.106 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: O-acetyl-ADP-ribose deacetylase
Reaction: (1) 3′′-O-acetyl-ADP-D-ribose + H2O = ADP-D-ribose + acetate
(2) 2′′-O-acetyl-ADP-D-ribose + H2O = ADP-D-ribose + acetate
Other name(s): ymdB (gene name); MACROD1 (gene name)
Systematic name: O-acetyl-ADP-D-ribose carboxylesterase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Escherichia coli and from human cells, removes the acteyl group from either the 2′′ or 3′′ position of O-acetyl-ADP-ribose, which are formed by the action of EC 2.3.1.286, protein acetyllysine N-acetyltransferase. The human enzyme can also remove ADP-D-ribose from phosphorylated double stranded DNA adducts.
References:
1.  Chen, D., Vollmar, M., Rossi, M.N., Phillips, C., Kraehenbuehl, R., Slade, D., Mehrotra, P.V., von Delft, F., Crosthwaite, S.K., Gileadi, O., Denu, J.M. and Ahel, I. Identification of macrodomain proteins as novel O-acetyl-ADP-ribose deacetylases. J. Biol. Chem 286 (2011) 13261–13271. [PMID: 21257746]
2.  Zhang, W., Wang, C., Song, Y., Shao, C., Zhang, X. and Zang, J. Structural insights into the mechanism of Escherichia coli YmdB: A 2′-O-acetyl-ADP-ribose deacetylase. J. Struct. Biol. 192 (2015) 478–486. [PMID: 26481419]
3.  Agnew, T., Munnur, D., Crawford, K., Palazzo, L., Mikoc, A. and Ahel, I. MacroD1 is a promiscuous ADP-ribosyl hydrolase localized to mitochondria. Front. Microbiol. 9:20 (2018). [PMID: 29410655]
[EC 3.1.1.106 created 2019]
 
 
EC 3.6.3.16 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Transferred entry: arsenite-transporting ATPase. Now EC 7.3.2.7, arsenite-transporting ATPase
[EC 3.6.3.16 created 2000, deleted 2019]
 
 
EC 3.6.3.17 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Transferred entry: monosaccharide-transporting ATPase. Now covered by various ABC-type monosaccharide transporters in sub-subclass EC 7.5.2.
[EC 3.6.3.17 created 2000, deleted 2019]
 
 
EC 3.7.1.24 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol hydrolase
Reaction: 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol + H2O = 2-acetylphloroglucinol + acetate
Glossary: phloroglucinol = benzene-1,3,5-triol
2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol = 1,1′-(2,4,6-trihydroxybenzene-1,3-diyl)diethan-1-one
Other name(s): PhlG
Systematic name: 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol acetylhydrolase
Comments: Requires Zn2+. Isolated from the bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas sp. YGJ3 and Mycobacterium abscessus 103. It reduces the antibiotic activity of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol.
References:
1.  Bottiglieri, M. and Keel, C. Characterization of PhlG, a hydrolase that specifically degrades the antifungal compound 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol in the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72 (2006) 418–427. [PMID: 16391073]
2.  He, Y.X., Huang, L., Xue, Y., Fei, X., Teng, Y.B., Rubin-Pitel, S.B., Zhao, H. and Zhou, C.Z. Crystal structure and computational analyses provide insights into the catalytic mechanism of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol hydrolase PhlG from Pseudomonas fluorescens. J. Biol. Chem. 285 (2010) 4603–4611. [PMID: 20018877]
3.  Saitou, H., Watanabe, M. and Maruyama, K. Molecular and catalytic properties of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol hydrolase (PhlG) from Pseudomonas sp. YGJ3. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 76 (2012) 1239–1241. [PMID: 22790955]
4.  Zhang, Z., Jiang, Y.L., Wu, Y. and He, Y.X. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a putative carbon-carbon bond hydrolase from Mycobacterium abscessus 103. Acta Crystallogr. F Struct. Biol. Commun. 71 (2015) 239–242. [PMID: 25664803]
[EC 3.7.1.24 created 2019]
 
