The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: malolactic enzyme
Reaction: (S)-malate = (S)-lactate + CO2
Other name(s): mleA (gene name); mleS (gene name)
Systematic name: (S)-malate carboxy-lyase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the malolactic fermentation of wine, which results in a natural decrease in acidity and favorable changes in wine flavors. It has been purified from several lactic acid bacteria, including Leuconostoc mesenteroides [1], Lactobacillus plantarum [2], and Oenococcus oeni [3,4]. The enzyme contains a tightly bound NAD+ cofactor and requires Mn2+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Lonvaud-Funel, A. and de Saad, A.M. Purification and properties of a malolactic Enzyme from a strain of Leuconostoc mesenteroides isolated from grapes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43 (1982) 357–361. [PMID: 16345941]
2.  Caspritz, G. and Radler, F. Malolactic enzyme of Lactobacillus plantarum. Purification, properties, and distribution among bacteria. J. Biol. Chem. 258 (1983) 4907–4910. [PMID: 6833282]
3.  Naouri, P., Chagnaud, P., Arnaud, A. and Galzy, P. Purification and properties of a malolactic enzyme from Leuconostoc oenos ATCC 23278. J. Basic Microbiol. 30 (1990) 577–585. [DOI] [PMID: 2097345]
4.  Schumann, C., Michlmayr, H., Del Hierro, A.M., Kulbe, K.D., Jiranek, V., Eder, R. and Nguyen, T.H. Malolactic enzyme from Oenococcus oeni: heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and biochemical characterization. Bioengineered 4 (2013) 147–152. [DOI] [PMID: 23196745]
[EC created 2015]

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