The Enzyme Database

Displaying entries 1-50 of 1090.

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EC 3.2.1.187     Relevance: 100%
Accepted name: (Ara-f)3-Hyp β-L-arabinobiosidase
Reaction: 4-O-(β-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-L-arabinofuranosyl)-(2S,4S)-4-hydroxyproline + H2O = 4-O-(β-L-arabinofuranosyl)-(2S,4S)-4-hydroxyproline + β-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-L-arabinofuranose
Glossary: 4-O-(β-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-L-arabinofuranosyl)-(2S,4S)-4-hydroxyproline = (Ara-f)3-Hyp
Other name(s): hypBA2 (gene name); β-L-arabinobiosidase
Systematic name: 4-O-(β-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-L-arabinofuranosyl)-(2S,4S)-4-hydroxyproline β-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-L-arabinofuranose hydrolase
Comments: The enzyme, which was identified in the bacterium Bifidobacterium longum JCM1217, is specific for (Ara-f)3-Hyp, a sugar chain found in hydroxyproline-rich glyoproteins such as extensin and lectin. The enzyme was not able to accept (Ara-f)2-Hyp or (Ara-f)4-Hyp as substrates. In the presence of 1-alkanols, the enzyme demonstrates transglycosylation activity, retaining the anomeric configuration of the arabinofuranose residue.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Fujita, K., Sakamoto, S., Ono, Y., Wakao, M., Suda, Y., Kitahara, K. and Suganuma, T. Molecular cloning and characterization of a β-L-Arabinobiosidase in Bifidobacterium longum that belongs to a novel glycoside hydrolase family. J. Biol. Chem. 286 (2011) 5143–5150. [DOI] [PMID: 21149454]
[EC 3.2.1.187 created 2013]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.185     Relevance: 63.7%
Accepted name: non-reducing end β-L-arabinofuranosidase
Reaction: β-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-L-arabinofuranose + H2O = 2 β-L-arabinofuranose
Other name(s): HypBA1
Systematic name: β-L-arabinofuranoside non-reducing end β-L-arabinofuranosidase
Comments: The enzyme, which was identified in the bacterium Bifidobacterium longum JCM1217, removes the β-L-arabinofuranose residue from the non-reducing end of multiple substrates, including β-L-arabinofuranosyl-hydroxyproline (Ara-Hyp), Ara2-Hyp, Ara3-Hyp, and β-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→2)-1-O-methyl-β-L-arabinofuranose.In the presence of 1-alkanols, the enzyme demonstrates transglycosylation activity, retaining the anomeric configuration of the arabinofuranose residue. cf. EC 3.2.1.55, non-reducing end α-L-arabinofuranosidase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Fujita, K., Takashi, Y., Obuchi, E., Kitahara, K. and Suganuma, T. Characterization of a novel β-L-arabinofuranosidase in Bifidobacterium longum: functional elucidation of a DUF1680 protein family member. J. Biol. Chem. 289 (2014) 5240–5249. [DOI] [PMID: 24385433]
[EC 3.2.1.185 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.4.2.58     Relevance: 55.5%
Accepted name: hydroxyproline O-arabinosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-β-L-arabinofuranose + [protein]-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline = UDP + [protein]-trans-4-(β-L-arabinofuranosyl)oxy-L-proline
Glossary: trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline = (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline = (4R)-4-hydroxy-L-proline
Other name(s): HPAT
Systematic name: UDP-β-L-arabinofuranose:[protein]-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline L-arabinofuranosyl transferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: The enzyme, found in plants and mosses, catalyses the O-arabinosylation of hydroxyprolines in hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. The enzyme acts on the first hydroxyproline in the motif Val-hydroxyPro-hydroxyPro-Ser.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Ogawa-Ohnishi, M., Matsushita, W. and Matsubayashi, Y. Identification of three hydroxyproline O-arabinosyltransferases in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nat. Chem. Biol. 9 (2013) 726–730. [DOI] [PMID: 24036508]
[EC 2.4.2.58 created 2016]
 
 
EC 2.4.2.46     Relevance: 43.6%
Accepted name: galactan 5-O-arabinofuranosyltransferase
Reaction: Adds an α-D-arabinofuranosyl group from trans,octacis-decaprenylphospho-β-D-arabinofuranose at the 5-O-position of the eighth, tenth and twelfth galactofuranose unit of the galactofuranan chain of [β-D-galactofuranosyl-(1→5)-β-D-galactofuranosyl-(1→6)]14-β-D-galactofuranosyl-(1→5)-β-D-galactofuranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-trans,octacis-decaprenol
For diagram of arabinofuranogalactofuranan biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): AftA; Rv3792
Systematic name: galactofuranan:trans,octacis-decaprenylphospho-β-D-arabinofuranose 5-O-α-D-arabinofuranosyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacterium glutamicum. These arabinofuranosyl groups form the start of an arabinofuranan chain as part of the of the cell wall in mycobacteria.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Alderwick, L.J., Seidel, M., Sahm, H., Besra, G.S. and Eggeling, L. Identification of a novel arabinofuranosyltransferase (AftA) involved in cell wall arabinan biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 15653–15661. [DOI] [PMID: 16595677]
[EC 2.4.2.46 created 2012]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.149     Relevance: 40.1%
Accepted name: β-primeverosidase
Reaction: a 6-O-(β-D-xylopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside + H2O = 6-O-(β-D-xylopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranose + an alcohol
Glossary: primeverose = 6-O-(β-D-xylopyranosyl)-D-glucose
vicianose = 6-O-(α-L-arabinopyranosyl)-D-glucose
Systematic name: 6-O-(β-D-xylopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside 6-O-(β-D-xylosyl)-β-D-glucohydrolase
Comments: The enzyme is responsible for the formation of the alcoholic aroma in oolong and black tea. In addition to β-primeverosides [i.e. 6-O-(β-D-xylopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosides], it also hydrolyses 6-O-(β-D-apiofuranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosides and, less rapidly, β-vicianosides and 6-O-(α-L-arabinofuranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosides, but not β-glucosides. Geranyl-, linaloyl-, benzyl- and p-nitrophenol glycosides are all hydrolysed.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 884593-92-4
References:
1.  Ijima, Y., Ogawa, K., Watanabe, N., Usui, T., Ohnishi-Kameyama, M., Nagata, T. and Sakata, K. Characterization of β-primeverosidase, being concerned with alcoholic aroma formation in tea leaves to be processed into black tea, and preliminary observations on its substrate specificity. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46 (1998) 1712–1718.
2.  Ogawa, K., Ijima, Y., Guo, W., Watanabe, N., Usui, T., Dong, S., Tong, Q. and Sakata, K. Purification of a β-primeverosidase concerned with alcoholic aroma formation in tea leaves (cv. Shuxian) to be processed to oolong tea. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45 (1997) 877–882.