 
EC 3.7.1.25 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: 2-hydroxy-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoate hydrolase
Reaction: (2Z,4E)-2-hydroxy-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoate + H2O = (2Z)-2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoate + acetate
Other name(s): 2-hydroxy-5-methylmuconate semialdehyde hydrolase; todF (gene name)
Systematic name: 2-hydroxy-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoate acetylhydrolase
Comments: A bacterial enzyme that participates in the degradation of toluene and 2-nitrotoluene.
References:
1.  Kukor, J.J. and Olsen, R.H. Genetic organization and regulation of a meta cleavage pathway for catechols produced from catabolism of toluene, benzene, phenol, and cresols by Pseudomonas pickettii PKO1. J. Bacteriol. 173 (1991) 4587–4594. [PMID: 1856161]
2.  Menn, F.M., Zylstra, G.J. and Gibson, D.T. Location and sequence of the todF gene encoding 2-hydroxy-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoate hydrolase in Pseudomonas putida F1. Gene 104 (1991) 91–94. [PMID: 1916282]
3.  Haigler, B.E., Wallace, W.H. and Spain, J.C. Biodegradation of 2-nitrotoluene by Pseudomonas sp. strain JS42. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60 (1994) 3466–3469. [PMID: 7944378]
[EC 3.7.1.25 created 2019]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.201 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: hydropyrene synthase
Reaction: geranylgeranyl diphosphate = hydropyrene + diphosphate
Glossary: hydropyrene = (1R,3aR,3a1S,5aR,5a1R,8aS,10aS)-1,5a,8a-trimethyl-4-methylidenehexadecahydropyrene
Other name(s): HpS
Systematic name: geranylgeranyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase (cyclizing, hydropyrene-forming)
Comments: Isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus. The 1-proR hydrogen atom of geranylgeranyl diphosphate is lost in the reaction. The enzyme also produces hydropyrenol, isoelisabethatriene and traces of other diterpenoids. cf. EC 4.2.3.202, hydropyrenol synthase, and EC 4.2.3.203, isoelisabethatriene synthase.
References:
1.  Rinkel, J., Rabe, P., Chen, X., Kollner, T.G., Chen, F. and Dickschat, J.S. Mechanisms of the diterpene cyclases β-pinacene synthase from Dictyostelium discoideum and hydropyrene synthase from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Chem. Eur. J. 23 (2017) 10501–10505. [PMID: 28696553]
[EC 4.2.3.201 created 2019]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.202 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: hydropyrenol synthase
Reaction: geranylgeranyl diphosphate + H2O = hydropyrenol + diphosphate
Glossary: hydropyrenol = (1R,3aR,3a1S,4S,5aR,5a1R,8aS,10aS)-1,4,5a,8a-tetramethylhexadecahydropyren-4-ol
Other name(s): HpS
Systematic name: geranylgeranyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase (cyclizing, hydropyrenol-forming)
Comments: Isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus. The 1-proR hydrogen atom of geranylgeranyl diphosphate is lost in the reaction. The enzyme also produces hydropyrene, isoelisabethatriene and traces of other diterpenoids. cf. EC 4.2.3.201, hydropyrene synthase, and EC 4.2.3.203, isoelisabethatriene synthase.
References:
1.  Rinkel, J., Rabe, P., Chen, X., Kollner, T.G., Chen, F. and Dickschat, J.S. Mechanisms of the diterpene cyclases β-pinacene synthase from Dictyostelium discoideum and hydropyrene synthase from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Chem. Eur. J. 23 (2017) 10501–10505. [PMID: 28696553]
[EC 4.2.3.202 created 2019]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.203 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: isoelisabethatriene synthase
Reaction: geranylgeranyl diphosphate = isoelisabethatriene + diphosphate
Glossary: isoelisabethatriene = (1S,4R)-4,7-dimethyl-1-[(2R)-6-methylhept-5-en-2-yl]-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydronaphthalene
Other name(s): HpS
Systematic name: geranylgeranyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase (cyclizing, isoelisabethatriene-forming)
Comments: Isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus. The 1-proR hydrogen atom of geranylgeranyl diphosphate is involved in a 1,3-hydride shift to the side-chain. The enzyme also produces hydropyrene, hydropyrenol, and traces of other diterpenoids. cf. EC 4.2.3.201, hydropyrene synthase, and EC 4.2.3.202, hydropyrenol synthase.
References:
1.  Rinkel, J., Rabe, P., Chen, X., Kollner, T.G., Chen, F. and Dickschat, J.S. Mechanisms of the diterpene cyclases β-pinacene synthase from Dictyostelium discoideum and hydropyrene synthase from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Chem. Eur. J. 23 (2017) 10501–10505. [PMID: 28696553]
[EC 4.2.3.203 created 2019]
 
