The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: caspase-3
Reaction: Strict requirement for an Asp residue at positions P1 and P4. It has a preferred cleavage sequence of Asp-Xaa-Xaa-Asp┼ with a hydrophobic amino-acid residue at P2 and a hydrophilic amino-acid residue at P3, although Val or Ala are also accepted at this position
Other name(s): CPP32; apopain; yama protein
Comments: Caspase-3 is an effector/executioner caspase, as are caspase-6 (EC and caspase-7 (EC [5]. These caspases are responsible for the proteolysis of the majority of cellular polypeptides [e.g. poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)], which leads to the apoptotic phenotype [3,5]. Procaspase-3 can be activated by caspase-1 (EC, caspase-8 (EC, caspase-9 (EC and caspase-10 (EC as well as by the serine protease granzyme B [1]. Caspase-3 can activate procaspase-2 (EC [2]. Activation occurs by inter-domain cleavage followed by removal of the N-terminal prodomain [6]. Although Asp-Glu-(Val/Ile)-Asp is thought to be the preferred cleavage sequence, the enzyme can accommodate different residues at P2 and P3 of the substrate [4]. Like caspase-2, a hydrophobic residue at P5 of caspase-3 leads to more efficient hydrolysis, e.g. (Val/Leu)-Asp-Val-Ala-Asp┼ is a better substrate than Asp-Val-Ala-Asp┼ . This is not the case for caspase-7 [4]. Belongs in peptidase family C14.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 169592-56-7
1.  Krebs, J.F., Srinivasan, A., Wong, A.M., Tomaselli, K.J., Fritz, L.C. and Wu, J.C. Heavy membrane-associated caspase 3: identification, isolation, and characterization. Biochemistry 39 (2000) 16056–16063. [DOI] [PMID: 11123933]
2.  Li, H., Bergeron, L., Cryns, V., Pasternack, M.S., Zhu, H., Shi, L., Greenberg, A. and Yuan, J. Activation of caspase-2 in apoptosis. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 21010–21017. [DOI] [PMID: 9261102]
3.  Nicholson, D. and Thornberry, N.A. Caspase-3 and caspase-7. In: Barrett, A.J., Rawlings, N.D. and Woessner, J.F. (Ed.), Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes, 2nd edn, Elsevier, London, 2004, pp. 1298–1302.
4.  Fang, B., Boross, P.I., Tozser, J. and Weber, I.T. Structural and kinetic analysis of caspase-3 reveals role for S5 binding site in substrate recognition. J. Mol. Biol. 360 (2006) 654–666. [DOI] [PMID: 16781734]
5.  Chang, H.Y. and Yang, X. Proteases for cell suicide: functions and regulation of caspases. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64 (2000) 821–846. [PMID: 11104820]
6.  Martin, S.J., Amarante-Mendes, G.P., Shi, L., Chuang, T.H., Casiano, C.A., O'Brien, G.A., Fitzgerald, P., Tan, E.M., Bokoch, G.M., Greenberg, A.H. and Green, D.R. The cytotoxic cell protease granzyme B initiates apoptosis in a cell-free system by proteolytic processing and activation of the ICE/CED-3 family protease, CPP32, via a novel two-step mechanism. EMBO J. 15 (1996) 2407–2416. [PMID: 8665848]
[EC created 2007]

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