||N-terminal-acetylases (NATs) catalyse the covalent attachment of an acetyl moiety from acetyl-CoA to the free α-amino group at the N-terminus of a protein. This irreversible modification neutralizes the positive charge at the N-terminus, makes the N-terminal residue larger and more hydrophobic, and prevents its removal by hydrolysis. NatF is found only in higher eukaryotes, and is absent from yeast. Unlike other Nat systems the enzyme is located in the Golgi apparatus. It faces the cytosolic side of intracellular membranes, and specifically acetylates transmembrane proteins whose N termini face the cytosol. NatF targets N-terminal L-methionine residues attached to Lys, Ser, Val, Leu, Gln, Ile, Tyr and Thr residues.
||Van Damme, P., Hole, K., Pimenta-Marques, A., Helsens, K., Vandekerckhove, J., Martinho, R.G., Gevaert, K. and Arnesen, T. NatF contributes to an evolutionary shift in protein N-terminal acetylation and is important for normal chromosome segregation. PLoS Genet. 7:e1002169 (2011). [DOI] [PMID: 21750686]
||Aksnes, H., Van Damme, P., Goris, M., Starheim, K.K., Marie, M., Støve, S.I., Hoel, C., Kalvik, T.V., Hole, K., Glomnes, N., Furnes, C., Ljostveit, S., Ziegler, M., Niere, M., Gevaert, K. and Arnesen, T. An organellar Nα-acetyltransferase, Naa60, acetylates cytosolic N termini of transmembrane proteins and maintains Golgi integrity. Cell Rep. 10 (2015) 1362–1374. [DOI] [PMID: 25732826]