The Enzyme Database

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EC 2.3.1.206     
Accepted name: 3,5,7-trioxododecanoyl-CoA synthase
Reaction: 3 malonyl-CoA + hexanoyl-CoA = 3 CoA + 3,5,7-trioxododecanoyl-CoA + 3 CO2
For diagram of cannabinoid biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): TKS (ambiguous); olivetol synthase (incorrect)
Systematic name: malonyl-CoA:hexanoyl-CoA malonyltransferase (3,5,7-trioxododecanoyl-CoA-forming)
Comments: A polyketide synthase catalysing the first committed step in the cannabinoids biosynthetic pathway of the plant Cannabis sativa. The enzyme was previously thought to also function as a cyclase, but the cyclization is now known to be catalysed by EC 4.4.1.26, olivetolic acid cyclase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Taura, F., Tanaka, S., Taguchi, C., Fukamizu, T., Tanaka, H., Shoyama, Y. and Morimoto, S. Characterization of olivetol synthase, a polyketide synthase putatively involved in cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway. FEBS Lett. 583 (2009) 2061–2066. [DOI] [PMID: 19454282]
2.  Gagne, S.J., Stout, J.M., Liu, E., Boubakir, Z., Clark, S.M. and Page, J.E. Identification of olivetolic acid cyclase from Cannabis sativa reveals a unique catalytic route to plant polyketides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109 (2012) 12811–12816. [DOI] [PMID: 22802619]
[EC 2.3.1.206 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.241     
Accepted name: Kdo2-lipid IVA acyltransferase
Reaction: a fatty acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + an α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-[lipid IVA] = an α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-(acyl)-[lipid IVA] + an [acyl-carrier protein]
For diagram of Kdo-Kdo-Lipid IVA metabolism, click here
Glossary: Kdo = 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonic acid
a lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-1-O-phospho-α-D-glucopyranose
an α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-(acyl)-[lipid IVA] = 3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosyl-(2→4)-3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosyl-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-(acyloxy)acyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): LpxL; htrB (gene name); dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA O-dodecanoyltransferase; lauroyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:Kdo2-lipid IVA O-lauroyltransferase; (Kdo)2-lipid IVA lauroyltransferase; α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-(2→6)-lipid IVA lauroyltransferase; dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:Kdo2-lipid IVA O-dodecanoyltransferase; Kdo2-lipid IVA lauroyltransferase
Systematic name: fatty acyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-[lipid IVA] O-acyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of the phosphorylated outer membrane glycolipid lipid A. It transfers an acyl group to the 3-O position of the 3R-hydroxyacyl already attached to the nitrogen of the non-reducing glucosamine molecule. The enzyme from the bacterium Escherichia coli is specific for lauryl (C12) acyl groups, giving the enzyme its previous accepted name. However, enzymes from different species accept highly variable substrates.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Clementz, T., Bednarski, J.J. and Raetz, C.R. Function of the htrB high temperature requirement gene of Escherichia coli in the acylation of lipid A: HtrB catalyzed incorporation of laurate. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 12095–12102. [DOI] [PMID: 8662613]
2.  van der Ley, P., Steeghs, L., Hamstra, H.J., ten Hove, J., Zomer, B. and van Alphen, L. Modification of lipid A biosynthesis in Neisseria meningitidis lpxL mutants: influence on lipopolysaccharide structure, toxicity, and adjuvant activity. Infect. Immun. 69 (2001) 5981–5990. [DOI] [PMID: 11553534]
3.  McLendon, M.K., Schilling, B., Hunt, J.R., Apicella, M.A. and Gibson, B.W. Identification of LpxL, a late acyltransferase of Francisella tularensis. Infect. Immun. 75 (2007) 5518–5531. [DOI] [PMID: 17724076]
4.  Six, D.A., Carty, S.M., Guan, Z. and Raetz, C.R. Purification and mutagenesis of LpxL, the lauroyltransferase of Escherichia coli lipid A biosynthesis. Biochemistry 47 (2008) 8623–8637. [DOI] [PMID: 18656959]
5.  Fathy Mohamed, Y., Hamad, M., Ortega, X.P. and Valvano, M.A. The LpxL acyltransferase is required for normal growth and penta-acylation of lipid A in Burkholderia cenocepacia. Mol. Microbiol. 104 (2017) 144–162. [DOI] [PMID: 28085228]