 
EC 6.2.1.57 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: long-chain fatty acid adenylase/transferase FadD23
Reaction: (1) ATP + stearate + a holo-[(hydroxy)phthioceranic acid synthase] = AMP + diphosphate + a stearoyl-[(hydroxy)phthioceranic acid synthase] (overall reaction)
(1a) ATP + stearate = diphosphate + (stearoyl)adenylate
(1b) (stearoyl)adenylate + a holo-[(hydroxy)phthioceranic acid synthase] = AMP + a stearoyl-[(hydroxy)phthioceranic acid synthase]
(2) ATP + palmitate + a holo-[(hydroxy)phthioceranic acid synthase] = AMP + diphosphate + a palmitoyl-[(hydroxy)phthioceranic acid synthase] (overall reaction)
(2a) ATP + palmitate = diphosphate + (palmitoyl)adenylate
(2b) (palmitoyl)adenylate + a holo-[(hydroxy)phthioceranic acid synthase] = AMP + a palmitoyl-[(hydroxy)phthioceranic acid synthase]
Other name(s): fadD23 (gene name); long-chain fatty acid adenylyltransferase FadD23
Systematic name: palmitate:holo-[(hydroxy)phthioceranic acid synthase] ligase
Comments: This mycobacterial enzyme activates palmitate and stearate by adenylation, followed by their loading onto the polyketide synthase EC 2.3.1.287, phthioceranic/hydroxyphthioceranic acid synthase.
References:
1.  Gokhale, R.S., Saxena, P., Chopra, T. and Mohanty, D. Versatile polyketide enzymatic machinery for the biosynthesis of complex mycobacterial lipids. Nat. Prod. Rep. 24 (2007) 267–277. [PMID: 17389997]
2.  Lynett, J. and Stokes, R.W. Selection of transposon mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with increased macrophage infectivity identifies fadD23 to be involved in sulfolipid production and association with macrophages. Microbiology 153 (2007) 3133–3140. [PMID: 17768256]
[EC 6.2.1.57 created 2019]
 
 
*EC 6.3.2.38 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: N2-citryl-N6-acetyl-N6-hydroxylysine synthase
Reaction: 2 ATP + citrate + N6-acetyl-N6-hydroxy-L-lysine + H2O = 2 ADP + 2 phosphate + N6-acetyl-N2-citryl-N6-hydroxy-L-lysine
For diagram of aerobactin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: citryl = 3-hydroxy-3,4-dicarboxybutanoyl
Other name(s): Nα-citryl-Nε-acetyl-Nε-hydroxylysine synthase; iucA (gene name)
Systematic name: citrate:N6-acetyl-N6-hydroxy-L-lysine ligase (AMP-forming)
Comments: Requires Mg2+. The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of aerobactin, a dihydroxamate siderophore. It belongs to a class of siderophore synthases known as type A nonribosomal peptide synthase-independent synthases (NIS). Type A enzymes are responsible for the formation of amide or ester bonds between polyamines or amino alcohols and a prochiral carboxyl group of citrate. The enzyme is believed to form an adenylate intermediate prior to ligation.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Gibson, F. and Magrath, D.I. The isolation and characterization of a hydroxamic acid (aerobactin) formed by Aerobacter aerogenes 62-I. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 192 (1969) 175–184. [DOI] [PMID: 4313071]
2.  Maurer, P.J. and Miller, M. Microbial iron chelators: total synthesis of aerobactin and its constituent amino acid, N6-acetyl-N6-hydroxylysine. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104 (1982) 3096–3101.
3.  de Lorenzo, V., Bindereif, A., Paw, B.H. and Neilands, J.B. Aerobactin biosynthesis and transport genes of plasmid ColV-K30 in Escherichia coli K-12. J. Bacteriol. 165 (1986) 570–578. [DOI] [PMID: 2935523]
4.  Appanna, D.L., Grundy, B.J., Szczepan, E.W. and Viswanatha, T. Aerobactin synthesis in a cell-free system of Aerobacter aerogenes 62-1. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 801 (1984) 437–443.
5.  Challis, G.L. A widely distributed bacterial pathway for siderophore biosynthesis independent of nonribosomal peptide synthetases. ChemBioChem 6 (2005) 601–611. [DOI] [PMID: 15719346]
6.  Oves-Costales, D., Kadi, N. and Challis, G.L. The long-overlooked enzymology of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase-independent pathway for virulence-conferring siderophore biosynthesis. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2009) 6530–6541. [PMID: 19865642]
[EC 6.3.2.38 created 2012, modified 2019]
 