[EC 3.2.1.149 created 2001]
 
 
EC 2.4.2.47     Relevance: 31.8%
Accepted name: arabinofuranan 3-O-arabinosyltransferase
Reaction: Adds an α-D-arabinofuranosyl group from trans,octacis-decaprenylphospho-β-D-arabinofuranose at the 3-O-position of an α-(1→5)-arabinofuranan chain attached to a β-(1→5)-galactofuranan chain
For diagram of arabinofuranogalactofuranan biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): AftC
Systematic name: α-(1→5)-arabinofuranan:trans,octacis-decaprenylphospho-β-D-arabinofuranose 3-O-α-D-arabinofuranosyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from Mycobacterium smegmatis. Involved in the formation of the cell wall in mycobacteria.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Birch, H.L., Alderwick, L.J., Bhatt, A., Rittmann, D., Krumbach, K., Singh, A., Bai, Y., Lowary, T.L., Eggeling, L. and Besra, G.S. Biosynthesis of mycobacterial arabinogalactan: identification of a novel α(1-→3) arabinofuranosyltransferase. Mol. Microbiol. 69 (2008) 1191–1206. [DOI] [PMID: 18627460]
2.  Zhang, J., Angala, S.K., Pramanik, P.K., Li, K., Crick, D.C., Liav, A., Jozwiak, A., Swiezewska, E., Jackson, M. and Chatterjee, D. Reconstitution of functional mycobacterial arabinosyltransferase AftC proteoliposome and assessment of decaprenylphosphorylarabinose analogues as arabinofuranosyl donors. ACS Chem. Biol. 6 (2011) 819–828. [DOI] [PMID: 21595486]
[EC 2.4.2.47 created 2012]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.195     Relevance: 28.9%
Accepted name: 20-O-multi-glycoside ginsenosidase
Reaction: a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside with two glycosyl residues at position 20 + H2O = a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside with a single glucosyl residue at position 20 + a monosaccharide
For diagram of protopanaxadiol ginsenosides ginsenosidases, click here
Glossary: ginsenoside Rb1 = 3β-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]-20-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]dammar-24-en-12β-ol
ginsenoside Rb2 = 3β-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D glucopyranosyloxy]-20-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D glucopyranosyloxy]dammar-24-en-12β-ol
ginsenoside Rb3 = 3β-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D glucopyranosyloxy]-20-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D glucopyranosyloxy]dammar-24-en-12β-ol
ginsenoside Rc = 3β-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D glucopyranosyloxy]-20-[α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D glucopyranosyloxy]dammar-24-en-12β-ol
ginsenoside Rd = 3β-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]-20-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)dammar-24-en-12β-ol
ginsenoside Rg3 = 3β-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]-20-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)dammar-24-ene-12β,20-diol
Other name(s): ginsenosidase type II (erroneous)
Systematic name: protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside 20-β-D-glucohydrolase
Comments: The 20-O-multi-glycoside ginsenosidase catalyses the hydrolysis of the 20-O-α-(1→6)-glycosidic bond and the 20-O-β-(1→6)-glycosidic bond of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides. The enzyme usually leaves a single glucosyl residue attached at position 20, although it can cleave the remaining glucosyl residue with a lower efficiency. Starting with a ginsenoside that is glycosylated at positions 3 and 20, such as ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rb3 and Rc, the most common product is ginsenoside Rd, with a low amount of ginsenoside Rg3 also formed.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Yu, H., Liu, Q., Zhang, C., Lu, M., Fu, Y., Im, W.-T., Lee, S.-T. and Jin, F. A new ginsenosidase from Aspergillus strain hydrolyzing 20-O-multi-glycoside of PPD ginsenoside. Process Biochem. 44 (2009) 772–775.
[EC 3.2.1.195 created 2014]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.193     Relevance: 27.4%
Accepted name: ginsenosidase type I
Reaction: (1) a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside with two glucosyl residues at position 3 + H2O = a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside with one glucosyl residue at position 3 + D-glucopyranose
(2) a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside with one glucosyl residue at position 3 + H2O = a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside with no glycosidic modifications at position 3 + D-glucopyranose
(3) a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside with two glycosyl residues at position 20 + H2O = a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside with a single glucosyl residue at position 20 + a monosaccharide
For diagram of protopanaxadiol ginsenosides ginsenosidases, click here
Glossary: ginsenoside Rb1 = 3β-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]-20-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]dammar-24-en-12β-ol
ginsenoside Rb2 = 3β-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D glucopyranosyloxy]-20-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D glucopyranosyloxy]dammar-24-en-12β-ol
ginsenoside Rb3 = 3β-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D glucopyranosyloxy]-20-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D glucopyranosyloxy]dammar-24-en-12β-ol
ginsenoside Rc = 3β-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D glucopyranosyloxy]-20-[α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D glucopyranosyloxy]dammar-24-en-12β-ol
ginsenoside Rd = 3β-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]-20-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)dammar-24-en-12β-ol
ginsenoside F2 = 3β,20-bis(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)dammar-24-en-12β-ol
ginsenoside C-K = 20β-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)dammar-24-ene-3β,12β-diol
ginsenoside Rh2 = 3β-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)dammar-24-ene-12β,20-diol
Systematic name: ginsenoside glucohydrolase
Comments: Ginsenosidase type I is slightly activated by Mg2+ or Ca2+ [1]. The enzyme hydrolyses the 3-O-β-D-(1→2)-glucosidic bond, the 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl bond and the 20-O-β-D-(1→6)-glycosidic bond of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides. It usually leaves a single glucosyl residue attached at position 20 and one or no glucosyl residues at position 3. Starting with a ginsenoside that is glycosylated at both positions (e.g. ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc or Rd), the most common products are ginsenoside F2 and ginsenoside C-K, with low amounts of ginsenoside Rh2.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Yu, H., Zhang, C., Lu, M., Sun, F., Fu, Y. and Jin, F. Purification and characterization of new special ginsenosidase hydrolyzing multi-glycisides of protopanaxadiol ginsenosides, ginsenosidase type I. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 55 (2007) 231–235. [PMID: 17268094]
[EC 3.2.1.193 created 2014]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.21     Relevance: 19.8%
Accepted name: β-glucosidase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing β-D-glucosyl residues with release of β-D-glucose
Other name(s): gentiobiase; cellobiase; emulsin; elaterase; aryl-β-glucosidase; β-D-glucosidase; β-glucoside glucohydrolase; arbutinase; amygdalinase; p-nitrophenyl β-glucosidase; primeverosidase; amygdalase; linamarase; salicilinase; β-1,6-glucosidase
Systematic name: β-D-glucoside glucohydrolase
Comments: Wide specificity for β-D-glucosides. Some examples also hydrolyse one or more of the following: β-D-galactosides, α-L-arabinosides, β-D-xylosides, β-D-fucosides.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9001-22-3
References:
1.  Chinchetru, M.A., Cabezas, J.A. and Calvo, P. Purification and characterization of a broad specificity β-glucosidase from sheep liver. Int. J. Biochem. 21 (1989) 469–476. [PMID: 2503402]
2.  Conchie, J. β-Glucosidase from rumen liquor. Preparation, assay and kinetics of action. Biochem. J. 58 (1954) 552–560. [PMID: 13230003]
3.  Dahlqvist, A. Pig intestinal β-glucosidase activities. I. Relation to β-galactosidase (lactase). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 50 (1961) 55–61. [DOI] [PMID: 13719334]
4.  Heyworth, R. and Walker, P.G. Almond-emulsin β-D-glucosidase and β-D-galactosidase. Biochem. J. 83 (1962) 331–335. [PMID: 13907157]
5.  Larner, J. Other glucosidases. In: Boyer, P.D., Lardy, H. and Myrbäck, K. (Ed.), The Enzymes, 2nd edn, vol. 4, Academic Press, New York, 1960, pp. 369–378.
