The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: succinate dehydrogenase
Reaction: succinate + a quinone = fumarate + a quinol
For diagram of the citric acid cycle, click here
Other name(s): succinate dehydrogenase (quinone); succinate dehydrogenase (ubiquinone); succinic dehydrogenase; complex II (ambiguous); succinate dehydrogenase complex; SDH (ambiguous); succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase; fumarate reductase (quinol); FRD; menaquinol-fumarate oxidoreductase; succinate dehydrogenase (menaquinone); succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductase; fumarate reductase (menaquinone)
Systematic name: succinate:quinone oxidoreductase
Comments: A complex generally comprising an FAD-containing component that also binds the carboxylate substrate (A subunit), a component that contains three different iron-sulfur centers [2Fe-2S], [4Fe-4S], and [3Fe-4S] (B subunit), and a hydrophobic membrane-anchor component (C, or C and D subunits) that is also the site of the interaction with quinones. The enzyme is found in the inner mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotes and the plasma membrane of bacteria and archaea, with the hydrophilic domain extending into the mitochondrial matrix and the cytoplasm, respectively. Under aerobic conditions the enzyme catalyses succinate oxidation, a key step in the citric acid (TCA) cycle, transferring the electrons to quinones in the membrane, thus linking the TCA cycle with the aerobic respiratory chain (where it is known as complex II). Under anaerobic conditions the enzyme functions as a fumarate reductase, transferring electrons from the quinol pool to fumarate, and participating in anaerobic respiration with fumarate as the terminal electron acceptor. The enzyme interacts with the quinone produced by the organism, such as ubiquinone, menaquinone, caldariellaquinone, thermoplasmaquinone, rhodoquinone etc. Some of the enzymes contain two heme subunits in their membrane anchor subunit. These enzymes catalyse an electrogenic reaction and are thus classified as EC, succinate dehydrogenase (electrogenic, proton-motive force generating).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9028-11-9
1.  Kita, K., Vibat, C.R., Meinhardt, S., Guest, J.R. and Gennis, R.B. One-step purification from Escherichia coli of complex II (succinate: ubiquinone oxidoreductase) associated with succinate-reducible cytochrome b556. J. Biol. Chem. 264 (1989) 2672–2677. [PMID: 2644269]
2.  Van Hellemond, J.J. and Tielens, A.G. Expression and functional properties of fumarate reductase. Biochem. J. 304 (1994) 321–331. [PMID: 7998964]
3.  Iverson, T.M., Luna-Chavez, C., Cecchini, G. and Rees, D.C. Structure of the Escherichia coli fumarate reductase respiratory complex. Science 284 (1999) 1961–1966. [DOI] [PMID: 10373108]
4.  Cecchini, G., Schroder, I., Gunsalus, R.P. and Maklashina, E. Succinate dehydrogenase and fumarate reductase from Escherichia coli. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1553 (2002) 140–157. [DOI] [PMID: 11803023]
5.  Figueroa, P., Leon, G., Elorza, A., Holuigue, L., Araya, A. and Jordana, X. The four subunits of mitochondrial respiratory complex II are encoded by multiple nuclear genes and targeted to mitochondria in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Mol. Biol. 50 (2002) 725–734. [PMID: 12374303]
6.  Cecchini, G. Function and structure of complex II of the respiratory chain. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 72 (2003) 77–109. [DOI] [PMID: 14527321]
7.  Oyedotun, K.S. and Lemire, B.D. The quaternary structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae succinate dehydrogenase. Homology modeling, cofactor docking, and molecular dynamics simulation studies. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 9424–9431. [DOI] [PMID: 14672929]
8.  Kurokawa, T. and Sakamoto, J. Purification and characterization of succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductase from Corynebacterium glutamicum. Arch. Microbiol. 183 (2005) 317–324. [DOI] [PMID: 15883782]
9.  Iwata, F., Shinjyo, N., Amino, H., Sakamoto, K., Islam, M.K., Tsuji, N. and Kita, K. Change of subunit composition of mitochondrial complex II (succinate-ubiquinone reductase/quinol-fumarate reductase) in Ascaris suum during the migration in the experimental host. Parasitol Int 57 (2008) 54–61. [DOI] [PMID: 17933581]
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