The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.3.1.8     
Accepted name: acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (NADP+)
Reaction: acyl-CoA + NADP+ = 2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
Other name(s): 2-enoyl-CoA reductase; dehydrogenase, acyl coenzyme A (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate); enoyl coenzyme A reductase; crotonyl coenzyme A reductase; crotonyl-CoA reductase; acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (NADP+)
Systematic name: acyl-CoA:NADP+ 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: The liver enzyme acts on enoyl-CoA derivatives of carbon chain length 4 to 16, with optimum activity on 2-hexenoyl-CoA. In Escherichia coli, cis-specific and trans-specific enzymes exist [EC 1.3.1.37 cis-2-enoyl-CoA reductase (NADPH) and EC 1.3.1.38 trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase (NADPH)].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37251-07-3
References:
1.  Dommes, V., Luster, W., Cvetanovic, M. and Kunau, W.-H. Purification by affinity chromatography of 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductases from bovine liver and Escherichia coli. Eur. J. Biochem. 125 (1982) 335–341. [DOI] [PMID: 6749495]
2.  Seubert, W., Lamberts, I., Kramer, R. and Ohly, B. On the mechanism of malonyl-CoA-independent fatty acid synthesis. I. The mechanism of elongation of long-chain fatty acids by acetyl-CoA. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 164 (1968) 498–517. [DOI] [PMID: 4387390]
[EC 1.3.1.8 created 1972, modified 1986]
 
 
EC 1.3.1.84     
Accepted name: acrylyl-CoA reductase (NADPH)
Reaction: propanoyl-CoA + NADP+ = acryloyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
For diagram of the 3-hydroxypropanoate cycle, click here, for diagram of the 3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanoate cycle and dicarboxylate/4-hydroxybutanoate cycle in archaea, click here and for diagram of 3-(dimethylsulfonio)propanoate met
Glossary: propanoyl-CoA = propionyl-CoA
acryloyl-CoA = acrylyl-CoA = propenoyl-CoA
Systematic name: propanoyl-CoA:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Catalyses a step in the 3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanoate cycle, an autotrophic CO2 fixation pathway found in some thermoacidophilic archaea [1]. The enzyme from Sulfolobus tokodaii does not act on either NADH or crotonyl-CoA [2]. Different from EC 1.3.1.8, which acts only on enoyl-CoA derivatives of carbon chain length 4 to 16. Contains Zn2+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Berg, I.A., Kockelkorn, D., Buckel, W. and Fuchs, G. A 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate autotrophic carbon dioxide assimilation pathway in Archaea. Science 318 (2007) 1782–1786. [DOI] [PMID: 18079405]
2.  Teufel, R., Kung, J.W., Kockelkorn, D., Alber, B.E. and Fuchs, G. 3-hydroxypropionyl-coenzyme A dehydratase and acryloyl-coenzyme A reductase, enzymes of the autotrophic 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle in the Sulfolobales. J. Bacteriol. 191 (2009) 4572–4581. [DOI] [PMID: 19429610]
[EC 1.3.1.84 created 2009, modified 2014]
 
 
EC 1.3.1.85     
Accepted name: crotonyl-CoA carboxylase/reductase
Reaction: (2S)-ethylmalonyl-CoA + NADP+ = (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA + CO2 + NADPH + H+
Glossary: (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA = crotonyl-CoA
Other name(s): CCR; crotonyl-CoA reductase (carboxylating)
Systematic name: (2S)-ethylmalonyl-CoA:NADP+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating)
Comments: The reaction is catalysed in the reverse direction. This enzyme, isolated from the bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, catalyses (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA-dependent oxidation of NADPH in the presence of CO2. When CO2 is absent, the enzyme catalyses the reduction of (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA to butanoyl-CoA, but with only 10% of maximal activity (relative to (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA carboxylation).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Erb, T.J., Berg, I.A., Brecht, V., Muller, M., Fuchs, G. and Alber, B.E. Synthesis of C5-dicarboxylic acids from C2-units involving crotonyl-CoA carboxylase/reductase: the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104 (2007) 10631–10636. [DOI] [PMID: 17548827]
2.  Erb, T.J., Brecht, V., Fuchs, G., Muller, M. and Alber, B.E. Carboxylation mechanism and stereochemistry of crotonyl-CoA carboxylase/reductase, a carboxylating enoyl-thioester reductase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106 (2009) 8871–8876. [DOI] [PMID: 19458256]
[EC 1.3.1.85 created 2011]
 
