The Enzyme Database

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EC 3.2.1.81     
Accepted name: β-agarase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of (1→4)-β-D-galactosidic linkages in agarose, giving the tetramer as the predominant product
Glossary: agarose = a linear polysaccharide produced by some members of the Rhodophyta (red algae) made up from alternating D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactopyranose residues joined by α-(1→3)- and β-(1→4)-linkages. In the field of oligosaccharides derived from agarose, carrageenans, etc., in which alternate residues are 3,6-anhydro sugars, the prefix ’neo’ designates an oligosaccharide whose non-reducing end is the anhydro sugar, and the absence of this prefix means that it is not.
For example:
neoagarobiose = 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-D-galactose
agarobiose = β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-L-galactose
Other name(s): agarase (ambiguous); AgaA; AgaB; endo-β-agarase; agarose 3-glycanohydrolase (incorrect)
Systematic name: agarose 4-glycanohydrolase
Comments: Also acts on porphyran, but more slowly [1]. This enzyme cleaves the β-(1→4) linkages of agarose in a random manner with retention of the anomeric-bond configuration, producing β-anomers that give rise progressively to α-anomers when mutarotation takes place [6]. The end products of hydrolysis are neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose in the case of AgaA from the marine bacterium Zobellia galactanivorans, and neoagarotetraose and neoagarobiose in the case of AgaB [6].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37288-57-6
References:
1.  Duckworth, M. and Turvey, J.R. The action of a bacterial agarase on agarose, porphyran and alkali-treated porphyran. Biochem. J. 113 (1969) 687–692. [PMID: 5386190]
2.  Allouch, J., Jam, M., Helbert, W., Barbeyron, T., Kloareg, B., Henrissat, B. and Czjzek, M. The three-dimensional structures of two β-agarases. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 47171–47180. [DOI] [PMID: 12970344]
3.  Ohta, Y., Nogi, Y., Miyazaki, M., Li, Z., Hatada, Y., Ito, S. and Horikoshi, K. Enzymatic properties and nucleotide and amino acid sequences of a thermostable β-agarase from the novel marine isolate, JAMB-A94. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 68 (2004) 1073–1081. [DOI] [PMID: 15170112]
4.  Ohta, Y., Hatada, Y., Nogi, Y., Miyazaki, M., Li, Z., Akita, M., Hidaka, Y., Goda, S., Ito, S. and Horikoshi, K. Enzymatic properties and nucleotide and amino acid sequences of a thermostable β-agarase from a novel species of deep-sea Microbulbifer. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 64 (2004) 505–514. [DOI] [PMID: 15088129]
5.  Sugano, Y., Terada, I., Arita, M., Noma, M. and Matsumoto, T. Purification and characterization of a new agarase from a marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain JT0107. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59 (1993) 1549–1554. [PMID: 8517750]
6.  Jam, M., Flament, D., Allouch, J., Potin, P., Thion, L., Kloareg, B., Czjzek, M., Helbert, W., Michel, G. and Barbeyron, T. The endo-β-agarases AgaA and AgaB from the marine bacterium Zobellia galactanivorans: two paralogue enzymes with different molecular organizations and catalytic behaviours. Biochem. J. 385 (2005) 703–713. [DOI] [PMID: 15456406]
[EC 3.2.1.81 created 1972, modified 2006]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.158     
Accepted name: α-agarase
Reaction: Endohydrolysis of (1→3)-α-L-galactosidic linkages in agarose, yielding agarotetraose as the major product
Glossary: agarose = a linear polysaccharide produced by some members of the Rhodophyta (red algae) made up from alternating D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactopyranose residues joined by α-(1→3)- and β-(1→4)-linkages. In the field of oligosaccharides derived from agarose, carrageenans, etc., in which alternate residues are 3,6-anhydro sugars, the prefix ’neo’ designates an oligosaccharide whose non-reducing end is the anhydro sugar, and the absence of this prefix means that it is not.
For example:
neoagarobiose = 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-D-galactose
agarobiose = β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-L-galactose
Other name(s): agarase (ambiguous); agaraseA33
Systematic name: agarose 3-glycanohydrolase
Comments: Requires Ca2+. The enzyme from Thalassomonas sp. can use agarose, agarohexaose and neoagarohexaose as substrate. The products of agarohexaose hydrolysis are dimers and tetramers, with agarotetraose being the predominant product, whereas hydrolysis of neoagarohexaose gives rise to two types of trimer. While the enzyme can also hydrolyse the highly sulfated agarose porphyran very efficiently, it cannot hydrolyse the related compounds κ-carrageenan (see EC 3.2.1.83) and ι-carrageenan (see EC 3.2.1.157) [2]. See also EC 3.2.1.81, β-agarase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 63952-00-1
References:
1.  Potin, P., Richard, C., Rochas, C. and Kloareg, B. Purification and characterization of the α-agarase from Alteromonas agarlyticus (Cataldi) comb. nov., strain GJ1B. Eur. J. Biochem. 214 (1993) 599–607. [DOI] [PMID: 8513809]
2.  Ohta, Y., Hatada, Y., Miyazaki, M., Nogi, Y., Ito, S. and Horikoshi, K. Purification and characterization of a novel α-agarase from a Thalassomonas sp. Curr. Microbiol. 50 (2005) 212–216. [DOI] [PMID: 15902469]
[EC 3.2.1.158 created 2006]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.159     
Accepted name: α-neoagaro-oligosaccharide hydrolase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of the (1→3)-α-L-galactosidic linkages of neoagaro-oligosaccharides that are smaller than a hexamer, yielding 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose and D-galactose
Glossary: In the field of oligosaccharides derived from agarose, carrageenans, etc., in which alternate residues are 3,6-anhydro sugars, the prefix ’neo’ designates an oligosaccharide whose non-reducing end is the anhydro sugar, and the absence of this prefix means that it is not.
For example:
neoagarobiose = 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-D-galactose
agarobiose = β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-L-galactose
Other name(s): α-neoagarooligosaccharide hydrolase; α-NAOS hydrolase
Systematic name: α-neoagaro-oligosaccharide 3-glycohydrolase
Comments: When neoagarohexaose is used as a substrate, the oligosaccharide is cleaved at the non-reducing end to produce 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose and agaropentaose, which is further hydrolysed to agarobiose and agarotriose. With neoagarotetraose as substrate, the products are predominantly agarotriose and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose. In Vibrio sp. the actions of EC 3.2.1.81, β-agarase and EC 3.2.1.159 can be used to degrade agarose to 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose and D-galactose.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 60063-77-6
References:
1.  Sugano, Y., Kodama, H., Terada, I., Yamazaki, Y. and Noma, M. Purification and characterization of a novel enzyme, α-neoagarooligosaccharide hydrolase (α-NAOS hydrolase), from a marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain JT0107. J. Bacteriol. 176 (1994) 6812–6818. [DOI] [PMID: 7961439]
[EC 3.2.1.159 created 2006]
 
 


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