[EC 2.3.1.241 created 2014, modified 2021]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.243     
Accepted name: acyl-Kdo2-lipid IVA acyltransferase
Reaction: a fatty acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + an α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-(acyl)-[lipid IVA] = an α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-(acyl)2-[lipid IVA] + an [acyl-carrier protein]
For diagram of Kdo-Kdo-Lipid IVA metabolism, click here
Glossary: Kdo = 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonic acid
a lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-1-O-phospho-α-D-glucopyranose
an α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-(acyl)-[lipid IVA] = 3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosyl-(2→4)-3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosyl-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-(acyloxy)acyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
an α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-(acyl)2-[lipid IVA] = 3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosyl-(2→4)-3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosyl-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-(acyloxy)acyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-(acyloxy)acyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-1-O-phospho-α-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): lpxM (gene name); MsbB acyltransferase; myristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-(dodecanoyl)-lipid IVA O-myristoyltransferase; tetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:dodecanoyl-Kdo2-lipid IVA O-tetradecanoyltransferase; lauroyl-Kdo2-lipid IVA myristoyltransferase
Systematic name: fatty acyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-(acyl)-[lipid IVA] O-acyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of the phosphorylated outer membrane glycolipid lipid A. It transfers an acyl group to the 3-O position of the 3R-hydroxyacyl already attached at the 2-O position of the non-reducing glucosamine molecule. The enzyme from the bacterium Escherichia coli is specific for myristoyl (C14) acyl groups, giving the enzyme its previous accepted name. However, enzymes from different species accept highly variable substrates.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Clementz, T., Zhou, Z. and Raetz, C.R. Function of the Escherichia coli msbB gene, a multicopy suppressor of htrB knockouts, in the acylation of lipid A. Acylation by MsbB follows laurate incorporation by HtrB. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 10353–10360. [DOI] [PMID: 9099672]
2.  Dovala, D., Rath, C.M., Hu, Q., Sawyer, W.S., Shia, S., Elling, R.A., Knapp, M.S. and Metzger, L.E., 4th. Structure-guided enzymology of the lipid A acyltransferase LpxM reveals a dual activity mechanism. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113 (2016) E6064–E6071. [DOI] [PMID: 27681620]
[EC 2.3.1.243 created 2014, modified 2021]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.251     
Accepted name: lipid IVA palmitoyltransferase
Reaction: (1) 1-palmitoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + hexa-acyl lipid A = 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + hepta-acyl lipid A
(2) 1-palmitoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + lipid IIA = 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + lipid IIB
(3) 1-palmitoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + lipid IVA = 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + lipid IVB
For diagram of lipid IVB biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: palmitoyl = hexadecanoyl
hexa-acyl lipid A = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
hepta-acyl lipid A = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-(hexadecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid IIA = 4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinopyranosyl 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranose phosphate
lipid IIB = 4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinopyranosyl 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-(hexadecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranose phosphate
lipid IVB = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-(hexadecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
Other name(s): PagP; crcA (gene name)