 
EC 1.3.1.86     
Accepted name: crotonyl-CoA reductase
Reaction: butanoyl-CoA + NADP+ = (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
For diagram of lysine catabolism, click here
Glossary: (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA = crotonyl-CoA
butanoyl-CoA = butyryl-CoA
Other name(s): butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase; butyryl dehydrogenase; unsaturated acyl-CoA reductase; ethylene reductase; enoyl-coenzyme A reductase; unsaturated acyl coenzyme A reductase; butyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase; short-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase; short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase; 3-hydroxyacyl CoA reductase; butanoyl-CoA:(acceptor) 2,3-oxidoreductase; CCR
Systematic name: butanoyl-CoA:NADP+ 2,3-oxidoreductase
Comments: Catalyses the reaction in the reverse direction. This enzyme from Streptomyces collinus is specific for (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA, and is proposed to provide butanoyl-CoA as a starter unit for straight-chain fatty acid biosynthesis.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Wallace, K.K., Bao, Z.Y., Dai, H., Digate, R., Schuler, G., Speedie, M.K. and Reynolds, K.A. Purification of crotonyl-CoA reductase from Streptomyces collinus and cloning, sequencing and expression of the corresponding gene in Escherichia coli. Eur. J. Biochem. 233 (1995) 954–962. [DOI] [PMID: 8521864]
[EC 1.3.1.86 created 2011]
 
 
EC 1.3.1.109     
Accepted name: butanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase complex (NAD+, ferredoxin)
Reaction: butanoyl-CoA + 2 NAD+ + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster = (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA + 2 NADH + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster
Glossary: (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA = crotonyl-CoA
Other name(s): bifurcating butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase; butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex; Etf-Bcd complex; bifurcating butanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase; butanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex; butanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase (NAD+, ferredoxin)
Systematic name: butanoyl-CoA:NAD+, ferredoxin oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme is a complex of a flavin-containing dehydrogenase component (Bcd) and an electron-transfer flavoprotein dimer (EtfAB). The enzyme complex, isolated from the bacteria Acidaminococcus fermentans and butanoate-producing Clostridia species, couples the exergonic reduction of (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA to butanoyl-CoA by NADH to the endergonic reduction of ferredoxin by NADH, using electron bifurcation to overcome the steep energy barrier in ferredoxin reduction.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Li, F., Hinderberger, J., Seedorf, H., Zhang, J., Buckel, W. and Thauer, R.K. Coupled ferredoxin and crotonyl coenzyme A (CoA) reduction with NADH catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex from Clostridium kluyveri. J. Bacteriol. 190 (2008) 843–850. [DOI] [PMID: 17993531]
2.  Aboulnaga el,-H., Pinkenburg, O., Schiffels, J., El-Refai, A., Buckel, W. and Selmer, T. Effect of an oxygen-tolerant bifurcating butyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase/electron-transferring flavoprotein complex from Clostridium difficile on butyrate production in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 195 (2013) 3704–3713. [DOI] [PMID: 23772070]
3.  Chowdhury, N.P., Mowafy, A.M., Demmer, J.K., Upadhyay, V., Koelzer, S., Jayamani, E., Kahnt, J., Hornung, M., Demmer, U., Ermler, U. and Buckel, W. Studies on the mechanism of electron bifurcation catalyzed by electron transferring flavoprotein (Etf) and butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (Bcd) of Acidaminococcus fermentans. J. Biol. Chem. 289 (2014) 5145–5157. [DOI] [PMID: 24379410]
4.  Chowdhury, N.P., Kahnt, J. and Buckel, W. Reduction of ferredoxin or oxygen by flavin-based electron bifurcation in Megasphaera elsdenii. FEBS J. 282 (2015) 3149–3160. [DOI] [PMID: 25903584]
[EC 1.3.1.109 created 2015, modified 2021]
 