6.  Sano, K., Amemura, A. and Harada, T. Purification and properties of a β-1,6-glucosidase from Flavobacterium. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 377 (1975) 410–420. [DOI] [PMID: 235305]
[EC 3.2.1.21 created 1961]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.140     Relevance: 19.8%
Accepted name: lacto-N-biosidase
Reaction: β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-D-Glc + H2O = β-D-Gal-(1→3)-D-GlcNAc + β-D-Gal-(1→4)-D-Glc
Glossary: β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-D-Glc = lacto-N-tetraose
β-D-Gal-(1→3)-D-GlcNAc = lacto-N-biose
β-D-Gal-(1→4)-D-Glc = lactose
Systematic name: oligosaccharide lacto-N-biosylhydrolase
Comments: The enzyme from Streptomyces specifically hydrolyses the terminal lacto-N-biosyl residue (β-D-Gal-(1→3)-D-GlcNAc) from the non-reducing end of oligosaccharides with the structure β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→R). Lacto-N-hexaose (β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-D-Glc) is hydrolysed to form first lacto-N-tetraose plus lacto-N-biose, with the subsequent formation of lactose. Oligosaccharides in which the non-reducing terminal Gal or the penultimate GlcNAc are replaced by fucose or sialic acid are not substrates. Asialo GM1 tetraose (β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-GalNAc-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-D-Glc) is hydrolysed very slowly, but lacto-N-neotetraose (β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-GalNAc-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-D-Glc) is not a substrate
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 146359-52-6
References:
1.  Sano, M., Hayakawa, K., Kato, I. An enzyme releasing lacto-N-biose from oligosaccharides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89 (1992) 8512–8516. [DOI] [PMID: 1528855]
2.  Sano, M., Hayakawa, K., Kato, I. Purification and characterization of an enzyme releasing lacto-N-biose from oligosaccharides with type 1 chain. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 18560–18566. [PMID: 7689556]
[EC 3.2.1.140 created 1999]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.163      
Transferred entry: β-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminylgalactosylglucosyl-ceramide β-1,3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, now included in EC 2.4.1.149, N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
[EC 2.4.1.163 created 1989, deleted 2016]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.98     Relevance: 19.6%
Accepted name: Rhizobium leguminosarum exopolysaccharide glucosyl ketal-pyruvate-transferase
Reaction: phosphoenolpyruvate + [β-D-GlcA-(1→4)-2-O-Ac-β-D-GlcA-(1→4)-β-D-Glc-(1→4)-[3-O-(CH3CH(OH)CH2C(O))-4,6-CH3(COO-)C-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Glc-(1→4)-β-D-Glc-(1→4)-β-D-Glc-(1→6)]-2(or 3)-O-Ac-α-D-Glc-(1→6)]n = [β-D-GlcA-(1→4)-2-O-Ac-β-D-GlcA-(1→4)-β-D-Glc-(1→4)-[3-O-(CH3CH(OH)CH2C(O))-4,6-CH3(COO-)C-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-4,6-CH3(COO-)C-β-D-Glc-(1→4)-β-D-Glc-(1→4)-β-D-Glc-(1→6)]-2(or 3)-O-Ac-α-D-Glc-(1→6)]n + phosphate
Other name(s): PssM; phosphoenolpyruvate:[D-GlcA-β-(1→4)-2-O-Ac-D-GlcA-β-(1→4)-D-Glc-β-(1→4)-[3-O-CH3-CH2CH(OH)C(O)-D-Gal-β-(1→4)-D-Glc-β-(1→4)-D-Glc-β-(1→4)-D-Glc-β-(1→6)]-2(or 3)-O-Ac-D-Glc-α-(1→6)]n 4,6-O-(1-carboxyethan-1,1-diyl)transferase
Systematic name: phosphoenolpyruvate:[β-D-GlcA-(1→4)-2-O-Ac-β-D-GlcA-(1→4)-β-D-Glc-(1→4)-[3-O-CH3-CH2CH(OH)C(O)-4,6-CH3(COO-)C-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Glc-(1→4)-β-D-Glc-(1→4)-β-D-Glc-(1→6)]-2(or 3)-O-Ac-α-D-Glc-(1→6)]n 4,6-O-(1-carboxyethan-1,1-diyl)transferase
Comments: The enzyme is responsible for pyruvylation of the subterminal glucose in the acidic octasaccharide repeating unit of the exopolysaccharide of Rhizobium leguminosarum (bv. viciae strain VF39) which is necessary to establish nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Pisum sativum, Vicia faba, and Vicia sativa.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Ivashina, T.V., Fedorova, E.E., Ashina, N.P., Kalinchuk, N.A., Druzhinina, T.N., Shashkov, A.S., Shibaev, V.N. and Ksenzenko, V.N. Mutation in the pssM gene encoding ketal pyruvate transferase leads to disruption of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciaePisum sativum symbiosis. J. Appl. Microbiol. 109 (2010) 731–742. [DOI] [PMID: 20233262]
[EC 2.5.1.98 created 2012, modified 2018]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.6     Relevance: 19.5%
Accepted name: endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase
Reaction: Endohydrolysis of (1→3)- or (1→4)-linkages in β-D-glucans when the glucose residue whose reducing group is involved in the linkage to be hydrolysed is itself substituted at C-3
Other name(s): endo-1,3-β-D-glucanase; laminarinase; laminaranase; β-1,3-glucanase; β-1,3-1,4-glucanase; endo-1,3-β-glucanase; endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase; endo-β-1,3-1,4-glucanase; endo-β-(1→3)-D-glucanase; endo-1,3-1,4-β-D-glucanase; endo-β-(1-3)-D-glucanase; endo-β-1,3-glucanase IV; endo-1,3-β-D-glucanase; 1,3-(1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucan 3(4)-glucanohydrolase
Systematic name: 3(or 4)-β-D-glucan 3(4)-glucanohydrolase
Comments: Substrates include laminarin, lichenin and cereal D-glucans; different from EC 3.2.1.52 β-N-acetylhexosaminidase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 62213-14-3
References:
1.  Barras, D.R. and Stone, B.A. β-1,3-Glucan hydrolases from Euglena gracilis. I. The nature of the hydrolases. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 191 (1969) 329–341. [DOI] [PMID: 5354264]
2.  Barras, D.R. and Stone, B.A. β-1,3-Glucan hydrolases from Euglena gracilis. II. Purification and properties of the β-1,3-glucan exo-hydrolase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 191 (1969) 342–353. [DOI] [PMID: 5354265]
