The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.1.1.153     
Accepted name: sepiapterin reductase (L-erythro-7,8-dihydrobiopterin forming)
Reaction: (1) L-erythro-7,8-dihydrobiopterin + NADP+ = sepiapterin + NADPH + H+
(2) L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + 2 NADP+ = 6-pyruvoyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin + 2 NADPH + 2 H+
For diagram of biopterin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: sepiapterin = 2-amino-6-lactoyl-7,8-dihydropteridin-4(3H)-one
tetrahydrobiopterin = 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin = 2-amino-6-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridin-4(3H)-one
Other name(s): SR
Systematic name: L-erythro-7,8-dihydrobiopterin:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: This enzyme catalyses the final step in the de novo synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin from GTP. The enzyme, which is found in higher animals and some fungi and bacteria, produces the erythro form of tetrahydrobiopterin. cf. EC 1.1.1.325, sepiapterin reductase (L-threo-7,8-dihydrobiopterin forming).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9059-48-7
References:
1.  Katoh, S. Sepiapterin reductase from horse liver: purification and properties of the enzyme. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 146 (1971) 202–214. [DOI] [PMID: 4401291]
2.  Matsubara, M., Katoh, S., Akino, M. and Kaufman, S. Sepiapterin reductase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 122 (1966) 202–212. [PMID: 5969298]
3.  Werner, E.R., Schmid, M., Werner-Felmayer, G., Mayer, B. and Wachter, H. Synthesis and characterization of 3H-labelled tetrahydrobiopterin. Biochem. J. 304 (1994) 189–193. [PMID: 7528005]
4.  Kim, Y.A., Chung, H.J., Kim, Y.J., Choi, Y.K., Hwang, Y.K., Lee, S.W. and Park, Y.S. Characterization of recombinant Dictyostelium discoideum sepiapterin reductase expressed in E. coli. Mol. Cells 10 (2000) 405–410. [PMID: 10987137]
[EC 1.1.1.153 created 1972, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.220     
Accepted name: 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin 2′-reductase
Reaction: 6-lactoyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin + NADP+ = 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin + NADPH + H+
For diagram of 6-pyruvyltetrahydropterin metabolism, click here
Other name(s): 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin reductase; 6PPH4(2′-oxo) reductase; 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin (2′-oxo)reductase; 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin 2′-reductase; pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin reductase
Systematic name: 6-lactoyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin:NADP+ 2′-oxidoreductase
Comments: Not identical with EC 1.1.1.153 sepiapterin reductase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 97089-79-7
References:
1.  Milstien, S. and Kaufman, S. Biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin: conversion of dihydroneopterin triphosphate to tetrahydropterin intermediates. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 128 (1985) 1099–1107. [DOI] [PMID: 4004850]
[EC 1.1.1.220 created 1989]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.325     
Accepted name: sepiapterin reductase (L-threo-7,8-dihydrobiopterin forming)
Reaction: (1) L-threo-7,8-dihydrobiopterin + NADP+ = sepiapterin + NADPH + H+
(2) L-threo-tetrahydrobiopterin + 2 NADP+ = 6-pyruvoyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin + 2 NADPH + 2 H+
Glossary: sepiapterin = 2-amino-6-lactoyl-7,8-dihydropteridin-4(3H)-one
tetrahydrobiopterin = 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin = 2-amino-6-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridin-4(3H)-one
Systematic name: L-threo-7,8-dihydrobiopterin:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: This enzyme, isolated from the bacterium Chlorobium tepidum, catalyses the final step in the de novo synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin from GTP. cf. EC 1.1.1.153, sepiapterin reductase (L-erythro-7,8-dihydrobiopterin forming).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9059-48-7
References:
1.  Cho, S.H., Na, J.U., Youn, H., Hwang, C.S., Lee, C.H. and Kang, S.O. Sepiapterin reductase producing L-threo-dihydrobiopterin from Chlorobium tepidum. Biochem. J. 340 (1999) 497–503. [PMID: 10333495]
2.  Supangat, S., Choi, Y.K., Park, Y.S., Son, D., Han, C.D. and Lee, K.H. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of sepiapterin reductase from Chlorobium tepidum. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 61 (2005) 202–204. [DOI] [PMID: 16510994]
[EC 1.1.1.325 created 2012]
 