Systematic name: 1-palmitoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine:lipid-IVA palmitoyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from the bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The enzyme prefers phosphatidylcholine with a palmitoyl group at the sn-1 position and palmitoyl or stearoyl groups at the sn-2 position. There is some activity with corresponding phosphatidylserines but only weak activity with other diacylphosphatidyl compounds. The enzyme also acts on Kdo-(2→4)-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Bishop, R.E., Gibbons, H.S., Guina, T., Trent, M.S., Miller, S.I. and Raetz, C.R. Transfer of palmitate from phospholipids to lipid A in outer membranes of gram-negative bacteria. EMBO J. 19 (2000) 5071–5080. [DOI] [PMID: 11013210]
2.  Cuesta-Seijo, J.A., Neale, C., Khan, M.A., Moktar, J., Tran, C.D., Bishop, R.E., Pomes, R. and Prive, G.G. PagP crystallized from SDS/cosolvent reveals the route for phospholipid access to the hydrocarbon ruler. Structure 18 (2010) 1210–1219. [DOI] [PMID: 20826347]
[EC 2.3.1.251 created 2015]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.301     
Accepted name: mycobacterial β-ketoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] synthase III
Reaction: dodecanoyl-CoA + a malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] = a 3-oxotetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + CoA + CO2
Glossary: dodecanoyl-CoA = lauroyl-CoA
Other name(s): fabH (gene name) (ambiguous); mycobacterial 3-oxoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] synthase III
Systematic name: dodecanoyl-CoA:malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] C-acyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from mycobacteria, provides a link between the type I and type II fatty acid synthase systems (FAS-I and FAS-II, respectively) found in these organisms. The enzyme acts on medium- and long-chain acyl-CoAs (C12-C16) produced by the FAS-I system, condensing them with malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein] (malonyl-AcpM) and forming starter molecules for the FAS-II system, which elongates them into meromycolic acids. The enzyme has no activity with short-chain acyl-CoAs (e.g. acetyl-CoA), which are used by EC 2.3.1.180, β-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase III, or branched-chain acyl-CoAs, which are used by EC 2.3.1.300, branched-chain β-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Scarsdale, J.N., Kazanina, G., He, X., Reynolds, K.A. and Wright, H.T. Crystal structure of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 20516–20522. [DOI] [PMID: 11278743]
2.  Musayev, F., Sachdeva, S., Scarsdale, J.N., Reynolds, K.A. and Wright, H.T. Crystal structure of a substrate complex of Mycobacterium tuberculosis β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (FabH) with lauroyl-coenzyme A. J. Mol. Biol. 346 (2005) 1313–1321. [DOI] [PMID: 15713483]
3.  Brown, A.K., Sridharan, S., Kremer, L., Lindenberg, S., Dover, L.G., Sacchettini, J.C. and Besra, G.S. Probing the mechanism of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III mtFabH: factors influencing catalysis and substrate specificity. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 32539–32547. [DOI] [PMID: 16040614]
4.  Sachdeva, S., Musayev, F.N., Alhamadsheh, M.M., Scarsdale, J.N., Wright, H.T. and Reynolds, K.A. Separate entrance and exit portals for ligand traffic in Mycobacterium tuberculosis FabH. Chem. Biol. 15 (2008) 402–412. [DOI] [PMID: 18420147]
[EC 2.3.1.301 created 2021]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.305     
Accepted name: acyl-[acyl-carrier protein]—UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose N-acyltransferase
Reaction: a (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose = an [acyl-carrier protein] + a UDP-2-acetamido-2,3-dideoxy-3-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-α-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): lpxA (gene name) (ambiguous)
Systematic name: (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]:UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose 3-N-[(3R)-hydroxyacyl]transferase
Comments: The enzyme is found in bacterial species whose lipid A contains 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucopyranose. Some enzymes, such as that from Leptospira interrogans, are highly specific for 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucopyranose, while others, such as the enzyme from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, are also able to accept UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine (cf. EC 2.3.1.129, acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]—UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase). The enzymes from different organisms also differ in their specificity for the acyl donor. The enzyme from Leptospira interrogans is highly specific for (3R)-3-hydroxydodecanoyl-[acp], while that from Mesorhizobium loti functions almost equally well with 10-, 12-, and 14-carbon 3-hydroxyacyl-[acp]s.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Sweet, C.R., Williams, A.H., Karbarz, M.J., Werts, C., Kalb, S.R., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. Enzymatic synthesis of lipid A molecules with four amide-linked acyl chains. LpxA acyltransferases selective for an analog of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine in which an amine replaces the 3"-hydroxyl group. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 25411–25419. [DOI] [PMID: 15044493]
