The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.14.14.5     
Accepted name: alkanesulfonate monooxygenase
Reaction: an alkanesulfonate + FMNH2 + O2 = an aldehyde + FMN + sulfite + H2O
Glossary: an alkanesulfonate = R-CH2-SO3-
an aldehyde = R-CHO
Other name(s): SsuD; sulfate starvation-induced protein 6; alkanesulfonate,reduced-FMN:oxygen oxidoreductase
Systematic name: alkanesulfonate,FMNH2:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme from Escherichia coli catalyses the desulfonation of a wide range of aliphatic sulfonates (unsubstituted C1- to C14-sulfonates as well as substituted C2-sulfonates). Does not desulfonate taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate) or aromatic sulfonates. Does not use FMN as a bound cofactor. Instead, it uses reduced FMN (i.e., FMNH2) as a substrate. FMNH2 is provided by SsuE, the associated FMN reductase (EC 1.5.1.38).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 256383-67-2
References:
1.  Eichhorn, E., van der Ploeg, J.R. and Leisinger, T. Characterization of a two-component alkanesulfonate monooxygenase from Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 26639–26646. [DOI] [PMID: 10480865]
[EC 1.14.14.5 created 2002]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.50     
Accepted name: tabersonine 3-oxygenase
Reaction: (1) 16-methoxytabersonine + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = (3R)-3-hydroxy-16-methoxy-1,2-didehydro-2,3-dihydrotabersonine + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
(2) tabersonine + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = (3R)-3-hydroxy-1,2-didehydro-2,3-dihydrotabersonine + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
For diagram of vindoline biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): T3O; CYP71D1V2
Systematic name: 16-methoxytabersonine,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating)
Comments: This cytochrome P-450 (heme thiolate) enzyme acts on 16-methoxytabersonine, leading to biosynthesis of vindoline in the plant Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle). It can also act on tabersonine, resulting in the production of small amounts of vindorosine. The products are unstable and, in the absence of EC 1.1.99.41, 3-hydroxy-1,2-didehydro-2,3-dihydrotabersonine reductase, will convert into 3-epoxylated compounds.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Qu, Y., Easson, M.L., Froese, J., Simionescu, R., Hudlicky, T. and De Luca, V. Completion of the seven-step pathway from tabersonine to the anticancer drug precursor vindoline and its assembly in yeast. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 112 (2015) 6224–6229. [DOI] [PMID: 25918424]
[EC 1.14.14.50 created 2017]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.51     
Accepted name: (S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase
Reaction: (S)-limonene + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = (–)-trans-carveol + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
For diagram of perillyl alcohol, isopiperitol and carveol biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: limonene = a monoterpenoid
(S)-limonene = (–)-limonene
Other name(s): (–)-limonene 6-hydroxylase; (–)-limonene 6-monooxygenase; (–)-limonene,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (6-hydroxylating)
Systematic name: (S)-limonene,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (6-hydroxylating)
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme thiolate) enzyme. The enzyme participates in the biosynthesis of (–)-carvone, which is responsible for the aroma of spearmint.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 138066-93-0
References:
1.  Karp, F., Mihaliak, C.A., Harris, J.L. and Croteau, R. Monoterpene biosynthesis: specificity of the hydroxylations of (-)-limonene by enzyme preparations from peppermint (Mentha piperita), spearmint (Mentha spicata), and perilla (Perilla frutescens) leaves. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 276 (1990) 219–226. [DOI] [PMID: 2297225]
[EC 1.14.14.51 created 1992 as EC 1.14.13.48, modified 2003, transferred 2017 to EC 1.14.14.51]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.52     
Accepted name: (S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase
Reaction: (S)-limonene + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = (–)-perillyl alcohol + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
For diagram of perillyl alcohol, isopiperitol and carveol biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: limonene = a monoterpenoid
(S)-limonene = (–)-limonene
Other name(s): (–)-limonene 7-monooxygenase; (–)-limonene hydroxylase; (–)-limonene monooxygenase; (–)-limonene,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (7-hydroxylating)