3.  Cunningham, L.W. and Manners, D.J. Enzymic degradation of lichenin. Biochem. J. 80 (1961) 42.
4.  Reese, E.T. and Mandels, M. β-D-1,3-Glucanases in fungi. Can. J. Microbiol. 5 (1959) 173–185. [PMID: 13638895]
5.  Sova, V.V., Elyakova, L.A. and Vaskovsky, V.E. Purification and some properties of β-1,3-glucan glucanohydrolase from the crystalline style of bivalvia, Spisula sachalinensis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 212 (1970) 111–115. [DOI] [PMID: 5500926]
[EC 3.2.1.6 created 1961, modified 1976]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.52     Relevance: 19.2%
Accepted name: β-N-acetylhexosaminidase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminides
Other name(s): hexosaminidase; β-acetylaminodeoxyhexosidase; N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidase; N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase; β-hexosaminidase; β-acetylhexosaminidinase; β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase; β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase; β-N-acetylglucosaminidase; hexosaminidase A; N-acetylhexosaminidase; β-D-hexosaminidase
Systematic name: β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminide N-acetylhexosaminohydrolase
Comments: Acts on N-acetylglucosides and N-acetylgalactosides.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9012-33-3
References:
1.  Cabezas, J.A. Some comments on the type references of the official nomenclature (IUB) for β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, β-N-acetylhexosaminidase and β-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. Biochem. J. 261 (1989) 1059–1060. [PMID: 2529847]
2.  Calvo, P., Reglero, A. and Cabezas, J.A. Purification and properties of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase from the mollusc Helicella ericetorum Muller. Biochem. J. 175 (1978) 743–750. [PMID: 33660]
3.  Frohwein, Y.S. and Gatt, S. Isolation of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase, β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, and β-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from calf brain. Biochemistry 6 (1967) 2775–2782. [PMID: 6055190]
4.  Li, S.-C. and Li, Y.-T. Studies on the glycosidases of jack bean meal. 3. Crystallization and properties of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase. J. Biol. Chem. 245 (1970) 5153–5160. [PMID: 5506280]
[EC 3.2.1.52 created 1972 (EC 3.2.1.30 created 1961, incorporated 1992 [EC 3.2.1.29 created 1961, incorporated 1972])]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.386     Relevance: 19.2%
Accepted name: GlcNAc-β-1,3-Gal β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (distally acting)
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + β-D-GlcNAc-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-R = UDP + β-D-GlcNAc-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→6)]-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-R
Other name(s): UDP-GlcNAc:GlcNAcβ1-3Gal(-R) β1-6(GlcNAc to Gal) N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; dIGnT; C2GnT2 (misleading)
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide 6-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: Involved in the production of milk oligosaccharides in the lacto-N-triose (LNT) series. Cf. EC 2.4.1.150 (N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; cIGnT) and EC 2.4.1.148 (acetylgalactosaminyl-O-glycosyl-glycoprotein β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 85638-40-0
References:
1.  Piller, F., Cartron, J.P., Maranduba, A., Veyrieres, A., Leroy, Y. and Fournet, B. Biosynthesis of blood group I antigens. Identification of a UDP-GlcNAc:GlcNAc β1-3Gal(-R) β1-6(GlcNAc to Gal) N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase in hog gastric mucosa. J. Biol. Chem. 259 (1984) 13385–13390. [PMID: 6490658]
2.  Yeh, J.C., Ong, E. and Fukuda, M. Molecular cloning and expression of a novel β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase that forms core 2, core 4, and I branches. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 3215–3221. [DOI] [PMID: 9915862]
[EC 2.4.1.386 created 2021]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.226     Relevance: 19.1%
Accepted name: N-acetylgalactosaminyl-proteoglycan 3-β-glucuronosyltransferase
Reaction: (1) UDP-α-D-glucuronate + [protein]-3-O-(β-D-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine = UDP + [protein]-3-O-(β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine
(2) UDP-α-D-glucuronate + [protein]-3-O-([β-D-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcA-(1→3)]n-β-D-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine = UDP + [protein]-3-O-(β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-[β-D-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcA-(1→3)]n-β-D-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine
For diagram of chondroitin biosynthesis (later stages), click here
Other name(s): chondroitin glucuronyltransferase II; α-D-glucuronate:N-acetyl-β-D-galactosaminyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan 3-β-glucuronosyltransferase; UDP-α-D-glucuronate:N-acetyl-β-D-galactosaminyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan 3-β-glucuronosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucuronate:[protein]-3-O-(β-D-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine = UDP + [protein]-3-O-(β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine 3-β-glucuronosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: Involved in the biosynthesis of chondroitin and dermatan sulfate. The human chondroitin synthetase is a bifunctional glycosyltransferase, which has the 3-β-glucuronosyltransferase and 4-β-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.175) activities required for the synthesis of the chondroitin sulfate disaccharide repeats. Similar chondroitin synthase ’co-polymerases’ can be found in Pasteurella multocida and Escherichia coli. There is also another human protein with apparently only the 3-β-glucuronosyltransferase activity.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 269077-98-7
References:
1.  Kitagawa, H., Uyama, T. and Sugahara, K. Molecular cloning and expression of a human chondroitin synthase. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 38721–38726. [DOI] [PMID: 11514575]
2.  DeAngelis, P.L. and Padgett-McCue, A.J. Identification and molecular cloning of a chondroitin synthase from Pasteurella multocida type F. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 24124–24129. [DOI] [PMID: 10818104]
3.  Ninomiya, T., Sugiura, N., Tawada, A., Sugimoto, K., Watanabe, H. and Kimata, K. Molecular cloning and characterization of chondroitin polymerase from Escherichia coli strain K4. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 21567–21575. [DOI] [PMID: 11943778]
4.  Gotoh, M., Yada, T., Sato, T., Akashima, T., Iwasaki, H., Mochizuki, H., Inaba, N., Togayachi, A., Kudo, T., Watanabe, H., Kimata, K. and Narimatsu, H. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase which transfers glucuronic acid to N-acetylgalactosamine. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 38179–38188. [DOI] [PMID: 12145278]
[EC 2.4.1.226 created 2002, modified 2018]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.74     Relevance: 19.1%
Accepted name: glucan 1,4-β-glucosidase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of (1→4)-linkages in (1→4)-β-D-glucans, to remove successive glucose units
Other name(s): exo-1,4-β-glucosidase; exocellulase; exo-β-1,4-glucosidase; exo-β-1,4-glucanase; β-1,4-β-glucanase; β-glucosidase; exo-1,4-β-glucanase; 1,4-β-D-glucan glucohydrolase
Systematic name: 4-β-D-glucan glucohydrolase
Comments: Acts on 1,4-β-D-glucans and related oligosaccharides. Cellobiose is hydrolysed, but very slowly.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37288-52-1
References:
1.  Barras, D.R., Moore, A.E. and Stone, B.A. Enzyme-substrate relations among β-glucan hydrolases. Adv. Chem. Ser. 95 (1969) 105–138.