2.  Robins, L.I., Williams, A.H. and Raetz, C.R. Structural basis for the sugar nucleotide and acyl-chain selectivity of Leptospira interrogans LpxA. Biochemistry 48 (2009) 6191–6201. [DOI] [PMID: 19456129]
[EC 2.3.1.305 created 2021]
 
 
EC 2.3.3.2     
Accepted name: decylcitrate synthase
Reaction: lauroyl-CoA + H2O + oxaloacetate = (2S,3S)-2-hydroxytridecane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate + CoA
For diagram of reaction, click here
Other name(s): 2-decylcitrate synthase; (2S,3S)-2-hydroxytridecane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate oxaloacetate-lyase (CoA-acylating)
Systematic name: dodecanoyl-CoA:oxaloacetate C-dodecanoyltransferase (thioester-hydrolysing, 1-carboxyundecyl-forming)
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9068-72-8
References:
1.  Maahlén, A. and Gatenbeck, S. A metabolic variation in Penicillium spiculisporum Lehman. II. Purification and some properties of the enzyme synthesizing (-)-decylcitric acid. Acta Chem. Scand. 22 (1968) 2617–2623. [PMID: 5719165]
2.  Maahlén, A. Properties of 2-decylcitrate synthase from Penicillium spiculisporum Lehman. Eur. J. Biochem. 22 (1971) 104–114. [DOI] [PMID: 5099208]
[EC 2.3.3.2 created 1972 as EC 4.1.3.23, transferred 2002 to EC 2.3.3.2]
 
 
EC 2.3.3.4     
Accepted name: decylhomocitrate synthase
Reaction: dodecanoyl-CoA + H2O + 2-oxoglutarate = (3S,4S)-3-hydroxytetradecane-1,3,4-tricarboxylate + CoA
For diagram of reaction, click here
Other name(s): 2-decylhomocitrate synthase; 3-hydroxytetradecane-1,3,4-tricarboxylate 2-oxoglutarate-lyase (CoA-acylating)
Systematic name: dodecanoyl-CoA:2-oxoglutarate C-dodecanoyltransferase (thioester-hydrolysing, 1-carboxyundecyl-forming)
Comments: Decanoyl-CoA can act instead of dodecanoyl-CoA, but 2-oxoglutarate cannot be replaced by oxaloacetate or pyruvate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 51845-40-0
References:
1.  Maahlén, A. Purification and some properties of 2-decylhomocitrate synthase from Penicillium spiculisporum. Eur. J. Biochem. 38 (1973) 32–39. [DOI] [PMID: 4774124]
2.  Brandäge, S., Dahlman, O., Lindqvist, B., Maahlén, A. and Mörch, L. Absolute configuration and enantiospecific synthesis of spiculisporic acid. Acta Chem. Scand. 38B (1984) 837–844.
[EC 2.3.3.4 created 1976 as EC 4.1.3.29, transferred 2002 to EC 2.3.3.4]
 
 
EC 2.4.2.43     
Accepted name: lipid IVA 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinosyltransferase
Reaction: (1) 4-amino-4-deoxy-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate + α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid A = α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-[4-P-L-Ara4N]-lipid A + ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate
(2) 4-amino-4-deoxy-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate + lipid IVA = lipid IIA + ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate
(3) 4-amino-4-deoxy-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate + α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = 4′-α-L-Ara4N-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate
For diagram of lipid IIA biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
lipid IIA = 4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinopyranosyl 2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
4′-α-L-Ara4N-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = 4-amino-4-deoxy-α-L-arabinopyranosyl 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosy-(1→6)-2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid A = lipid A of Escherichia coli = 2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid A = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-[4′-P-α-L-Ara4N]-lipid A = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-(4-amino-4-deoxy-α-L-arabinopyranosyl)phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): undecaprenyl phosphate-α-L-Ara4N transferase; 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose lipid A transferase; polymyxin resistance protein PmrK; arnT (gene name)