 
EC 6.3.2.57 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: staphyloferrin A synthase
Reaction: ATP + N5-[(R)-citryl]-D-ornithine + citrate = AMP + diphosphate + staphyloferrin A
Glossary: staphyloferrin A = N2,N5-di-[(R)-citryl]-D-ornithine
citryl = 3-hydroxy-3,4-dicarboxybutanoyl
Other name(s): sfnaB (gene name)
Systematic name: N5-[(R)-citryl]-D-ornithine:citrate ligase (staphyloferrin A-forming)
Comments: Requires Mg2+. The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, catalyses the last step in the biosynthesis of the siderophore staphyloferrin A. It belongs to a class of siderophore synthases known as type A nonribosomal peptide synthase-independent synthases (NIS). Type A NIS enzymes are responsible for the formation of amide or ester bonds between polyamines or amino alcohols and a prochiral carboxyl group of citrate. The enzyme forms a citrate adenylate intermediate prior to ligation.
References:
1.  Cotton, J.L., Tao, J. and Balibar, C.J. Identification and characterization of the Staphylococcus aureus gene cluster coding for staphyloferrin A. Biochemistry 48 (2009) 1025–1035. [PMID: 19138128]
[EC 6.3.2.57 created 2019]
 
 
EC 7.3.2.7 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: arsenite-transporting ATPase
Reaction: ATP + H2O + arsenite[side 1] = ADP + phosphate + arsenite[side 2]
Other name(s): arsAB (gene names)
Systematic name: ATP phosphohydrolase (arsenite-exporting)
Comments: This bacterial transporter does not belong to the ABC superfamily, and instead is a member of its own family, referred to as the Ars family. The enzyme usually contains two subunits where one (with 12 membrane-spanning segments) forms the ’channel’ part and the other (occurring in pairs peripherally to the membrane) contains the ATP-binding site. It forms an arsenite efflux pump that removes arsenite from the cytoplasm, and can also remove antimonite anions.
References:
1.  Silver, S., Misra, T.K. and Laddaga, R.A. DNA sequence analysis of bacterial toxic heavy metal resistance. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 21 (1989) 145–163. [PMID: 2484581]
2.  Rosen, B.P., Weigel, U., Monticello, R.A. and Edwards, B.P. Molecular analysis of an anion pump: purification of the ArsC protein. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 284 (1991) 381–385. [DOI] [PMID: 1703401]
3.  Bruhn, D.F., Li, J., Silver, S., Roberto, F. and Rosen, B.P. The arsenical resistance operon of IncN plasmid R46. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 139 (1996) 149–153. [PMID: 8674982]
4.  Zhou, T., Rosen, B.P. and Gatti, D.L. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the catalytic subunit of the ATP-dependent arsenite pump encoded by the Escherichia coli plasmid R773. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 55 (1999) 921–924. [PMID: 10089335]
[EC 7.3.2.7 created 2000 as EC 3.6.3.16, transferred 2019 to EC 7.3.2.7]
 
 
EC 7.4.2.10 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: ABC-type glutathione transporter
Reaction: ATP + H2O + glutathione-[glutathione-binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + glutathione[side 2] + [glutathione-binding protein][side 1]
Other name(s): glutathione transporting ATPase; glutathione ABC transporter; gsiACD (gene names)
Systematic name: ATP phosphohydrolase (ABC-type,glutathione-importing)
Comments: A prokaryotic ATP-binding cassette (ABC) type transporter, characterized by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains/proteins and two integral membrane domains/proteins. The enzyme from the bacterium Escherichia coli is a heterotrimeric complex that interacts with an extracytoplasmic substrate binding protein to mediate the uptake of glutathione.
References:
1.  Suzuki, H., Koyanagi, T., Izuka, S., Onishi, A. and Kumagai, H. The yliA, -B, -C, and -D genes of Escherichia coli K-12 encode a novel glutathione importer with an ATP-binding cassette. J. Bacteriol. 187 (2005) 5861–5867. [PMID: 16109926]
2.  Moussatova, A., Kandt, C., O'Mara, M.L. and Tieleman, D.P. ATP-binding cassette transporters in Escherichia coli. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1778 (2008) 1757–1771. [PMID: 18634750]
[EC 7.4.2.10 created 2019]
 