[EC 3.2.1.74 created 1972]
 
 
EC 3.5.2.6     Relevance: 19.1%
Accepted name: β-lactamase
Reaction: a β-lactam + H2O = a substituted β-amino acid
For diagram of penicillin biosynthesis and metabolism, click here
Other name(s): penicillinase; cephalosporinase; neutrapen; penicillin β-lactamase; exopenicillinase; ampicillinase; penicillin amido-β-lactamhydrolase; penicillinase I; penicillinase II; β-lactamase I; β-lactamase II; β-lactamase III; β-lactamase A; β-lactamase B; β-lactamase C; β-lactamase AME I; cephalosporin-β-lactamase; carbapenemase
Systematic name: β-lactam hydrolase
Comments: A group of enzymes of varying specificity hydrolysing β-lactams; some act more rapidly on penicillins, some more rapidly on cephalosporins. The latter were formerly listed as EC 3.5.2.8, cephalosporinase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9073-60-3
References:
1.  Citri, N. Penicillinase and other β-lactamases. In: Boyer, P.D. (Ed.), The Enzymes, 3rd edn, vol. 4, Academic Press, New York, 1971, pp. 23–46.
2.  Hennessey, T.D. and Richmond, M.H. The purification and some properties of a β-lactamase (cephalosporinase) synthesized by Enterobacter cloacae. Biochem. J. 109 (1968) 469–473. [PMID: 5685878]
3.  Kuwabara, S. Purification and properties of two extracellular β-lactamases from Bacillus cereus 569-H. Biochem. J. 118 (1970) 457–465. [PMID: 4990588]
4.  Pollock, M.R. Penicillinase. In: Boyer, P.D., Lardy, H. and Myrbäck, K. (Ed.), The Enzymes, 2nd edn, vol. 4, Academic Press, New York, 1960, pp. 269–278.
5.  Pollock, M.R., Torriani, A.-M. and Tridgell, E.G. Crystalline bacterial penicillinase. Biochem. J. 62 (1956) 387–391. [PMID: 13303985]
6.  Ross, G.W. and Boulton, M.G. Purification of β-lactamases on QAE-sephadex. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 309 (1973) 430–439. [DOI] [PMID: 4731970]
[EC 3.5.2.6 created 1961, modified 1981 (EC 3.5.2.8 created 1972, incorporated 1978)]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.75     Relevance: 18.9%
Accepted name: glucan endo-1,6-β-glucosidase
Reaction: Random hydrolysis of (1→6)-linkages in (1→6)-β-D-glucans
Other name(s): endo-1,6-β-glucanase; β-1→6)-β-D-glucanase; β-1,6-glucanase-pustulanase; β-1,6-glucan hydrolase; β-1,6-glucan 6-glucanohydrolase; 1,6-β-D-glucan glucanohydrolase
Systematic name: 6-β-D-glucan glucanohydrolase
Comments: Acts on lutean, pustulan and 1,6-oligo-β-D-glucosides.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37278-39-0
References:
1.  Reese, E.T., Parrish, F.W. and Mandels, M. β-D-1,6-Glucanases in fungi. Can. J. Microbiol. 8 (1962) 327–334. [PMID: 14491003]
[EC 3.2.1.75 created 1972]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.37     Relevance: 18.9%
Accepted name: xylan 1,4-β-xylosidase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of (1→4)-β-D-xylans, to remove successive D-xylose residues from the non-reducing termini
Other name(s): xylobiase; β-xylosidase; exo-1,4-β-xylosidase; β-D-xylopyranosidase; β-xylosidase; β-xylosidase; exo-1,4-xylosidase; exo-1,4-β-D-xylosidase; 1,4-β-D-xylan xylohydrolase
Systematic name: 4-β-D-xylan xylohydrolase
Comments: Also hydrolyses xylobiose. Some other exoglycosidase activities have been found associated with this enzyme in sheep liver.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9025-53-0
References:
1.  Chinchetru, M.A., Cabezas, J.A. and Calvo, P. Purification and characterization of a broad specificity β-glucosidase from sheep liver. Int. J. Biochem. 21 (1989) 469–476. [PMID: 2503402]
2.  Howard, B.H., Jones, G. and Purdom, M.R. The pentosanases of some rumen bacteria. Biochem. J. 74 (1960) 173–180. [PMID: 14403433]
[EC 3.2.1.37 created 1965]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.164      
Transferred entry: galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminylgalactosylglucosyl-ceramide β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, now included with EC 2.4.1.150, N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
[EC 2.4.1.164 created 1989, deleted 2016]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.38     Relevance: 18.7%
Accepted name: β-D-fucosidase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing β-D-fucose residues in β-D-fucosides
Other name(s): β-fucosidase
Systematic name: β-D-fucoside fucohydrolase
Comments: Enzymes from some sources also hydrolyse β-D-galactosides and/or β-D-glucosides and/or α-L-arabinosides. The activity of EC 3.2.1.37 xylan 1,4-β-xylosidase, is an associated activity found in some sources (e.g. liver).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9025-34-7
References:
1.  Chinchetru, M.A., Cabezas, J.A. and Calvo, P. Characterization and kinetics of β-D-gluco/fuco/galactosidase from sheep liver. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B 75 (1983) 719–728. [PMID: 6413126]
2.  Chinchetru, M.A., Cabezas, J.A. and Calvo, P. Purification and characterization of a broad specificity β-glucosidase from sheep liver. Int. J. Biochem. 21 (1989) 469–476. [PMID: 2503402]
3.  Rodriguez, J.A., Cabezas, J.A. and Calvo, P. β-Fucosidase, β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase activities associated in bovine liver. Int. J. Biochem. 14 (1982) 695–698. [PMID: 6811346]
4.  Wiederschain, G. and Prokopenkov, A. β-D-Galactosidase and β-D-fucosidase of pig kidney. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 158 (1973) 539–543. [DOI] [PMID: 4782520]
5.  Wiederschain, G.Y., Beyer, E.M., Klyaschitsty, B.A. and Shashkov, A.S. Specificity patterns of different types of human fucosidase. Recognition of a certain region of the pyranose ring in sugars by the enzymes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 659 (1981) 434–444. [DOI] [PMID: 6789883]
[EC 3.2.1.38 created 1965, deleted 1972, reinstated 1978]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.135     Relevance: 18.4%
Accepted name: galactosylgalactosylxylosylprotein 3-β-glucuronosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucuronate + [protein]-3-O-(β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-xylosyl)-L-serine = UDP + [protein]-3-O-(β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine
For diagram of heparan and chondroitin biosynthesis (early stages), click here
Glossary: [protein]-3-O-(β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine = [protein]-3-O-(β-D-glucuronosyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-xylosyl)-L-serine
Other name(s): glucuronosyltransferase I; uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid:acceptor glucuronosyltransferase; UDP-glucuronate:3-β-D-galactosyl-4-β-D-galactosyl-O-β-D-xylosyl-protein D-glucuronosyltransferase; UDP-glucuronate:3-β-D-galactosyl-4-β-D-galactosyl-O-β-D-xylosylprotein D-glucuronosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucuronate:[protein]-3-O-(β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-xylosyl)-L-serine D-glucuronosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: Involved in the biosynthesis of the linkage region of glycosaminoglycan chains as part of proteoglycan biosynthesis (chondroitin, dermatan and heparan sulfates). Requires Mn2+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 227184-75-0
References:
1.  Helting, J. and Roden, L. Biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate. II. Glucuronosyl transfer in the formation of the carbohydrate-protein linkage region. J. Biol. Chem. 244 (1969) 2799–2805. [PMID: 5770003]
2.  Helting, T. Biosynthesis of heparin. Solubilization and partial purification of uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid: acceptor glucuronosyltransferase from mouse mastocytoma. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 4327–4332. [PMID: 4260846]