Systematic name: 4-amino-4-deoxy-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-phosphate:lipid IVA 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinopyranosyltransferase
Comments: Integral membrane protein present in the inner membrane of certain Gram negative endobacteria. In strains that do not produce 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo), the enzyme adds a single arabinose unit to the 1-phosphate moiety of the tetra-acylated lipid A precursor, lipid IVA. In the presence of a Kdo disaccharide, the enzyme primarily adds an arabinose unit to the 4-phosphate of lipid A molecules. The Salmonella typhimurium enzyme can add arabinose units to both positions.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Trent, M.S., Ribeiro, A.A., Lin, S., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. An inner membrane enzyme in Salmonella and Escherichia coli that transfers 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose to lipid A: induction on polymyxin-resistant mutants and role of a novel lipid-linked donor. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 43122–43131. [DOI] [PMID: 11535604]
2.  Trent, M.S., Ribeiro, A.A., Doerrler, W.T., Lin, S., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. Accumulation of a polyisoprene-linked amino sugar in polymyxin-resistant Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli: structural characterization and transfer to lipid A in the periplasm. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 43132–43144. [DOI] [PMID: 11535605]
3.  Zhou, Z., Ribeiro, A.A., Lin, S., Cotter, R.J., Miller, S.I. and Raetz, C.R. Lipid A modifications in polymyxin-resistant Salmonella typhimurium: PMRA-dependent 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose, and phosphoethanolamine incorporation. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 43111–43121. [DOI] [PMID: 11535603]
4.  Bretscher, L.E., Morrell, M.T., Funk, A.L. and Klug, C.S. Purification and characterization of the L-Ara4N transferase protein ArnT from Salmonella typhimurium. Protein Expr. Purif. 46 (2006) 33–39. [DOI] [PMID: 16226890]
5.  Impellitteri, N.A., Merten, J.A., Bretscher, L.E. and Klug, C.S. Identification of a functionally important loop in Salmonella typhimurium ArnT. Biochemistry 49 (2010) 29–35. [DOI] [PMID: 19947657]
[EC 2.4.2.43 created 2010, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.7.4.29     
Accepted name: Kdo2-lipid A phosphotransferase
Reaction: ditrans-octacis-undecaprenyl diphosphate + α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid A = ditrans-octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate + α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid A 1-diphosphate
Glossary: lipid A = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid A 1-diphosphate =
2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl diphosphate
Other name(s): lipid A undecaprenyl phosphotransferase; LpxT; YeiU
Systematic name: ditrans-octacis-undecaprenyl-diphosphate:α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid-A phosphotransferase
Comments: An inner-membrane protein. The activity of the enzyme is regulated by PmrA. In vitro the enzyme can use diacylglycerol 3-diphosphate as the phosphate donor.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Touze, T., Tran, A.X., Hankins, J.V., Mengin-Lecreulx, D. and Trent, M.S. Periplasmic phosphorylation of lipid A is linked to the synthesis of undecaprenyl phosphate. Mol. Microbiol. 67 (2008) 264–277. [DOI] [PMID: 18047581]
2.  Herrera, C.M., Hankins, J.V. and Trent, M.S. Activation of PmrA inhibits LpxT-dependent phosphorylation of lipid A promoting resistance to antimicrobial peptides. Mol. Microbiol. 76 (2010) 1444–1460. [DOI] [PMID: 20384697]
[EC 2.7.4.29 created 2015]
 
 
EC 2.7.4.30      
Transferred entry: lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase. Now EC 2.7.8.43, lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase
[EC 2.7.4.30 created 2015, deleted 2016]
 
 
EC 2.7.8.42     
Accepted name: Kdo2-lipid A phosphoethanolamine 7′′-transferase
Reaction: (1) diacylphosphatidylethanolamine + α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid A = diacylglycerol + 7-O-[2-aminoethoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl]-α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid A
(2) diacylphosphatidylethanolamine + α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = diacylglycerol + 7-O-[2-aminoethoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl]-α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA
Glossary: lipid A = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
Other name(s): eptB (gene name)