 
EC 7.4.2.11 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: ABC-type methionine transporter
Reaction: (1) ATP + H2O + L-methionine-[methionine-binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + L-methionine[side 2] + [methionine-binding protein][side 1]
(2) ATP + H2O + D-methionine-[methionine-binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + D-methionine[side 2] + [methionine-binding protein][side 1]
Other name(s): methionine transporting ATPase; methionine ABC transporter; metNIQ (gene names)
Systematic name: ATP phosphohydrolase (ABC-type, methionine-importing)
Comments: ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) transporter, characterized by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains/proteins and two integral membrane domains/proteins. A bacterial enzyme that interacts with an extracytoplasmic substrate binding protein and functions to import methionine. The enzyme from Escherichia coli K-12 mediates the high affinity transport of both L- and D-methionine, as well as methionine-S-oxide and N-acetyl-DL-methionine.
References:
1.  Merlin, C., Gardiner, G., Durand, S. and Masters, M. The Escherichia coli metD locus encodes an ABC transporter which includes Abc (MetN), YaeE (MetI), and YaeC (MetQ). J. Bacteriol. 184 (2002) 5513–5517. [PMID: 12218041]
2.  Zhang, Z., Feige, J.N., Chang, A.B., Anderson, I.J., Brodianski, V.M., Vitreschak, A.G., Gelfand, M.S. and Saier, M.H., Jr. A transporter of Escherichia coli specific for L- and D-methionine is the prototype for a new family within the ABC superfamily. Arch. Microbiol. 180 (2003) 88–100. [PMID: 12819857]
3.  Moussatova, A., Kandt, C., O'Mara, M.L. and Tieleman, D.P. ATP-binding cassette transporters in Escherichia coli. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1778 (2008) 1757–1771. [PMID: 18634750]
[EC 7.4.2.11 created 2019]
 
 
EC 7.4.2.12 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: ABC-type cystine transporter
Reaction: (1) ATP + H2O + L-cystine-[cystine-binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + L-cystine[side 2] + [cystine-binding protein][side 1]
(2) ATP + H2O + D-cystine-[cystine-binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + D-cystine[side 2] + [cystine-binding protein][side 1]
Other name(s): cystine transporting ATPase; cystine ABC transporter
Systematic name: ATP phosphohydrolase (ABC-type, cystine-importing)
Comments: ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) transporter, characterized by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains/proteins and two integral membrane domains/proteins. A bacterial enzyme that interacts with an extracytoplasmic substrate binding protein and mediates the high affinity import of trace cystine. The enzyme from Escherichia coli K-12 can import both isomers of cystine and a variety of related molecules including djenkolate, lanthionine, diaminopimelate and homocystine.
References:
1.  Berger, E.A. and Heppel, L.A. A binding protein involved in the transport of cystine and diaminopimelic acid in Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem 247 (1972) 7684–7694. [PMID: 4564569]
2.  Chonoles Imlay, K.R., Korshunov, S. and Imlay, J.A. Physiological roles and adverse effects of the two cystine importers of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 197 (2015) 3629–3644. [PMID: 26350134]
[EC 7.4.2.12 created 2019]
 
 
EC 7.5.2.7 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: ABC-type D-ribose transporter
Reaction: ATP + H2O + D-ribose-[ribose-binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + D-ribose[side 2] + [ribose-binding protein][side 1]
Other name(s): D-ribose transporting ATPase; D-ribose ABC transporter; rbsACB (gene names)
Systematic name: ATP phosphohydrolase (ABC-type, D-ribose-importing)
Comments: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) type transporter, characterized by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains/proteins and two integral membrane domains/proteins. A bacterial enzyme that interacts with an extracytoplasmic substrate binding protein and mediates the high affinity uptake of D-ribose.
References:
1.  Bell, A.W., Buckel, S.D., Groarke, J.M., Hope, J.N., Kingsley, D.H. and Hermodson, M.A. The nucleotide sequences of the rbsD, rbsA, and rbsC genes of Escherichia coli K12. J. Biol. Chem 261 (1986) 7652–7658. [PMID: 3011793]
2.  Clifton, M.C., Simon, M.J., Erramilli, S.K., Zhang, H., Zaitseva, J., Hermodson, M.A. and Stauffacher, C.V. In vitro reassembly of the ribose ATP-binding cassette transporter reveals a distinct set of transport complexes. J. Biol. Chem 290 (2015) 5555–5565. [PMID: 25533465]
[EC 7.5.2.7 created 2019]
 