3.  Kitagawa, H., Tone, Y., Tamura, J., Neumann, K.W., Ogawa, T., Oka, S., Kawasaki, T. and Sugahara, K. Molecular cloning and expression of glucuronyltransferase I involved in the biosynthesis of the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region of proteoglycans. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 6615–6618. [DOI] [PMID: 9506957]
[EC 2.4.1.135 created 1984, modified 2002, modified 2016]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.174     Relevance: 18.4%
Accepted name: glucuronylgalactosylproteoglycan 4-β-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine + [protein]-3-O-(β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine = UDP + [protein]-3-O-(β-D-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine
For diagram of chondroitin biosynthesis (later stages), click here
Glossary: [protein]-3-O-(β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine = [protein]-3-O-(β-D-glucuronosyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-xylosyl)-L-serine
Other name(s): N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase I; glucuronylgalactosylproteoglycan β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylgalactosamine-chondroitin acetylgalactosaminyltransferase I; UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:D-glucuronyl-1,3-β-D-galactosyl-proteoglycan β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:D-glucuronyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-proteoglycan 4-β-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:[protein]-3-O-(β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine 4-β-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: Requires Mn2+. Involved in the biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate. Key enzyme activity for the initiation of chondroitin and dermatan sulfates, transferring GalNAc to the GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-Ser core.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 96189-39-8
References:
1.  Rohrmann, K., Niemann, R. and Buddecke, E. Two N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases are involved in the biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate. Eur. J. Biochem. 148 (1985) 463–469. [DOI] [PMID: 3922754]
2.  Uyama, T., Kitagawa, H., Tamura, J.-i. and Sugahara, K. Molecular cloning and expression of human chondroitin N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase: the key enzyme for chain initiation and elongation of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate on the protein linkage region tetrasaccharide shared by heparin/heparan sulfate. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 8841–8846. [DOI] [PMID: 11788602]
[EC 2.4.1.174 created 1989, modified 2002]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.23     Relevance: 18.4%
Accepted name: β-galactosidase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing β-D-galactose residues in β-D-galactosides
Other name(s): lactase (ambiguous); β-lactosidase; maxilact; hydrolact; β-D-lactosidase; S 2107; lactozym; trilactase; β-D-galactanase; oryzatym; sumiklat
Systematic name: β-D-galactoside galactohydrolase
Comments: Some enzymes in this group hydrolyse α-L-arabinosides; some animal enzymes also hydrolyse β-D-fucosides and β-D-glucosides; cf. EC 3.2.1.108 lactase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9031-11-2
References:
1.  Blakely, J.A. and MacKenzie, S.L. Purification and properties of a β-hexosidase from Sporobolomyces singularis. Can. J. Biochem. 47 (1969) 1021–1025. [PMID: 5389663]
2.  Kuby, S.A. and Lardy, H.A. Purification and kinetics of β-D-galactosidase from Escherichia coli, strain K-12. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 75 (1953) 890–896.
3.  Kuo, C.H. and Wells, W.W. β-Galactosidase from rat mammary gland. Its purification, properties, and role in the biosynthesis of 6β-O-D-galactopyranosyl myo-inositol. J. Biol. Chem. 253 (1978) 3550–3556. [PMID: 418065]
4.  Landman, O.E. Properties and induction of β-galactosidase in Bacillus megaterium. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 23 (1957) 558–569. [PMID: 13426167]
5.  Llanillo, M., Perez, N. and Cabezas, J.A. β-Galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities of the same enzyme from rabbit liver. Int. J. Biochem. 8 (1977) 557–564.
6.  Monod, J. and Cohn, M. La biosynthèse induite des enzymes (adaptation enzymatique). Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Subj. Biochem. 13 (1952) 67–119. [PMID: 14943665]
7.  Wallenfels, K. and Malhotra, O.P. In: Boyer, P.D., Lardy, H. and Myrbäck, K. (Ed.), The Enzymes, 2nd edn, vol. 4, Academic Press, New York, 1960, pp. 409–430.
8.  Asp, N.G., Dahlqvist, A. and Koldovský, O. Human small-intestinal β-galactosidases. Separation and characterization of one lactase and one hetero β-galactosidase. Biochem. J. 114 (1969) 351–359. [PMID: 5822067]
[EC 3.2.1.23 created 1961, modified 1980]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.39     Relevance: 18.3%
Accepted name: glucan endo-1,3-β-D-glucosidase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of (1→3)-β-D-glucosidic linkages in (1→3)-β-D-glucans
Other name(s): endo-1,3-β-glucanase; laminarinase; laminaranase; oligo-1,3-glucosidase; endo-1,3-β-glucanase; callase; β-1,3-glucanase; kitalase; 1,3-β-D-glucan 3-glucanohydrolase; endo-(1,3)-β-D-glucanase; (1→3)-β-glucan 3-glucanohydrolase; endo-1,3-β-D-glucanase; endo-1,3-β-glucosidase; 1,3-β-D-glucan glucanohydrolase
Systematic name: 3-β-D-glucan glucanohydrolase
Comments: Different from EC 3.2.1.6 endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase. Very limited action on mixed-link (1→3,1→4)-β-D-glucans. Hydrolyses laminarin, paramylon and pachyman.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9025-37-0
References:
1.  Chesters, C.G.C. and Bull, A.T. The enzymic degradation of laminarin. 2. The multicomponent nature of fungal laminarinases. Biochem. J. 86 (1963) 31–38. [PMID: 14020682]
2.  Reese, E.T. and Mandels, M. β-D-1,3-Glucanases in fungi. Can. J. Microbiol. 5 (1959) 173–185. [PMID: 13638895]
[EC 3.2.1.39 created 1965]
 
 
EC 3.4.11.25     Relevance: 18.3%
Accepted name: β-peptidyl aminopeptidase
Reaction: Cleaves N-terminal β-homoamino acids from peptides composed of 2 to 6 amino acids
Other name(s): BapA (ambiguous)
Comments: Sphingosinicella xenopeptidilytica strain 3-2W4 is able to utilize the β-peptides β-homoVal-β-homoAla-β-homoLeu and β-homoAla-β-homoLeu as sole carbon and energy sources [2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Heck, T., Limbach, M., Geueke, B., Zacharias, M., Gardiner, J., Kohler, H.P. and Seebach, D. Enzymatic degradation of β- and mixed α,β-oligopeptides. Chem. Biodivers. 3 (2006) 1325–1348. [DOI] [PMID: 17193247]
2.  Geueke, B., Namoto, K., Seebach, D. and Kohler, H.P. A novel β-peptidyl aminopeptidase (BapA) from strain 3-2W4 cleaves peptide bonds of synthetic β-tri- and β-dipeptides. J. Bacteriol. 187 (2005) 5910–5917. [DOI] [PMID: 16109932]
3.  Geueke, B., Heck, T., Limbach, M., Nesatyy, V., Seebach, D. and Kohler, H.P. Bacterial β-peptidyl aminopeptidases with unique substrate specificities for β-oligopeptides and mixed β,α-oligopeptides. FEBS J. 273 (2006) 5261–5272. [DOI] [PMID: 17064315]
4.  Heck, T., Kohler, H.P., Limbach, M., Flögel, O., Seebach, D. and Geueke, B. Enzyme-catalyzed formation of β-peptides: β-peptidyl aminopeptidases BapA and DmpA acting as β-peptide-synthesizing enzymes. Chem. Biodivers. 4 (2007) 2016. [DOI] [PMID: 17886858]
[EC 3.4.11.25 created 2011]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.213     Relevance: 18.2%
Accepted name: galactan exo-1,6-β-galactobiohydrolase (non-reducing end)
Reaction: Hydrolysis of (1→6)-β-D-galactosidic linkages in arabinogalactan proteins and (1→3):(1→6)-β-galactans to yield (1→6)-β-galactobiose as the final product.