Systematic name: diacylphosphatidylethanolamine:α-D-Kdo-(2→4)-α-D-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid-A 7′′-phosphoethanolaminetransferase
Comments: The enzyme has been characterized from the bacterium Escherichia coli. It is activated by Ca2+ ions and is silenced by the sRNA MgrR.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Kanipes, M.I., Lin, S., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. Ca2+-induced phosphoethanolamine transfer to the outer 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid moiety of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. A novel membrane enzyme dependent upon phosphatidylethanolamine. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 1156–1163. [DOI] [PMID: 11042192]
2.  Reynolds, C.M., Kalb, S.R., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. A phosphoethanolamine transferase specific for the outer 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid residue of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Identification of the eptB gene and Ca2+ hypersensitivity of an eptB deletion mutant. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 21202–21211. [DOI] [PMID: 15795227]
3.  Moon, K., Six, D.A., Lee, H.J., Raetz, C.R. and Gottesman, S. Complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of an enzyme for lipopolysaccharide modification. Mol. Microbiol. 89 (2013) 52–64. [DOI] [PMID: 23659637]
[EC 2.7.8.42 created 2015]
 
 
EC 2.7.8.43     
Accepted name: lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase
Reaction: (1) diacylphosphatidylethanolamine + lipid A = diacylglycerol + lipid A 1-(2-aminoethyl diphosphate)
(2) diacylphosphatidylethanolamine + lipid A = diacylglycerol + lipid A 4′-(2-aminoethyl diphosphate)
(3) diacylphosphatidylethanolamine + lipid A 1-(2-aminoethyl diphosphate) = diacylglycerol + lipid A 1,4′-bis(2-aminoethyl diphosphate)
Glossary: lipid A (Campylobacter jejuni) = 2,3-dideoxy-2,3-bis[(3R)-3-(hexadecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid A (Escherichia coli) =
2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid A (Helicobacter pylori) = 2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(octadecanoyloxy)octadecanamido]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyhexadecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxyoctadecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid A (Neisseria meningitidis) =
2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxydodecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxydodecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl phosphate
lipid A 1-[(2-aminoethyl) diphosphate] = P1-(2-aminoethyl)
P2-(2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl) diphosphate
lipid A 1,4′-bis(2-aminoethyl diphosphate) = P1-(2-aminoethyl)
P2-(2-deoxy-2-[(3R)-3-(tetradecanoyloxy)tetradecanamido]-3-O-[(3R)-3-(dodecanoyloxy)tetradecanoyl]-4-O-(2-aminoethyldiphospho)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanamido]-α-D-glucopyranosyl) diphosphate
Other name(s): lipid A PEA transferase; LptA
Systematic name: diacylphosphatidylethanolamine:lipid-A ethanolaminephosphotransferase
Comments: The enzyme adds one or two ethanolamine phosphate groups to lipid A giving a diphosphate, sometimes in combination with EC 2.4.2.43 (lipid IVA 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinosyltransferase) giving products with 4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinose groups at the phosphates of lipid A instead of diphosphoethanolamine groups. It will also act on lipid IVA and Kdo2-lipid A.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Tran, A.X., Karbarz, M.J., Wang, X., Raetz, C.R., McGrath, S.C., Cotter, R.J. and Trent, M.S. Periplasmic cleavage and modification of the 1-phosphate group of Helicobacter pylori lipid A. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 55780–55791. [DOI] [PMID: 15489235]
2.  Herrera, C.M., Hankins, J.V. and Trent, M.S. Activation of PmrA inhibits LpxT-dependent phosphorylation of lipid A promoting resistance to antimicrobial peptides. Mol. Microbiol. 76 (2010) 1444–1460. [DOI] [PMID: 20384697]
3.  Cullen, T.W. and Trent, M.S. A link between the assembly of flagella and lipooligosaccharide of the Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107 (2010) 5160–5165. [DOI] [PMID: 20194750]
4.  Anandan, A., Piek, S., Kahler, C.M. and Vrielink, A. Cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of an endotoxin-biosynthesis enzyme from Neisseria meningitidis. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 68 (2012) 1494–1497. [DOI] [PMID: 23192031]