 
EC 1.3.8.4     
Accepted name: isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase
Reaction: isovaleryl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein = 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein
Other name(s): isovaleryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase; isovaleroyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase; 3-methylbutanoyl-CoA:(acceptor) oxidoreductase
Systematic name: 3-methylbutanoyl-CoA:electron-transfer flavoprotein oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains FAD as prosthetic group. Pentanoate can act as donor.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37274-61-6
References:
1.  Bachhawat, B.K., Robinson, W.G. and Coon, M.J. Enzymatic carboxylation of β-hydroxyisovaleryl coenzyme A. J. Biol. Chem. 219 (1956) 539–550. [PMID: 13319276]
2.  Ikeda, Y. and Tanaka, K. Purification and characterization of isovaleryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase from rat liver mitochondria. J. Biol. Chem. 258 (1983) 1077–1085. [PMID: 6401713]
3.  Tanaka, K., Budd, M.A., Efron, M.L. and Isselbacher, K.J. Isovaleric acidemia: a new genetic defect of leucine metabolism. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 56 (1966) 236–242. [DOI] [PMID: 5229850]
[EC 1.3.8.4 created 1978 as EC 1.3.99.10, modified 1986, transferred 2012 to EC 1.3.8.4]
 
 
EC 1.3.8.6     
Accepted name: glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (ETF)
Reaction: glutaryl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein = crotonyl-CoA + CO2 + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein (overall reaction)
(1a) glutaryl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein = (E)-glutaconyl-CoA + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein
(1b) (E)-glutaconyl-CoA = crotonyl-CoA + CO2
For diagram of Benzoyl-CoA catabolism, click here
Glossary: (E)-glutaconyl-CoA = (2E)-4-carboxybut-2-enoyl-CoA
crotonyl-CoA = (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA
Other name(s): glutaryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase; glutaryl-CoA:(acceptor) 2,3-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating); glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase
Systematic name: glutaryl-CoA:electron-transfer flavoprotein 2,3-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating)
Comments: Contains FAD. The enzyme catalyses the oxidation of glutaryl-CoA to glutaconyl-CoA (which remains bound to the enzyme), and the decarboxylation of the latter to crotonyl-CoA (cf. EC 7.2.4.5, glutaconyl-CoA decarboxylase). FAD is the electron acceptor in the oxidation of the substrate, and its reoxidation by electron-transfer flavoprotein completes the catalytic cycle. The anaerobic, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfococcus multivorans contains two glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenases: a decarboxylating enzyme (this entry), and a non-decarboxylating enzyme that only catalyses the oxidation to glutaconyl-CoA [EC 1.3.99.32, glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (acceptor)].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 37255-38-2
References:
1.  Besrat, A., Polan, C.E. and Henderson, L.M. Mammalian metabolism of glutaric acid. J. Biol. Chem. 244 (1969) 1461–1467. [PMID: 4304226]
2.  Hartel, U., Eckel, E., Koch, J., Fuchs, G., Linder, D. and Buckel, W. Purification of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas sp., an enzyme involved in the anaerobic degradation of benzoate. Arch. Microbiol. 159 (1993) 174–181. [PMID: 8439237]
3.  Dwyer, T.M., Zhang, L., Muller, M., Marrugo, F. and Frerman, F. The functions of the flavin contact residues, αArg249 and βTyr16, in human electron transfer flavoprotein. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1433 (1999) 139–152. [DOI] [PMID: 10446367]
4.  Rao, K.S., Albro, M., Dwyer, T.M. and Frerman, F.E. Kinetic mechanism of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. Biochemistry 45 (2006) 15853–15861. [DOI] [PMID: 17176108]
[EC 1.3.8.6 created 1972 as EC 1.3.99.7, transferred 2012 to EC 1.3.8.6, modified 2013, modified 2019]
 
