The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.1.1.314      
Deleted entry: germacrene A alcohol dehydrogenase. Now known to be catalyzed by EC 1.14.14.95, germacrene A hydroxylase
[EC 1.1.1.314 created 2011, deleted 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.120      
Transferred entry: costunolide synthase. Now EC 1.14.14.150, costunolide synthase
[EC 1.14.13.120 created 2011, deleted 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.95     
Accepted name: germacrene A hydroxylase
Reaction: (+)-germacrene A + 3 [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + 3 O2 = germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate + 3 [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + 4 H2O (overall reaction)
(1a) (+)-germacrene A + O2 + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] = germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-ol + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
(1b) germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-ol + O2 + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] = germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-al + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + 2 H2O
(1c) germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-al + O2 + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] = germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
For diagram of costunolide biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): GAO (gene name)
Systematic name: (+)-germacrene-A,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (12-hydroxylating)
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein. This plant enzyme catalyses three steps in a pathway that leads to the biosynthesis of many sesquiterpenoid lactones.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Nguyen, D.T., Gopfert, J.C., Ikezawa, N., Macnevin, G., Kathiresan, M., Conrad, J., Spring, O. and Ro, D.K. Biochemical conservation and evolution of germacrene A oxidase in asteraceae. J. Biol. Chem. 285 (2010) 16588–16598. [DOI] [PMID: 20351109]
2.  Liu, Q., Manzano, D., Tanic, N., Pesic, M., Bankovic, J., Pateraki, I., Ricard, L., Ferrer, A., de Vos, R., van de Krol, S. and Bouwmeester, H. Elucidation and in planta reconstitution of the parthenolide biosynthetic pathway. Metab. Eng. 23 (2014) 145–153. [PMID: 24704560]
[EC 1.14.14.95 created 2011 as EC 1.14.13.123, transferred 2018 to EC 1.14.14.95]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.150     
Accepted name: costunolide synthase
Reaction: germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = (+)-costunolide + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + 2 H2O (overall reaction)
(1a) germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = 6α-hydroxygermacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
(1b) 6α-hydroxygermacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate = (+)-costunolide + H2O (spontaneous)
click here
Other name(s): CYP71BL2
Systematic name: germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (6α-hydroxylating)
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein from chicory plants. The enzyme hydroxylates carbon C-6 of germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate to give 6α-hydroxygermacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate, which spontaneously cyclises to form the lactone ring.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  de Kraker, J.W., Franssen, M.C., Joerink, M., de Groot, A. and Bouwmeester, H.J. Biosynthesis of costunolide, dihydrocostunolide, and leucodin. Demonstration of cytochrome p450-catalyzed formation of the lactone ring present in sesquiterpene lactones of chicory. Plant Physiol. 129 (2002) 257–268. [DOI] [PMID: 12011356]
[EC 1.14.14.150 created 2011 as EC 1.14.13.120, transferred 2018 to EC 1.14.14.150]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.168     
Accepted name: germacrene A acid 8β-hydroxylase
Reaction: germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = 8β-hydroxygermacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
For diagram of costunolide, eupatolide and 8-epi-inunolide biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate = germacrene A acid
8β-hydroxygermacra-1(10),4,11(13)-triene-12-oate = 8β-hydroxygermacrene A acid
inunolide = germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12,8β-lactone
8-epi-inunolide = germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12,8α-lactone
Other name(s): HaG8H; CYP71BL1; CYP71BL6
Systematic name: germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (8β-hydroxylating)
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein from the plant Helianthus annuus (common sunflower). The cyclisation of 8β-hydroxygermacra-1(10),4,11(13)-triene-12-oate to inunolide (12,8β) does not seem to occur spontaneously. The enzyme from Inula hupehensis also forms some 8α-hydroxygermacra-1(10),4,11(13)-triene-12-oate, which spontaneously cyclises to 8-epi-inunolide (12,8α) (cf. EC 1.14.14.170 8-epi-inunolide synthase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Frey, M., Schmauder, K., Pateraki, I. and Spring, O. Biosynthesis of eupatolide-A metabolic route for sesquiterpene lactone formation involving the P450 enzyme CYP71DD6. ACS Chem. Biol. 13 (2018) 1536–1543. [PMID: 29758164]
2.  Gou, J., Hao, F., Huang, C., Kwon, M., Chen, F., Li, C., Liu, C., Ro, D.K., Tang, H. and Zhang, Y. Discovery of a non-stereoselective cytochrome P450 catalyzing either 8α- or 8β-hydroxylation of germacrene A acid from the Chinese medicinal plant, Inula hupehensis. Plant J. 93 (2018) 92–106. [PMID: 29086444]
[EC 1.14.14.168 created 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.169     
Accepted name: eupatolide synthase
Reaction: 8β-hydroxygermacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = eupatolide + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + 2 H2O (overall reaction)
(1a) 8β-hydroxygermacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = 6α,8β-dihydroxygermacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
(1b) 6α,8β-dihydroxygermacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate = eupatolide + H2O (spontaneous)
For diagram of costunolide, eupatolide and 8-epi-inunolide biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 8β-hydroxygermacra-1(10),4,11(13)-triene-12-oate = 8β-hydroxygermacrene A acid
eupatolide = 8β-hydroxygermacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12,6α-lactone
Other name(s): CYP71DD6; HaES
Systematic name: 8β-hydroxygermacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (6α-hydroxylating)
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein from the plant Helianthus annuus (common sunflower).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Frey, M., Schmauder, K., Pateraki, I. and Spring, O. Biosynthesis of eupatolide-A metabolic route for sesquiterpene lactone formation involving the P450 enzyme CYP71DD6. ACS Chem. Biol. 13 (2018) 1536–1543. [PMID: 29758164]
[EC 1.14.14.169 created 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.170     
Accepted name: 8-epi-inunolide synthase
Reaction: germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = 8-epi-inunolide + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + 2 H2O (overall reaction)
(1a) germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = 8α-hydroxygermacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
(1b) 8α-hydroxygermacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate = 8-epi-inunolide + H2O (spontaneous)
For diagram of costunolide, eupatolide and 8-epi-inunolide biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 8-epi-inunolide = germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12,8α-lactone
Other name(s): CYP71BL1
Systematic name: germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (8α-hydroxylating)
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein from the plant Inula hupehensis. The enzyme also produces 8β-hydroxygermacra-1(10),4,11(13)-triene-12-oate (EC 1.14.14.168, germacrene A acid 8β-hydroxylase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Gou, J., Hao, F., Huang, C., Kwon, M., Chen, F., Li, C., Liu, C., Ro, D.K., Tang, H. and Zhang, Y. Discovery of a non-stereoselective cytochrome P450 catalyzing either 8α- or 8β-hydroxylation of germacrene A acid from the Chinese medicinal plant, Inula hupehensis. Plant J. 93 (2018) 92–106. [PMID: 29086444]
[EC 1.14.14.170 created 2018]
 
 


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