5.  Wanty, C., Anandan, A., Piek, S., Walshe, J., Ganguly, J., Carlson, R.W., Stubbs, K.A., Kahler, C.M. and Vrielink, A. The structure of the neisserial lipooligosaccharide phosphoethanolamine transferase A (LptA) required for resistance to polymyxin. J. Mol. Biol. 425 (2013) 3389–3402. [DOI] [PMID: 23810904]
[EC 2.7.8.43 created 2015 as EC 2.7.4.30, transferred 2016 to EC 2.7.8.43]
 
 
EC 3.1.1.81     
Accepted name: quorum-quenching N-acyl-homoserine lactonase
Reaction: an N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone + H2O = an N-acyl-L-homoserine
Other name(s): acyl homoserine degrading enzyme; acyl-homoserine lactone acylase; AHL lactonase; AHL-degrading enzyme; AHL-inactivating enzyme; AHLase; AhlD; AhlK; AiiA; AiiA lactonase; AiiA-like protein; AiiB; AiiC; AttM; delactonase; lactonase-like enzyme; N-acyl homoserine lactonase; N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolase; N-acyl-homoserine lactone lactonase; N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone hydrolase; quorum-quenching lactonase; quorum-quenching N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolase
Systematic name: N-acyl-L-homoserine-lactone lactonohydrolase
Comments: Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are produced by a number of bacterial species and are used by them to regulate the expression of virulence genes in a process known as quorum-sensing. Each bacterial cell has a basal level of AHL and, once the population density reaches a critical level, it triggers AHL-signalling which, in turn, initiates the expression of particular virulence genes [5]. Plants or animals capable of degrading AHLs would have a therapeutic advantage in avoiding bacterial infection as they could prevent AHL-signalling and the expression of virulence genes in quorum-sensing bacteria [5]. N-(3-Oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone and N-(3-oxooctanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone can act as substrates [5].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 389867-43-0
References:
1.  Thomas, P.W., Stone, E.M., Costello, A.L., Tierney, D.L. and Fast, W. The quorum-quenching lactonase from Bacillus thuringiensis is a metalloprotein. Biochemistry 44 (2005) 7559–7569. [DOI] [PMID: 15895999]
2.  Dong, Y.H., Gusti, A.R., Zhang, Q., Xu, J.L. and Zhang, L.H. Identification of quorum-quenching N-acyl homoserine lactonases from Bacillus species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68 (2002) 1754–1759. [DOI] [PMID: 11916693]
3.  Wang, L.H., Weng, L.X., Dong, Y.H. and Zhang, L.H. Specificity and enzyme kinetics of the quorum-quenching N-acyl homoserine lactone lactonase (AHL-lactonase). J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 13645–13651. [DOI] [PMID: 14734559]
4.  Dong, Y.H., Xu, J.L., Li, X.Z. and Zhang, L.H. AiiA, an enzyme that inactivates the acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal and attenuates the virulence of Erwinia carotovora. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97 (2000) 3526–3531. [DOI] [PMID: 10716724]
5.  Dong, Y.H., Wang, L.H., Xu, J.L., Zhang, H.B., Zhang, X.F. and Zhang, L.H. Quenching quorum-sensing-dependent bacterial infection by an N-acyl homoserine lactonase. Nature 411 (2001) 813–817. [DOI] [PMID: 11459062]
6.  Lee, S.J., Park, S.Y., Lee, J.J., Yum, D.Y., Koo, B.T. and Lee, J.K. Genes encoding the N-acyl homoserine lactone-degrading enzyme are widespread in many subspecies of Bacillus thuringiensis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68 (2002) 3919–3924. [DOI] [PMID: 12147491]
7.  Park, S.Y., Lee, S.J., Oh, T.K., Oh, J.W., Koo, B.T., Yum, D.Y. and Lee, J.K. AhlD, an N-acylhomoserine lactonase in Arthrobacter sp., and predicted homologues in other bacteria. Microbiology 149 (2003) 1541–1550. [DOI] [PMID: 12777494]
8.  Ulrich, R.L. Quorum quenching: enzymatic disruption of N-acylhomoserine lactone-mediated bacterial communication in Burkholderia thailandensis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70 (2004) 6173–6180. [DOI] [PMID: 15466564]
9.  Kim, M.H., Choi, W.C., Kang, H.O., Lee, J.S., Kang, B.S., Kim, K.J., Derewenda, Z.S., Oh, T.K., Lee, C.H. and Lee, J.K. The molecular structure and catalytic mechanism of a quorum-quenching N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone hydrolase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102 (2005) 17606–17611. [DOI] [PMID: 16314577]
10.  Liu, D., Lepore, B.W., Petsko, G.A., Thomas, P.W., Stone, E.M., Fast, W. and Ringe, D. Three-dimensional structure of the quorum-quenching N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolase from Bacillus thuringiensis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102 (2005) 11882–11887. [DOI] [PMID: 16087890]