Other name(s): exo-β-1,6-galactobiohydrolase; 1,6Gal (gene name)
Systematic name: exo-β-(1→6)-galactobiohydrolase (non-reducing end)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Bifidobacterium longum, specifically hydrolyses (1→6)-β-galactobiose from the non-reducing terminal of (1→6)-β-D-galactooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 3 or higher, using an exo mode of action. The enzyme cannot hydrolyse α-L-arabinofuranosylated (1→6)-β-galactans (as found in arabinogalactans) and does not act on (1→3)-β-D- or (1→4)-β-D-galactans. cf. EC 3.2.1.164, galactan endo-1,6-β-galactosidase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Fujita, K., Sakamoto, A., Kaneko, S., Kotake, T., Tsumuraya, Y. and Kitahara, K. Degradative enzymes for type II arabinogalactan side chains in Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 103 (2019) 1299–1310. [PMID: 30564851]
[EC 3.2.1.213 created 2020]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.161     Relevance: 18.2%
Accepted name: β-apiosyl-β-glucosidase
Reaction: 7-[β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]isoflavonoid + H2O = a 7-hydroxyisoflavonoid + β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-D-glucose
Other name(s): isoflavonoid-7-O-β[D-apiosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucoside] disaccharidase; isoflavonoid 7-O-β-apiosyl-glucoside β-glucosidase; furcatin hydrolase
Systematic name: 7-[β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]isoflavonoid β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-D-glucohydrolase
Comments: The enzyme from the tropical tree Dalbergia nigrescens Kurz belongs in glycosyl hydrolase family 1. The enzyme removes disaccharides from the natural substrates dalpatein 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside and 7-hydroxy-2′,4′,5′,6-tetramethoxy-7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (dalnigrein 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside) although it can also remove a single glucose residue from isoflavonoid 7-O-glucosides [2]. Daidzin and genistin are also substrates.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 1000598-83-3
References:
1.  Hosel, W. and Barz, W. β-Glucosidases from Cicer arietinum L. Purification and Properties of isoflavone-7-O-glucoside-specific β-glucosidases. Eur. J. Biochem. 57 (1975) 607–616. [DOI] [PMID: 240725]
2.  Chuankhayan, P., Hua, Y., Svasti, J., Sakdarat, S., Sullivan, P.A. and Ketudat Cairns, J.R. Purification of an isoflavonoid 7-O-β-apiosyl-glucoside β-glycosidase and its substrates from Dalbergia nigrescens Kurz. Phytochemistry 66 (2005) 1880–1889. [DOI] [PMID: 16098548]
3.  Ahn, Y.O., Mizutani, M., Saino, H. and Sakata, K. Furcatin hydrolase from Viburnum furcatum Blume is a novel disaccharide-specific acuminosidase in glycosyl hydrolase family 1. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 23405–23414. [DOI] [PMID: 14976214]
[EC 3.2.1.161 created 2006]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.86     Relevance: 18.1%
Accepted name: N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide β-(1,3)-galactosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-galactose + N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-R = UDP + β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-R
For diagram of lactotetraosylceramide biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): B3GALT1 (gene name); uridine diphosphogalactose-acetyl-glucosaminylgalactosylglucosylceramide galactosyltransferase; GalT-4; UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide β-D-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-D-glucosylceramide 3-β-D-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosylceramide 3-β-D-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl(1↔1)ceramide 3-β-D-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide 3-β-D-galactosyltransferase; glucosaminylgalactosylglucosylceramide β-galactosyltransferase; UDP-α-D-galactose:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide 3-β-D-galactosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-galactose:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-R 3-β-D-galactosyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme transfers galactose from UDP-α-D-galactose to the 3-position of substrates with a non-reducing terminal N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine (β-GlcNAc) residue. It can act on both glycolipids and glycoproteins, generating a structure known as the type 1 histo-blood group antigen precursor.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9073-46-5
References:
1.  Basu, M. and Basu, S. Enzymatic synthesis of a tetraglycosylceramide by a galactosyltransferase from rabbit bone marrow. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 1489–1495. [PMID: 4335001]
2.  Basu, M., Presper, K.A., Basu, S., Hoffman, L.M. and Brooks, S.E. Differential activities of glycolipid glycosyltransferases in Tay-Sachs disease: studies in cultured cells from cerebrum. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76 (1979) 4270–4274. [DOI] [PMID: 291963]
3.  Amado, M., Almeida, R., Carneiro, F., Levery, S.B., Holmes, E.H., Nomoto, M., Hollingsworth, M.A., Hassan, H., Schwientek, T., Nielsen, P.A., Bennett, E.P. and Clausen, H. A family of human β3-galactosyltransferases. Characterization of four members of a UDP-galactose:β-N-acetyl-glucosamine/β-nacetyl-galactosamine β-1,3-galactosyltransferase family. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 12770–12778. [DOI] [PMID: 9582303]
4.  Amado, M., Almeida, R., Schwientek, T. and Clausen, H. Identification and characterization of large galactosyltransferase gene families: galactosyltransferases for all functions. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1473 (1999) 35–53. [DOI] [PMID: 10580128]
5.  Bardoni, A., Valli, M. and Trinchera, M. Differential expression of β1,3galactosyltransferases in human colon cells derived from adenocarcinomas or normal mucosa. FEBS Lett. 451 (1999) 75–80. [DOI] [PMID: 10356986]
[EC 2.4.1.86 created 1976, modified 2017]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.175     Relevance: 18%
Accepted name: glucuronosyl-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-proteoglycan 4-β-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
Reaction: (1) UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine + [protein]-3-O-(β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine = UDP + [protein]-3-O-(β-D-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine
(2) UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine + [protein]-3-O-(β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-[β-D-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcA-(1→3)]n-β-D-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine = UDP + [protein]-3-O-([β-D-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcA-(1→3)]n+1-β-D-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine
For diagram of chondroitin biosynthesis (later stages), click here