 
EC 1.17.5.1     
Accepted name: phenylacetyl-CoA dehydrogenase
Reaction: phenylacetyl-CoA + H2O + 2 quinone = phenylglyoxylyl-CoA + 2 quinol
For diagram of phenylacetyl-CoA metabolism, click here
Other name(s): phenylacetyl-CoA:acceptor oxidoreductase
Systematic name: phenylacetyl-CoA:quinone oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme from Thauera aromatica is a membrane-bound molybdenum—iron—sulfur protein. The enzyme is specific for phenylacetyl-CoA as substrate. Phenylacetate, acetyl-CoA, benzoyl-CoA, propanoyl-CoA, crotonyl-CoA, succinyl-CoA and 3-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA cannot act as substrates. The oxygen atom introduced into the product, phenylglyoxylyl-CoA, is derived from water and not molecular oxygen. Duroquinone, menaquinone and 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) can act as acceptor, but the likely physiological acceptor is ubiquinone [1]. A second enzyme, EC 3.1.2.25, phenylacetyl-CoA hydrolase, converts the phenylglyoxylyl-CoA formed into phenylglyoxylate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 210756-43-7
References:
1.  Rhee, S.K. and Fuchs, G. Phenylacetyl-CoA:acceptor oxidoreductase, a membrane-bound molybdenum-iron-sulfur enzyme involved in anaerobic metabolism of phenylalanine in the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica. Eur. J. Biochem. 262 (1999) 507–515. [DOI] [PMID: 10336636]
2.  Schneider, S. and Fuchs, G. Phenylacetyl-CoA:acceptor oxidoreductase, a new α-oxidizing enzyme that produces phenylglyoxylate. Assay, membrane localization, and differential production in Thauera aromatica. Arch. Microbiol. 169 (1998) 509–516. [PMID: 9575237]
[EC 1.17.5.1 created 2004]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.186     
Accepted name: pseudotropine acyltransferase
Reaction: an acyl-CoA + pseudotropine = CoA + an O-acylpseudotropine
For diagram of tropane alkaloid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: tropine = tropan-3β-ol = 3β-hydroxytropane
Other name(s): pseudotropine:acyl-CoA transferase; tigloyl-CoA:pseudotropine acyltransferase; acetyl-CoA:pseudotropine acyltransferase; pseudotropine acetyltransferase; pseudotropine tigloyltransferase; PAT (ambiguous)
Systematic name: acyl-CoA:pseudotropine O-acyltransferase
Comments: This enzyme exhibits absolute specificity for the exo/3β configuration found in pseudotropine as tropine (tropan-3α-ol; see EC 2.3.1.185, tropine acyltransferase) and nortropine are not substrates [1]. Acts on a wide range of aliphatic acyl-CoA derivatives, including acetyl-CoA, β-methylcrotonyl-CoA and tigloyl-CoA [1].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 138440-78-5, 162535-26-4
References:
1.  Rabot, S., Peerless, A.C.J. and Robins, R.J. Tigloyl-CoA:pseudotropine acyltransferase — an enzyme of tropane alkaloid biosynthesis. Phytochemistry 39 (1995) 315–322.
2.  Robins, R.J., Bachmann, P., Robinson, T., Rhodes, M.J. and Yamada, Y. The formation of 3α- and 3β-acetoxytropanes by Datura stramonium transformed root cultures involves two acetyl-CoA-dependent acyltransferases. FEBS Lett. 292 (1991) 293–297. [DOI] [PMID: 1959620]
3.  Robins, R.J., Bachmann,P., Peerless, A.C.J. and Rabot, S. Esterification reactions in the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids in transformed root cultures. Plant Cell, Tissue Organ Cult. 38 (1994) 241–247.
4.  Boswell, H.D., Dräger, B., McLauchlan, W.R., Portsteffen, A., Robins, D.J., Robins, R.J. and Walton, N.J. Specificities of the enzymes of N-alkyltropane biosynthesis in Brugmansia and Datura. Phytochemistry 52 (1999) 871–878. [DOI] [PMID: 10626376]
[EC 2.3.1.186 created 2008]
 