11.  Yang, F., Wang, L.H., Wang, J., Dong, Y.H., Hu, J.Y. and Zhang, L.H. Quorum quenching enzyme activity is widely conserved in the sera of mammalian species. FEBS Lett. 579 (2005) 3713–3717. [DOI] [PMID: 15963993]
[EC 3.1.1.81 created 2007]
 
 
EC 3.1.2.21     
Accepted name: dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase
Reaction: a dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + H2O = an [acyl-carrier protein] + dodecanoate
Other name(s): lauryl-acyl-carrier-protein hydrolase; dodecanoyl-acyl-carrier-protein hydrolase; dodecyl-acyl-carrier protein hydrolase; dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] hydrolase; dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase
Systematic name: dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] hydrolase
Comments: Acts on the acyl-carrier-protein thioester of C12 and, with a much lower activity, C14 fatty acids. The derivative of oleic acid is hydrolysed very slowly (cf. EC 3.1.2.14, oleoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 137903-37-8
References:
1.  Pollard, M.R., Anderson, L., Fan, C., Hawkins, D.J., Davies, H.M. A specific acyl-ACP thioesterase implicated in medium-chain fatty acid production in immature cotyledons of Umbellularia californica. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 284 (1991) 306–312. [DOI] [PMID: 1989513]
2.  Davies, H.M., Anderson, L., Fan, C., Hawkins, D.J. Developmental induction, purification, and further characterization of 12:0-ACP thioesterase from immature cotyledons of Umbellularia californica. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 290 (1991) 37–45. [DOI] [PMID: 1898097]
[EC 3.1.2.21 created 1999]
 
 
EC 3.5.1.97     
Accepted name: acyl-homoserine-lactone acylase
Reaction: an N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone + H2O = L-homoserine lactone + a carboxylate
Other name(s): acyl-homoserine lactone acylase; AHL-acylase; AiiD; N-acyl-homoserine lactone acylase; PA2385 protein; quorum-quenching AHL acylase; quorum-quenching enzyme; QuiP
Systematic name: N-acyl-L-homoserine-lactone amidohydrolase
Comments: Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are produced by a number of bacterial species and are used by them to regulate the expression of virulence genes in a process known as quorum-sensing. Each bacterial cell has a basal level of AHL and, once the population density reaches a critical level, it triggers AHL-signalling which, in turn, initiates the expression of particular virulence genes. Plants or animals capable of degrading AHLs would have a therapeutic advantage in avoiding bacterial infection as they could prevent AHL-signalling and the expression of virulence genes in quorum-sensing bacteria. This quorum-quenching enzyme removes the fatty-acid side chain from the homoserine lactone ring of AHL-dependent quorum-sensing signal molecules. It has broad specificity for AHLs with side changes ranging in length from 11 to 14 carbons. Substituents at the 3′-position, as found in N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, do not affect this activity.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Lin, Y.H., Xu, J.L., Hu, J., Wang, L.H., Ong, S.L., Leadbetter, J.R. and Zhang, L.H. Acyl-homoserine lactone acylase from Ralstonia strain XJ12B represents a novel and potent class of quorum-quenching enzymes. Mol. Microbiol. 47 (2003) 849–860. [DOI] [PMID: 12535081]
2.  Sio, C.F., Otten, L.G., Cool, R.H., Diggle, S.P., Braun, P.G., Bos, R., Daykin, M., Cámara, M., Williams, P. and Quax, W.J. Quorum quenching by an N-acyl-homoserine lactone acylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Infect. Immun. 74 (2006) 1673–1682. [DOI] [PMID: 16495538]
[EC 3.5.1.97 created 2007]
 
 
EC 4.4.1.26     
Accepted name: olivetolic acid cyclase
Reaction: 3,5,7-trioxododecanoyl-CoA = CoA + 2,4-dihydroxy-6-pentylbenzoate
For diagram of cannabinoid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 2,4-dihydroxy-6-pentylbenzoate = olivetolate
Other name(s): OAC
Systematic name: 3,5,7-trioxododecanoyl-CoA CoA-lyase (2,4-dihydroxy-6-pentylbenzoate-forming)
Comments: Part of the cannabinoids biosynthetic pathway in the plant Cannabis sativa.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Gagne, S.J., Stout, J.M., Liu, E., Boubakir, Z., Clark, S.M. and Page, J.E. Identification of olivetolic acid cyclase from Cannabis sativa reveals a unique catalytic route to plant polyketides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109 (2012) 12811–12816. [DOI] [PMID: 22802619]
[EC 4.4.1.26 created 2012]
 
 


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