Systematic name: (S)-limonene,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (7-hydroxylating)
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme thiolate) enzyme. The enzyme, characterized from the plant Perilla frutescens, participates in the biosynthesis of perillyl aldehyde, the major constituent of the essential oil that accumulates in the glandular trichomes of this plant. Some forms of the enzyme also catalyse the oxidation of (–)-perillyl alcohol to (–)-perillyl aldehyde.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 122653-75-2
References:
1.  Karp, F., Mihaliak, C.A., Harris, J.L. and Croteau, R. Monoterpene biosynthesis: specificity of the hydroxylations of (-)-limonene by enzyme preparations from peppermint (Mentha piperita), spearmint (Mentha spicata), and perilla (Perilla frutescens) leaves. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 276 (1990) 219–226. [DOI] [PMID: 2297225]
2.  Mau, C.J., Karp, F., Ito, M., Honda, G. and Croteau, R.B. A candidate cDNA clone for (–)-limonene-7-hydroxylase from Perilla frutescens. Phytochemistry 71 (2010) 373–379. [DOI] [PMID: 20079506]
3.  Fujiwara, Y. and Ito, M. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Perilla frutescens cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the later steps of perillaldehyde biosynthesis. Phytochemistry 134 (2017) 26–37. [DOI] [PMID: 27890582]
[EC 1.14.14.52 created 1992 as EC 1.14.13.49, modified 2003, transferred 2017 to EC 1.14.14.52]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.53     
Accepted name: (R)-limonene 6-monooxygenase
Reaction: (R)-limonene + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = (+)-trans-carveol + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
For diagram of carvone biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: limonene = a monoterpenoid
(R)-limonene = (+)-limonene
Other name(s): (+)-limonene-6-hydroxylase; (+)-limonene 6-monooxygenase
Systematic name: (R)-limonene,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (6-hydroxylating)
Comments: The reaction is stereospecific with over 95% yield of (+)-trans-carveol from (R)-limonene. (S)-Limonene, the substrate for EC 1.14.14.51, (S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase, is not a substrate. Forms part of the carvone biosynthesis pathway in Carum carvi (caraway) seeds.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 221461-49-0
References:
1.  Bouwmeester, H.J., Gershenzon, J., Konings, M.C.J.M. and Croteau, R. Biosynthesis of the monoterpenes limonene and carvone in the fruit of caraway. I. Demonstration of enzyme activities and their changes with development. Plant Physiol. 117 (1998) 901–912. [PMID: 9662532]
2.  Bouwmeester, H.J., Konings, M.C.J.M., Gershenzon, J., Karp, F. and Croteau, R. Cytochrome P-450 dependent (+)-limonene-6-hydroxylation in fruits of caraway (Carum carvi). Phytochemistry 50 (1999) 243–248.
[EC 1.14.14.53 created 2003 as EC 1.14.13.80, transferred 2017 to EC 1.14.14.53]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.54     
Accepted name: phenylacetate 2-hydroxylase
Reaction: phenylacetate + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = (2-hydroxyphenyl)acetate + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
Other name(s): CYP504; phaA (gene name)
Systematic name: phenylacetate,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (2-hydroxylating)
Comments: This cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) enzyme, found in Aspergillus nidulans, is involved in the degradation of phenylacetate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Mingot, J.M., Penalva, M.A. and Fernandez-Canon, J.M. Disruption of phacA, an Aspergillus nidulans gene encoding a novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenase catalyzing phenylacetate 2-hydroxylation, results in penicillin overproduction. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 14545–14550. [DOI] [PMID: 10329644]
2.  Rodriguez-Saiz, M., Barredo, J.L., Moreno, M.A., Fernandez-Canon, J.M., Penalva, M.A. and Diez, B. Reduced function of a phenylacetate-oxidizing cytochrome P450 caused strong genetic improvement in early phylogeny of penicillin-producing strains. J. Bacteriol. 183 (2001) 5465–5471. [DOI] [PMID: 11544206]
[EC 1.14.14.54 created 2017]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.55     
Accepted name: quinine 3-monooxygenase
Reaction: quinine + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = 3-hydroxyquinine + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
Glossary: quinine = a quinoline alkaloid
Other name(s): CYP3A4 (gene name)