 
EC 3.3.2.12     
Accepted name: oxepin-CoA hydrolase
Reaction: 2-oxepin-2(3H)-ylideneacetyl-CoA + H2O = 3-oxo-5,6-dehydrosuberyl-CoA semialdehyde
For diagram of aerobic phenylacetate catabolism, click here
Glossary: oxepin-CoA = 2-oxepin-2(3H)-ylideneacetyl-CoA
Other name(s): paaZ (gene name)
Systematic name: 2-oxepin-2(3H)-ylideneacetyl-CoA hydrolase
Comments: The enzyme from Escherichia coli is a bifunctional fusion protein that also catalyses EC 1.17.1.7, 3-oxo-5,6-dehydrosuberyl-CoA semialdehyde dehydrogenase.Combined the two activities result in a two-step conversion of oxepin-CoA to 3-oxo-5,6-dehydrosuberyl-CoA, part of an aerobic phenylacetate degradation pathway [1,3,4]. The enzyme from Escherichia coli also exhibits enoyl-CoA hydratase activity utilizing crotonyl-CoA as a substrate [2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Ferrandez, A., Minambres, B., Garcia, B., Olivera, E.R., Luengo, J.M., Garcia, J.L. and Diaz, E. Catabolism of phenylacetic acid in Escherichia coli. Characterization of a new aerobic hybrid pathway. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 25974–25986. [DOI] [PMID: 9748275]
2.  Park, S.J. and Lee, S.Y. Identification and characterization of a new enoyl coenzyme A hydratase involved in biosynthesis of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates in recombinant Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 185 (2003) 5391–5397. [DOI] [PMID: 12949091]
3.  Ismail, W., El-Said Mohamed, M., Wanner, B.L., Datsenko, K.A., Eisenreich, W., Rohdich, F., Bacher, A. and Fuchs, G. Functional genomics by NMR spectroscopy. Phenylacetate catabolism in Escherichia coli. Eur. J. Biochem. 270 (2003) 3047–3054. [DOI] [PMID: 12846838]
4.  Teufel, R., Mascaraque, V., Ismail, W., Voss, M., Perera, J., Eisenreich, W., Haehnel, W. and Fuchs, G. Bacterial phenylalanine and phenylacetate catabolic pathway revealed. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107 (2010) 14390–14395. [DOI] [PMID: 20660314]
[EC 3.3.2.12 created 2011 as EC 3.7.1.16, transferred 2013 to EC 3.3.2.12]
 