 
EC 7.5.2.8 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: ABC-type D-allose transporter
Reaction: ATP + H2O + D-allose-[allose-binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + D-allose[side 2] + [allose-binding protein][side 1]
Other name(s): D-allose transporting ATPase; D-allose ABC transporter; alsBAC (gene names)
Systematic name: ATP phosphohydrolase (ABC-type, D-allose-importing)
Comments: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) type transporter, characterized by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains/proteins and two integral membrane domains/proteins. The enzyme from the bacterium Escherichia coli interacts with an extracytoplasmic substrate binding protein and mediates the high affinity uptake of D-allose, which can be used by the bacterium as a sole carbon source.
References:
1.  Kim, C., Song, S. and Park, C. The D-allose operon of Escherichia coli K-12. J. Bacteriol. 179 (1997) 7631–7637. [PMID: 9401019]
[EC 7.5.2.8 created 2019]
 
 
EC 7.5.2.9 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: ABC-type D-galactofuranose transporter
Reaction: ATP + H2O + D-galactofuranose-[galactofuranose-binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + D-galactofuranose[side 2] + [galactofuranose-binding protein][side 1]
Other name(s): D-galactofuranose transporting ATPase; D-galactofuranose ABC transporter
Systematic name: ATP phosphohydrolase (ABC-type, D-galactofuranose-transporting)
Comments: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) type transporter, characterized by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains/proteins and two integral membrane domains/proteins. The enzyme from Escherichai coli interacts with a periplasmic substrate binding protein and mediates the high affinity uptake of D-galactofuranose. The periplasmic binding protein exhibits selective binding of D-galactofuranose over D-galactopyranose.
References:
1.  Horler, R.S., Muller, A., Williamson, D.C., Potts, J.R., Wilson, K.S. and Thomas, G.H. Furanose-specific sugar transport: characterization of a bacterial galactofuranose-binding protein. J. Biol. Chem 284 (2009) 31156–31163. [PMID: 19744923]
[EC 7.5.2.9 created 2019]
 
 
EC 7.5.2.10 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: ABC-type D-xylose transporter
Reaction: ATP + H2O + D-xylose-[xylose-binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + D-xylose[side 2] + [xylose-binding protein][side 1]
Other name(s): D-xylose transporting ATPase; D-xylose ABC transporter; xylFGH (gene names)
Systematic name: ATP phosphohydrolase (ABC-type, D-xylose-transporting)
Comments: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) type transporter, characterized by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains/proteins and two integral membrane domains/proteins. A bacterial enzyme that interacts with an extracytoplasmic substrate binding protein and mediates the high affinity uptake of D-xylose.
References:
1.  Song, S. and Park, C. Organization and regulation of the D-xylose operons in Escherichia coli K-12: XylR acts as a transcriptional activator. J. Bacteriol. 179 (1997) 7025–7032. [PMID: 9371449]
2.  Linton, K.J. and Higgins, C.F. The Escherichia coli ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins. Mol. Microbiol. 28 (1998) 5–13. [PMID: 9593292]
[EC 7.5.2.10 created 2019]
 
 
EC 7.5.2.11 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: ABC-type D-galactose transporter
Reaction: ATP + H2O + D-galactose-[galactose-binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + D-galactose[side 2] + [galactose-binding protein][side 1]
Other name(s): D-galactose transporting ATPase; D-galactose ABC transporter; mglBAC (gene names)
Systematic name: ATP phosphohydrolase (ABC-type, D-ribose-importing)
Comments: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) type transporter, characterized by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains/proteins and two integral membrane domains/proteins. A bacterial enzyme, best characterized from Escherichia coli where it interacts with a periplasmic substrate binding protein and mediates the high affinity uptake of D-galactose and methyl-β-D-galactoside.
References:
1.  Hogg, R.W., Voelker, C. and Von Carlowitz, I. Nucleotide sequence and analysis of the mgl operon of Escherichia coli K12. Mol. Gen. Genet. 229 (1991) 453–459. [PMID: 1719366]
[EC 7.5.2.11 created 2019]
 