Systematic name: quinine,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 50812-30-1, 213327-78-7
References:
1.  Relling, M.V., Evans, R., Dass, C., Desiderio, D.M. and Nemec, J. Human cytochrome P450 metabolism of teniposide and etoposide. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 261 (1992) 491–496. [PMID: 1578365]
2.  Zhang, H., Coville, P.F., Walker, R.J., Miners, J.O., Birkett, D.J. and Wanwimolruk, S. Evidence for involvement of human CYP3A in the 3-hydroxylation of quinine. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 43 (1997) 245–252. [DOI] [PMID: 9088578]
3.  Zhao, X.-J., Kawashiro, T. and Ishizaki, T. Mutual inhibition between quinine and etoposide by human liver microsomes. Evidence for cytochrome P4503A4 involvement in their major metabolic pathways. Drug Metab. Dispos. 26 (1998) 188–191. [PMID: 9456308]
4.  Zhao, X.-J., Yokoyama, H., Chiba, K., Wanwimolruk, S. and Ishizaki, T. Identification of human cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the 3-hydroxylation of quinine by human liver microsomes and nine recombinant human cytochromes P450. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 279 (1996) 1327–1334. [PMID: 8968357]
[EC 1.14.14.55 created 2000 as EC 1.14.13.67, transferred 2017 to EC 1.14.14.55]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.56     
Accepted name: 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase
Reaction: 1,8-cineole + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = 2-exo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
For diagram of 1,8-cineole catabolism, click here
Glossary: 1,8-cineole = 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane
2-exo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole = (1R,4S,6S)-1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-6-ol
Other name(s): CYP3A4
Systematic name: 1,8-cineole,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (2-exo-hydroxylating)
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein. The mammalian enzyme, expressed in liver microsomes, performs a variety of oxidation reactions of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. cf. EC 1.14.14.55, quinine 3-monooxygenase, EC 1.14.14.57, taurochenodeoxycholate 6-hydroxylase and EC 1.14.14.73, albendazole monooxygenase (sulfoxide-forming).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Miyazawa, M., Shindo, M. and Shimada, T. Oxidation of 1,8-cineole, the monoterpene cyclic ether originated from Eucalyptus polybractea, by cytochrome P450 3A enzymes in rat and human liver microsomes. Drug Metab. Dispos. 29 (2001) 200–205. [PMID: 11159812]
2.  Miyazawa, M. and Shindo, M. Biotransformation of 1,8-cineole by human liver microsomes. Nat. Prod. Lett. 15 (2001) 49–53. [DOI] [PMID: 11547423]
3.  Miyazawa, M., Shindo, M. and Shimada, T. Roles of cytochrome P450 3A enzymes in the 2-hydroxylation of 1,4-cineole, a monoterpene cyclic ether, by rat and human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica 31 (2001) 713–723. [DOI] [PMID: 11695850]
[EC 1.14.14.56 created 2012 as EC 1.14.13.157, transferred 2017 to EC 1.14.14.56, modified 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.57     
Accepted name: taurochenodeoxycholate 6α-hydroxylase
Reaction: (1) taurochenodeoxycholate + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = taurohyocholate + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
(2) lithocholate + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = hyodeoxycholate + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
For diagram of the biosynthesis of cholic-acid conjugates, click here
Glossary: taurochenodeoxycholic acid = N-(3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oyl)taurine
taurohyocholic acid = N-(3α,6α,7α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oyl)taurine
hyodeoxycholate = 3α,6α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oate
lithocholate = 3α-hydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oate
Other name(s): CYP3A4; CYP4A21; taurochenodeoxycholate 6α-monooxygenase
Systematic name: taurochenodeoxycholate,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (6α-hydroxylating)
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein. Requires cytochrome b5 for maximal activity. Acts on taurochenodeoxycholate, taurodeoxycholate and less readily on lithocholate and chenodeoxycholate. In adult pig (Sus scrofa), hyocholic acid replaces cholic acid as a primary bile acid [5].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 105669-85-0
References:
1.  Araya, Z. and Wikvall, K. 6α-Hydroxylation of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid by CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1438 (1999) 47–54. [DOI] [PMID: 10216279]