 
EC 3.7.1.16      
Transferred entry: oxepin-CoA hydrolase. Now EC 3.3.2.12, oxepin-CoA hydrolase
[EC 3.7.1.16 created 2011, deleted 2013]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.54     
Accepted name: lactoyl-CoA dehydratase
Reaction: (R)-lactoyl-CoA = acryloyl-CoA + H2O
Other name(s): lactoyl coenzyme A dehydratase; lactyl-coenzyme A dehydrase; lactyl CoA dehydratase; acrylyl coenzyme A hydratase; lactoyl-CoA hydro-lyase
Systematic name: (R)-lactoyl-CoA hydro-lyase (acryloyl-CoA-forming)
Comments: A bacterial enzyme that is involved in propanoate fermentation (also known as the acrylate pathway).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 9031-12-3
References:
1.  Baldwin, R.L., Wood, W.A. and Emery, R.S. Lactate metabolism by Peptostreptococcus elsdenii: evidence for lactyl coenzyme a dehydrase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 97 (1965) 202–213. [DOI] [PMID: 14292829]
2.  Schweiger, G. and Buckel, W. On the dehydration of (R)-lactate in the fermentation of alanine to propionate by Clostridium propionicum. FEBS Lett. 171 (1984) 79–84. [DOI] [PMID: 6586495]
3.  Kuchta, R.D. and Abeles, R.H. Lactate reduction in Clostridium propionicum. Purification and properties of lactyl-CoA dehydratase. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 13181–13189. [PMID: 4055736]
4.  Kuchta, R.D., Hanson, G.R., Holmquist, B. and Abeles, R.H. Fe-S centers in lactyl-CoA dehydratase. Biochemistry 25 (1986) 7301–7307. [PMID: 3026450]
5.  Hofmeister, A.E. and Buckel, W. (R)-Lactyl-CoA dehydratase from Clostridium propionicum. Stereochemistry of the dehydration of (R)-2-hydroxybutyryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA. Eur. J. Biochem. 206 (1992) 547–552. [DOI] [PMID: 1597194]
[EC 4.2.1.54 created 1972, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.120     
Accepted name: 4-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA dehydratase
Reaction: 4-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA = (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA + H2O
For diagram of the 3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanoate cycle and dicarboxylate/4-hydroxybutanoate cycle in archaea, click here
Glossary: 4-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA = 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA
(E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA = crotonyl-CoA
Systematic name: 4-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA hydro-lyase
Comments: Contains FAD and a [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster. The enzyme has been characterized from several microorganisms, including Clostridium kluyveri, where it participates in succinate fermentation [1,2], Clostridium aminobutyricum, where it participates in 4-aminobutyrate degradation [3,4], and Metallosphaera sedula, where it participates in the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle, an autotrophic CO2 fixation pathway found in some thermoacidophilic archaea [5].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Bartsch, R.G. and Barker, H.A. A vinylacetyl isomerase from Clostridium kluyveri. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 92 (1961) 122–132. [DOI] [PMID: 13687513]
2.  Scherf, U., Sohling, B., Gottschalk, G., Linder, D. and Buckel, W. Succinate-ethanol fermentation in Clostridium kluyveri: purification and characterisation of 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase/vinylacetyl-CoA Δ32-isomerase. Arch. Microbiol. 161 (1994) 239–245. [PMID: 8161284]
3.  Scherf, U. and Buckel, W. Purification and properties of an iron-sulfur and FAD-containing 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase/vinylacetyl-CoA Δ32-isomerase from Clostridium aminobutyricum. Eur. J. Biochem. 215 (1993) 421–429. [DOI] [PMID: 8344309]
4.  Muh, U., Cinkaya, I., Albracht, S.P. and Buckel, W. 4-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase from Clostridium aminobutyricum: characterization of FAD and iron-sulfur clusters involved in an overall non-redox reaction. Biochemistry 35 (1996) 11710–11718. [DOI] [PMID: 8794752]
5.  Berg, I.A., Kockelkorn, D., Buckel, W. and Fuchs, G. A 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate autotrophic carbon dioxide assimilation pathway in Archaea. Science 318 (2007) 1782–1786. [DOI] [PMID: 18079405]
[EC 4.2.1.120 created 2009]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.149     
Accepted name: crotonobetainyl-CoA hydratase
Reaction: L-carnitinyl-CoA = (E)-4-(trimethylammonio)but-2-enoyl-CoA + H2O
Glossary: L-carnitinyl-CoA = (3R)-3-hydroxy-4-(trimethylammonio)butanoyl-CoA
(E)-4-(trimethylammonio)but-2-enoyl-CoA = crotonobetainyl-CoA
Other name(s): CaiD; L-carnityl-CoA dehydratase
Systematic name: L-carnitinyl-CoA hydro-lyase [(E)-4-(trimethylammonio)but-2-enoyl-CoA-forming]
Comments: The enzyme is also able to use crotonyl-CoA as substrate, with low efficiency [2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Engemann, C., Elssner, T. and Kleber, H.P. Biotransformation of crotonobetaine to L-(–)-carnitine in Proteus sp. Arch. Microbiol. 175 (2001) 353–359. [PMID: 11409545]
2.  Elssner, T., Engemann, C., Baumgart, K. and Kleber, H.P. Involvement of coenzyme A esters and two new enzymes, an enoyl-CoA hydratase and a CoA-transferase, in the hydration of crotonobetaine to L-carnitine by Escherichia coli. Biochemistry 40 (2001) 11140–11148. [DOI] [PMID: 11551212]
3.  Engemann, C., Elssner, T., Pfeifer, S., Krumbholz, C., Maier, T. and Kleber, H.P. Identification and functional characterisation of genes and corresponding enzymes involved in carnitine metabolism of Proteus sp. Arch. Microbiol. 183 (2005) 176–189. [DOI] [PMID: 15731894]
[EC 4.2.1.149 created 2014]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.150     
Accepted name: short-chain-enoyl-CoA hydratase
Reaction: a short-chain (3S)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA = a short-chain trans-2-enoyl-CoA + H2O
Other name(s): 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase; crotonase; crt (gene name)
Systematic name: short-chain-(3S)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA hydro-lyase
Comments: The enzyme from the bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum is part of the central fermentation pathway and plays a key role in the production of both acids and solvents. It is specific for short, C4-C6, chain length substrates and exhibits an extremely high turnover number for crotonyl-CoA. cf. EC 4.2.1.17, enoyl-CoA hydratase and EC 4.2.1.74, long-chain-enoyl-CoA hydratase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Waterson, R.M., Castellino, F.J., Hass, G.M. and Hill, R.L. Purification and characterization of crotonase from Clostridium acetobutylicum. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 5266–5271. [PMID: 5057466]
2.  Waterson, R.M. and Conway, R.S. Enoyl-CoA hydratases from Clostridium acetobutylicum and Escherichia coli. Methods Enzymol. 71 Pt C (1981) 421–430. [PMID: 7024731]
3.  Boynton, Z.L., Bennet, G.N. and Rudolph, F.B. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of clustered genes encoding β-hydroxybutyryl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase, crotonase, and butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. J. Bacteriol. 178 (1996) 3015–3024. [DOI] [PMID: 8655474]
[EC 4.2.1.150 created 2014]
 
