The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate—[aryl-carrier protein] ligase
Reaction: ATP + 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate + holo-[aryl-carrier protein] = AMP + diphosphate + 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-[aryl-carrier protein] (overall reaction)
(1a) ATP + 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate = diphosphate + (2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)adenylate
(1b) (2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)adenylate + holo-[aryl-carrier protein] = AMP + 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl-[aryl-carrier protein]
Other name(s): entE (gene name); vibE (gene name); dhbE (gene name); angE (gene name)
Systematic name: 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate:[aryl-carrier protein] ligase (AMP-forming)
Comments: The adenylation domain of the enzyme catalyses the activation of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate to (2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)adenylate, followed by the transfer the activated compound to the free thiol of a phosphopantetheine arm of an aryl-carrier protein domain of a specific non-ribosomal peptide synthase. For example, the EntE enzyme of Escherichia coli is part of the enterobactin synthase complex, the VibE enzyme of Vibrio cholerae is part of the vibriobactin synthase complex, and the DhbE enzyme of Bacillus subtilis is part of the bacillibactin synthase complex.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB
1.  Gehring, A.M., Bradley, K.A. and Walsh, C.T. Enterobactin biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: isochorismate lyase (EntB) is a bifunctional enzyme that is phosphopantetheinylated by EntD and then acylated by EntE using ATP and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate. Biochemistry 36 (1997) 8495–8503. [DOI] [PMID: 9214294]
2.  Wyckoff, E.E., Stoebner, J.A., Reed, K.E. and Payne, S.M. Cloning of a Vibrio cholerae vibriobactin gene cluster: identification of genes required for early steps in siderophore biosynthesis. J. Bacteriol. 179 (1997) 7055–7062. [PMID: 9371453]
3.  Ehmann, D.E., Shaw-Reid, C.A., Losey, H.C. and Walsh, C.T. The EntF and EntE adenylation domains of Escherichia coli enterobactin synthetase: sequestration and selectivity in acyl-AMP transfers to thiolation domain cosubstrates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97 (2000) 2509–2514. [DOI] [PMID: 10688898]
4.  Keating, T.A., Marshall, C.G. and Walsh, C.T. Vibriobactin biosynthesis in Vibrio cholerae: VibH is an amide synthase homologous to nonribosomal peptide synthetase condensation domains. Biochemistry 39 (2000) 15513–15521. [PMID: 11112537]
5.  May, J.J., Wendrich, T.M. and Marahiel, M.A. The dhb operon of Bacillus subtilis encodes the biosynthetic template for the catecholic siderophore 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate-glycine-threonine trimeric ester bacillibactin. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 7209–7217. [DOI] [PMID: 11112781]
6.  Sikora, A.L., Wilson, D.J., Aldrich, C.C. and Blanchard, J.S. Kinetic and inhibition studies of dihydroxybenzoate-AMP ligase from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry 49 (2010) 3648–3657. [DOI] [PMID: 20359185]
7.  Khalil, S. and Pawelek, P.D. Enzymatic adenylation of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate is enhanced by a protein-protein interaction between Escherichia coli 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybenzoate dehydrogenase (EntA) and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate-AMP ligase (EntE). Biochemistry 50 (2011) 533–545. [DOI] [PMID: 21166461]
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