 
EC 3.5.4.16     
Accepted name: GTP cyclohydrolase I
Reaction: GTP + H2O = formate + 7,8-dihydroneopterin 3′-triphosphate
For diagram of the early stages of folate biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 7,8-dihydroneopterin 3′-triphosphate = 6-[(1S,2R)-1,2-dihydroxy-3-triphosphooxypropyl]-7,8-dihydropterin
Other name(s): GTP cyclohydrolase; guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase; guanosine triphosphate 8-deformylase; dihydroneopterin triphosphate synthase; GTP 8-formylhydrolase
Systematic name: GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase
Comments: The reaction involves hydrolysis of two C-N bonds and isomerization of the pentose unit; the recyclization may be non-enzymic. This enzyme is involved in the de novo synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin from GTP, with the other enzymes involved being EC 1.1.1.153 (sepiapterin reductase) and EC 4.2.3.12 (6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase) [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37289-19-3
References:
1.  Burg, A.W. and Brown, G.M. The biosynthesis of folic acid. 8. Purification and properties of the enzyme that catalyzes the production of formate from carbon atom 8 of guanosine triphosphate. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (1968) 2349–2358. [PMID: 4296838]
2.  Wolf, W.A. and Brown, G.M. The biosynthesis of folic acid. X. Evidence for an Amadori rearrangement in the enzymatic formation of dihydroneopterin triphosphate from GTP. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 192 (1969) 468–478. [DOI] [PMID: 4904679]
3.  Supangat, S., Choi, Y.K., Park, Y.S., Son, D., Han, C.D. and Lee, K.H. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of sepiapterin reductase from Chlorobium tepidum. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 61 (2005) 202–204. [DOI] [PMID: 16510994]
[EC 3.5.4.16 created 1972]
 
 
EC 3.5.4.24     
Accepted name: sepiapterin deaminase
Reaction: sepiapterin + H2O = xanthopterin-B2 + NH3
Systematic name: sepiapterin aminohydrolase
Comments: Also acts on isosepiapterin, but more slowly.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 62213-22-3
References:
1.  Tsusué, M. Studies on sepiapterin deaminase from the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Purification and some properties of the enzyme. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 69 (1971) 781–788. [PMID: 5572808]
[EC 3.5.4.24 created 1976]
 
 
EC 4.1.2.50     
Accepted name: 6-carboxytetrahydropterin synthase
Reaction: 7,8-dihydroneopterin 3′-triphosphate + H2O = 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin + acetaldehyde + triphosphate
For diagram of queuine biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 7,8-dihydroneopterin 3′-triphosphate = 2-amino-6-[(1S,2R)-1,2-dihydroxy-3-triphosphooxypropyl]-4-oxo-2,3,7,8-tetrahydropteridine
6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin = 2-amino-4-oxo-2,3,5,6,7,8-hexahydropteridine-6-carboxylate
Other name(s): CPH4 synthase; queD (gene name); ToyB; ykvK (gene name)
Systematic name: 7,8-dihydroneopterin 3′-triphosphate acetaldehyde-lyase (6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin and triphosphate-forming)
Comments: Binds Zn2+. Isolated from the bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. The reaction is part of the biosynthesis pathway of queuosine.The enzyme from Escherichia coli can also convert 6-pyruvoyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin and sepiapterin to 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin [2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Cicmil, N. and Shi, L. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of queD from Bacillus subtilis, an enzyme involved in queuosine biosynthesis. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 64 (2008) 119–122. [DOI] [PMID: 18259064]
2.  McCarty, R.M., Somogyi, A. and Bandarian, V. Escherichia coli QueD is a 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin synthase. Biochemistry 48 (2009) 2301–2303. [DOI] [PMID: 19231875]
[EC 4.1.2.50 created 2012]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.12     
Accepted name: 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase
Reaction: 7,8-dihydroneopterin 3′-triphosphate = 6-pyruvoyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin + triphosphate
For diagram of biopterin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 7,8-dihydroneopterin 3′-triphosphate = 6-[(1S,2R)-1,2-dihydroxy-3-triphosphooxypropyl]-7,8-dihydropterin
Other name(s): 2-amino-4-oxo-6-[(1S,2R)-1,2-dihydroxy-3-triphosphooxypropyl]-7,8-dihydroxypteridine triphosphate lyase; 6-[(1S,2R)-1,2-dihydroxy-3-triphosphooxypropyl]-7,8-dihydropterin triphosphate-lyase (6-pyruvoyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin-forming)
Systematic name: 7,8-dihydroneopterin 3′-triphosphate triphosphate-lyase (6-pyruvoyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin-forming)
Comments: Catalyses triphosphate elimination and an intramolecular redox reaction in the presence of Mg2+. It has been identified in human liver. This enzyme is involved in the de novo synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin from GTP, with the other enzymes involved being EC 1.1.1.153 (sepiapterin reductase) and EC 3.5.4.16 (GTP cyclohydrolase I) [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 97089-82-2
References:
1.  Milstien, S., Kaufman, S. The biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin in rat brain. Purification and characterization of 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydrobiopterin(2′-oxo) reductase. J. Biol. Chem. 264 (1989) 8066–8073. [PMID: 2656673]
2.  Thöny, B., Leimbacher, W., Bürgisser, D., Heinzmann, C.W. Human 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydrobiopterin synthase: cDNA cloning and heterologous expression of the recombinant enzyme. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 189 (1992) 1437–1443. [DOI] [PMID: 1282802]
3.  Supangat, S., Choi, Y.K., Park, Y.S., Son, D., Han, C.D. and Lee, K.H. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of sepiapterin reductase from Chlorobium tepidum. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 61 (2005) 202–204. [DOI] [PMID: 16510994]
[EC 4.2.3.12 created 1999 as EC 4.6.1.10, transferred 2000 to EC 4.2.3.12, modified 2001]
 
 


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