The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: dihydropteroate synthase
Reaction: (7,8-dihydropterin-6-yl)methyl diphosphate + 4-aminobenzoate = diphosphate + 7,8-dihydropteroate
For diagram of folate biosynthesis (late stages), click here
Glossary: 7,8-dihydropteroate = 4-{[(2-amino-4-oxo-3,4,7,8-tetrahydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}benzoate
Other name(s): dihydropteroate pyrophosphorylase; DHPS; 7,8-dihydropteroate synthase; 7,8-dihydropteroate synthetase; 7,8-dihydropteroic acid synthetase; dihydropteroate synthetase; dihydropteroic synthetase; 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropteridine-diphosphate:4-aminobenzoate 2-amino-4-hydroxydihydropteridine-6-methenyltransferase; (2-amino-4-hydroxy-7,8-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl-diphosphate:4-aminobenzoate 2-amino-4-hydroxydihydropteridine-6-methenyltransferase
Systematic name: (7,8-dihydropterin-6-yl)methyl-diphosphate:4-aminobenzoate 2-amino-4-hydroxy-7,8-dihydropteridine-6-methenyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme participates in the biosynthetic pathways for folate (in bacteria, plants and fungi) and methanopterin (in archaea). The enzyme exists in varying types of multifunctional proteins in different organisms. The enzyme from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana also harbors the activity of EC, 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyldihydropteridine diphosphokinase [4], while the enzyme from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is trifunctional with the two above mentioned activities as well as EC, dihydroneopterin aldolase [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9055-61-2
1.  Richey, D.P. and Brown, G.M. The biosynthesis of folic acid. IX. Purification and properties of the enzymes required for the formation of dihydropteroic acid. J. Biol. Chem. 244 (1969) 1582–1592. [PMID: 4304228]
2.  Shiota, T., Baugh, C.M., Jackson, R. and Dillard, R. The enzymatic synthesis of hydroxymethyldihydropteridine pyrophosphate and dihydrofolate. Biochemistry 8 (1969) 5022–5028. [PMID: 4312465]
3.  Güldener, U., Koehler, G.J., Haussmann, C., Bacher, A., Kricke, J., Becher, D. and Hegemann, J.H. Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fol1 protein: starvation for C1 carrier induces pseudohyphal growth. Mol. Biol. Cell 15 (2004) 3811–3828. [DOI] [PMID: 15169867]
4.  Storozhenko, S., Navarrete, O., Ravanel, S., De Brouwer, V., Chaerle, P., Zhang, G.F., Bastien, O., Lambert, W., Rebeille, F. and Van Der Straeten, D. Cytosolic hydroxymethyldihydropterin pyrophosphokinase/dihydropteroate synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana: a specific role in early development and stress response. J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 10749–10761. [DOI] [PMID: 17289662]
[EC created 1972, modified 2015]
Accepted name: dihydrofolate synthase
Reaction: ATP + 7,8-dihydropteroate + L-glutamate = ADP + phosphate + 7,8-dihydropteroylglutamate
For diagram of folate biosynthesis (late stages), click here
Other name(s): dihydrofolate synthetase; 7,8-dihydrofolate synthetase; H2-folate synthetase; 7,8-dihydropteroate:L-glutamate ligase (ADP); dihydropteroate:L-glutamate ligase (ADP-forming); DHFS
Systematic name: 7,8-dihydropteroate:L-glutamate ligase (ADP-forming)
Comments: In some bacteria, a single protein catalyses both this activity and that of EC, tetrahydrofolate synthase [2], the combined activity of which leads to the formation of the coenzyme polyglutamated tetrahydropteroate (H4PteGlun), i.e. various tetrahydrofolates. In contrast, the activities are located on separate proteins in most eukaryotes studied to date [3]. This enzyme is reponsible for attaching the first glutamate residue to dihydropteroate to form dihydrofolate and is present only in those organisms that have the ability to synthesize tetrahydrofolate de novo, e.g. plants, most bacteria, fungi and protozoa [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37318-62-0
1.  Griffin, M.J. and Brown, G.M. The biosynthesis of folic acid. III. Enzymatic formation of dihydrofolic acid from dihydropteroic acid and of tetrahydropteroylpolyglutamic acid compounds from tetrahydrofolic acid. J. Biol. Chem. 239 (1964) 310–316. [PMID: 14114858]
2.  Bognar, A.L., Osborne, C., Shane, B., Singer, S.C. and Ferone, R. Folylpoly-γ-glutamate synthetase-dihydrofolate synthetase. Cloning and high expression of the Escherichia coli folC gene and purification and properties of the gene product. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 5625–5630. [PMID: 2985605]
3.  Ravanel, S., Cherest, H., Jabrin, S., Grunwald, D., Surdin-Kerjan, Y., Douce, R. and Rébeillé, F. Tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis in plants: molecular and functional characterization of dihydrofolate synthetase and three isoforms of folylpolyglutamate synthetase in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98 (2001) 15360–15365. [DOI] [PMID: 11752472]
4.  Cherest, H., Thomas, D. and Surdin-Kerjan, Y. Polyglutamylation of folate coenzymes is necessary for methionine biosynthesis and maintenance of intact mitochondrial genome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 14056–14063. [DOI] [PMID: 10799479]
5.  Cossins, E.A. and Chen, L. Folates and one-carbon metabolism in plants and fungi. Phytochemistry 45 (1997) 437–452. [DOI] [PMID: 9190084]
[EC created 1972, modified 2005]

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