2.  Araya, Z., Hellman, U. and Hansson, R. Characterisation of taurochenodeoxycholic acid 6α-hydroxylase from pig liver microsomes. Eur. J. Biochem. 231 (1995) 855–861. [DOI] [PMID: 7649186]
3.  Kramer, W., Sauber, K., Baringhaus, K.H., Kurz, M., Stengelin, S., Lange, G., Corsiero, D., Girbig, F., Konig, W. and Weyland, C. Identification of the bile acid-binding site of the ileal lipid-binding protein by photoaffinity labeling, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry, and NMR structure. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 7291–7301. [DOI] [PMID: 11069906]
4.  Lundell, K., Hansson, R. and Wikvall, K. Cloning and expression of a pig liver taurochenodeoxycholic acid 6α-hydroxylase (CYP4A21): a novel member of the CYP4A subfamily. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 9606–9612. [DOI] [PMID: 11113117]
5.  Lundell, K. and Wikvall, K. Gene structure of pig sterol 12α-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) and expression in fetal liver: comparison with expression of taurochenodeoxycholic acid 6α-hydroxylase (CYP4A21). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1634 (2003) 86–96. [DOI] [PMID: 14643796]
6.  Russell, D.W. The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 72 (2003) 137–174. [DOI] [PMID: 12543708]
[EC 1.14.14.57 created 2005 asEC 1.14.13.97, transferred 2018 to EC 1.14.14.57]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.58     
Accepted name: trimethyltridecatetraene synthase
Reaction: (6E,10E)-geranyllinalool + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = (3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + but-3-en-2-one + 2 H2O
For diagram of acyclic diterpenoid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: (6E,10E)-geranyllinalool = (6E,10E)-3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadeca-1,6,10,14-tetraen-3-ol
Other name(s): CYP82G1; CYP92C5; CYP92C6; DMNT/TMTT homoterpene synthase
Systematic name: (6E,10E)-geranyllinalool,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein isolated from the plants Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) and Zea mays (maize). It forms this C16 homoterpene in response to herbivore attack. In vitro some variants of the enzyme also convert (3S,6E)-nerolidol to (3E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene (see EC 1.14.14.59, dimethylnonatriene synthase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Lee, S., Badieyan, S., Bevan, D.R., Herde, M., Gatz, C. and Tholl, D. Herbivore-induced and floral homoterpene volatiles are biosynthesized by a single P450 enzyme (CYP82G1) in Arabidopsis. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107 (2010) 21205–21210. [DOI] [PMID: 21088219]
2.  Richter, A., Schaff, C., Zhang, Z., Lipka, A.E., Tian, F., Kollner, T.G., Schnee, C., Preiss, S., Irmisch, S., Jander, G., Boland, W., Gershenzon, J., Buckler, E.S. and Degenhardt, J. Characterization of biosynthetic pathways for the production of the volatile homoterpenes DMNT and TMTT in Zea mays. Plant Cell 28 (2016) 2651–2665. [DOI] [PMID: 27662898]
[EC 1.14.14.58 created 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.59     
Accepted name: dimethylnonatriene synthase
Reaction: (3S,6E)-nerolidol + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = (3E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + but-3-en-2-one + 2 H2O
For diagram of acyclic sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): CYP82G1; CYP92C5; DMNT/TMTT homoterpene synthase
Systematic name: (3S,6E)-nerolidol,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein isolated from the plants Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) and Zea mays (maize). It forms this C11 homoterpene in response to herbivore attack. In vitro the enzyme also converts (6E,10E)-geranyllinalool to (3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene (see EC 1.14.14.58, trimethyltridecatetraene synthase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Lee, S., Badieyan, S., Bevan, D.R., Herde, M., Gatz, C. and Tholl, D. Herbivore-induced and floral homoterpene volatiles are biosynthesized by a single P450 enzyme (CYP82G1) in Arabidopsis. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107 (2010) 21205–21210. [DOI] [PMID: 21088219]
2.  Richter, A., Schaff, C., Zhang, Z., Lipka, A.E., Tian, F., Kollner, T.G., Schnee, C., Preiss, S., Irmisch, S., Jander, G., Boland, W., Gershenzon, J., Buckler, E.S. and Degenhardt, J. Characterization of biosynthetic pathways for the production of the volatile homoterpenes DMNT and TMTT in Zea mays. Plant Cell 28 (2016) 2651–2665. [DOI] [PMID: 27662898]
[EC 1.14.14.59 created 2018]
 
 


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