 
EC 7.5.2.12 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: ABC-type L-arabinose transporter
Reaction: ATP + H2O + L-arabinose-[arabinose-binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + L-arabinose[side 2] + [arabinose-binding protein][side 1]
Other name(s): L-arabinose transporting ATPase; L-arabinose ABC transporter; araFGH (gene names)
Systematic name: ATP phosphohydrolase (ABC-type, L-arabinose-importing)
Comments: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) type transporter, characterized by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains/proteins and two integral membrane domains/proteins. A bacterial enzyme that interacts with an extracytoplasmic substrate binding protein and mediates the high-affinity uptake of L-arabinose.
References:
1.  Scripture, J.B., Voelker, C., Miller, S., O'Donnell, R.T., Polgar, L., Rade, J., Horazdovsky, B.F. and Hogg, R.W. High-affinity L-arabinose transport operon. Nucleotide sequence and analysis of gene products. J. Mol. Biol. 197 (1987) 37–46. [PMID: 2445996]
2.  Horazdovsky, B.F. and Hogg, R.W. Genetic reconstitution of the high-affinity L-arabinose transport system. J. Bacteriol. 171 (1989) 3053–3059. [PMID: 2656640]
[EC 7.5.2.12 created 2019]
 
 
EC 7.5.2.13 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: ABC-type D-xylose/L-arabinose transporter
Reaction: (1) ATP + H2O + D-xylose-[xylose-binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + D-xylose[side 2] + [xylose-binding protein][side 1]
(2) ATP + H2O + L-arabinose-[arabinose-binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + L-arabinose[side 2] + [arabinose-binding protein][side 1]
Systematic name: ATP phosphohydrolase (ABC-type, D-xylose/L-arabinose-importing)
Comments: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) type transporter with a 10-transmembrane-spanning (TMD) subunit and a single nucleotide binding domain. The enzyme from the archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius interacts with an extracytoplasmic sugar-binding protein and mediates the uptake of of D-xylose and L-arabinose (cf. EC 7.5.2.10, ABC-type D-xylose transporter and EC 7.5.2.12, ABC-type L-arabinose transporter).
References:
1.  Wagner, M., Shen, L., Albersmeier, A., van der Kolk, N., Kim, S., Cha, J., Braesen, C., Kalinowski, J., Siebers, B. and Albers, S.-V. Sulfolobus acidocaldarius transports pentoses via a carbohydrate uptake transporter 2 (CUT2)-type ABC transporter and metabolizes them through the aldolase-independent Weimberg pathway. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 84 (2018) e01273–17. [PMID: 29150511]
[EC 7.5.2.13 created 2019]
 
 
EC 7.6.2.13 – public review until 14 June 2019 [Last modified: 2019-05-17 10:30:21]
Accepted name: ABC-type autoinducer-2 transporter
Reaction: ATP + H2O + (2R,4S)-2-methyl-2,3,3,4-tetrahydroxytetrahydrofuran-[AI-2-binding protein][side 1] = ADP + phosphate + (2R,4S)-2-methyl-2,3,3,4-tetrahydroxytetrahydrofuran[side 2] + [AI-2-binding protein][side 1]
Glossary: autoinducer-2 = AI-2 = (2R,4S)-2-methyl-2,3,3,4-tetrahydroxytetrahydrofuran
Other name(s): autoinducer-2 transporting ATPase; autoinducer-2 ABC transporter; LsrACDB (gene names)
Systematic name: ATP phosphohydrolase (ABC-type, AI-2 importing)
Comments: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) type transporter, characterized by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains/proteins and two integral membrane domains/proteins. A bacterial enzyme that interacts with an extracytoplasmic substrate binding protein and mediates the uptake of the signalling molecule (2R,4S)-2-methyl-2,3,3,4-tetrahydoxytetrahydrofuran (also known as autoinducer-2).
References:
1.  Taga, M.E., Semmelhack, J.L. and Bassler, B.L. The LuxS-dependent autoinducer AI-2 controls the expression of an ABC transporter that functions in AI-2 uptake in Salmonella typhimurium. Mol. Microbiol. 42 (2001) 777–793. [PMID: 11722742]
2.  Xavier, K.B. and Bassler, B.L. Regulation of uptake and processing of the quorum-sensing autoinducer AI-2 in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 187 (2005) 238–248. [PMID: 15601708]
[EC 7.6.2.13 created 2019]
 
 


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