 
EC 5.3.3.3     
Accepted name: vinylacetyl-CoA Δ-isomerase
Reaction: vinylacetyl-CoA = (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA
Glossary: (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA = crotonyl-CoA
Other name(s): vinylacetyl coenzyme A Δ-isomerase; vinylacetyl coenzyme A isomerase; Δ3-cis2-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase
Systematic name: vinylacetyl-CoA Δ32-isomerase
Comments: Also acts on 3-methyl-vinylacetyl-CoA.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9023-73-8
References:
1.  Lynen, F., Knappe, J., Lorch, E., Jütting, G. and Ringelmann, E. Die biochemische Funktion des Biotins. Angew. Chem. 71 (1959) 481–486.
2.  Rilling, H.C. and Coon, M.J. The enzymatic isomerization of α-methylvinylacetyl coenzyme A and the specificity of a bacterial α-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A carboxylase. J. Biol. Chem. 235 (1960) 3087–3092. [PMID: 13741692]
[EC 5.3.3.3 created 1961, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 6.3.4.11     
Accepted name: biotin—[methylcrotonoyl-CoA-carboxylase] ligase
Reaction: ATP + biotin + apo-[3-methylcrotonoyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming)] = AMP + diphosphate + [3-methylcrotonoyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming)]
Other name(s): biotin-[methylcrotonoyl-CoA-carboxylase] synthetase; biotin-β-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A carboxylase synthetase; β-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A holocarboxylase synthetase; holocarboxylase-synthetase
Systematic name: biotin:apo-[3-methylcrotonoyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming)] ligase (AMP-forming)
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37318-68-6
References:
1.  Höpner, T. and Knappe, J. Einbau von Biotin in β-methylcrotonyl-CoA-carboxylase urch Holocarboxylase-synthetase. Biochem. Z. 342 (1965) 190–206. [PMID: 5867144]
[EC 6.3.4.11 created 1972]
 
 
EC 6.4.1.4     
Accepted name: methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase
Reaction: ATP + 3-methylcrotonoyl-CoA + HCO3- = ADP + phosphate + 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA
Other name(s): methylcrotonyl coenzyme A carboxylase; β-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A carboxylase; β-methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase; methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase
Systematic name: 3-methylcrotonoyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming)
Comments: A biotinyl-protein.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9023-95-4
References:
1.  Knappe, J., Schlegel, H.-G. and Lynen, F. Zur biochemischen Funktion des Biotins. I. Die Beteilligung der β-Methyl-crotonyl-Carboxylase an der Bildung von β-Hydroxy-β-methyl-glutaryl-CoA from β-Hydroxy-isovaleryl-CoA. Biochem. Z. 335 (1961) 101–122. [PMID: 14457200]
2.  Lynen, F., Knappe, J., Lorch, E., Jütting, G., Ringelmann, E. and Lachance, J.-P. Zur biochemischen Funktion des Biotins. II. Reinigung und Wirkungsweise der β-Methyl-crotonyl-Carboxlase. Biochem. Z. 335 (1961) 123–166. [PMID: 14467590]
3.  Rilling, H.C. and Coon, M.J. The enzymatic isomerization of α-methylvinylacetyl coenzyme A and the specificity of a bacterial α-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A carboxylase. J. Biol. Chem. 235 (1960) 3087–3092. [PMID: 13741692]
4.  Vagelos, P. Regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis. Curr. Top. Cell. Regul. 4 (1971) 119–166.
[EC 6.4.1.4 created 1961]
 
 


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