Other name(s): N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase II; UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:D-glucuronyl-N-acetyl-1,3-β-D-galactosaminylproteoglycan β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; chondroitin synthase; glucuronyl-N-acetylgalactosaminylproteoglycan β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylgalactosamine-chondroitin acetylgalactosaminyltransferase II; UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:β-D-glucuronosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-β-D-galactosaminyl-proteoglycan 4-β-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:β-D-glucuronosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-β-D-galactosaminyl-proteoglycan 4-β-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:[protein]-3-O-(β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine 4-β-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: Involved in the biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate. The human form of this enzyme is a bifunctional glycosyltransferase, which also has the 3-β-glucuronosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.226, N-acetylgalactosaminyl-proteoglycan 3-β-glucuronosyltransferase) activity required for the synthesis of the chondroitin sulfate disaccharide repeats. Similar chondroitin synthase ’co-polymerases’ can be found in Pasteurella multocida and Escherichia coli.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 96189-40-1
References:
1.  Rohrmann, K., Niemann, R. and Buddecke, E. Two N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases are involved in the biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate. Eur. J. Biochem. 148 (1985) 463–469. [DOI] [PMID: 3922754]
2.  Kitagawa, H., Uyama, T. and Sugahara, K. Molecular cloning and expression of a human chondroitin synthase. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 38721–38726. [DOI] [PMID: 11514575]
3.  DeAngelis, P.L. and Padgett-McCue, A.J. Identification and molecular cloning of a chondroitin synthase from Pasteurella multocida type F. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 24124–24129. [DOI] [PMID: 10818104]
4.  Ninomiya, T., Sugiura, N., Tawada, A., Sugimoto, K., Watanabe, H. and Kimata, K. Molecular cloning and characterization of chondroitin polymerase from Escherichia coli strain K4. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 21567–21575. [DOI] [PMID: 11943778]
[EC 2.4.1.175 created 1989, modified 2002]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.213     Relevance: 18%
Accepted name: cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-glucosyl-2-O-xylosylgalactoside) 6′′′-O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase
Reaction: 1-O-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-β-D-glucose + cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-β-D-glucosyl-2-O-β-D-xylosyl-β-D-galactoside) = β-D-glucose + cyanidin 3-O-[6-O-(6-O-4-hydroxycinnamoyl-β-D-glucosyl)-2-O-β-D-xylosyl-β-D-galactoside]
For diagram of cyanidin galactoside biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 1-O-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-β-D-glucose = 1-O-(4-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucose
cyanidin = 3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavylium
Other name(s): 1-O-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-β-D-glucose:cyanidin 3-O-(2"-O-xylosyl-6"-O-glucosylgalactoside) 6′′′-O-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase
Systematic name: 1-O-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-β-D-glucose:cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-β-D-glucosyl-2-O-β-D-xylosyl-β-D-galactoside) 6′′′-O-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase
Comments: Isolated from the plant Daucus carota (Afghan cultivar carrot). In addition to 1-O-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-β-D-glucose, the enzyme can use the 1-O-sinapoyl- and 1-O-feruloyl- derivatives of β-D-glucose.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Gläßgen, W.E. and Seitz, H.U. Acylation of anthocyanins with hydroxycinnamic acids via 1-O-acylglucosides by protein preparations from cell cultures of Daucus carota L. Planta 186 (1992) 582–585. [PMID: 24186789]
[EC 2.3.1.213 created 2013]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.64     Relevance: 17.9%
Accepted name: 2,6-β-fructan 6-levanbiohydrolase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of (2→6)-β-D-fructofuranan, to remove successive disaccharide residues as levanbiose, i.e. 6-(β-D-fructofuranosyl)-D-fructose, from the end of the chain
Other name(s): β-2,6-fructan-6-levanbiohydrolase; 2,6-β-D-fructan 6-levanbiohydrolase; levanbiose-producing levanase; 2,6-β-D-fructan 6-β-D-fructofuranosylfructohydrolase
Systematic name: (2→6)-β-D-fructofuranan 6-(β-D-fructosyl)-D-fructose-hydrolase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37288-46-3
References:
1.  Avigad, G. and Zelikson, R. Cleavage of fructans to levanbiose by a specific hydrolase. Bull. Res. Counc. Isr. 11 (1963) 253–257.
2.  Saito, K., Kondo, K., Kojima, I., Yokota, A. and Tomita, F. Purification and characterization of 2,6-β-D-fructan 6-levanbiohydrolase from Streptomyces exfoliatus F3-2. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66 (2000) 252–256. [DOI] [PMID: 10618232]
3.  Saito, K., Oda, Y., Tomita, F. and Yokota, A. Molecular cloning of the gene for 2,6-β-D-fructan 6-levanbiohydrolase from Streptomyces exfoliatus F3-2. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 218 (2003) 265–270. [DOI] [PMID: 12586402]
4.  Song, E.K., Kim, H., Sung, H.K. and Cha, J. Cloning and characterization of a levanbiohydrolase from Microbacterium laevaniformans ATCC 15953. Gene 291 (2002) 45–55. [DOI] [PMID: 12095678]
5.  Kang, E.J., Lee, S.O., Lee, J.D., Lee, T.H. and Lee, T.H. Purification and characterization of a levanbiose-producing levanase from Pseudomonas sp. No. 43. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 29 (1999) 263–268. [PMID: 10334957]
[EC 3.2.1.64 created 1972, modified 2004]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.206     Relevance: 17.9%
Accepted name: lactosylceramide 1,3-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide = UDP + N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide
For diagram of lactotetraosylceramide biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: lactosylceramide = β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide
lactotriosylceramide = N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide
Other name(s): LA2 synthase; β1→3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-lactosylceramide β-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; lactosylceramide β-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:D-galactosyl-1,4-β-D-glucosylceramide β-1,3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl(1↔1)ceramide 3-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide 3-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide 3-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 83682-80-8
References:
1.  Gottfries, J., Percy, A.K., Maansson, J.-E., Fredman, P., Wilkstrand, C.J., Friedman, H.S., Bigner, D.D. and Svennerholm, L. Glycolipids and glycosyltransferases in permanent cell lines established from human medulloblastomas. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1081 (1991) 253–261. [DOI] [PMID: 1825612]
2.  Holmes, E.H., Hakomori, S. and Ostrander, G.K. Synthesis of type 1 and 2 lacto series glycolipid antigens in human colonic adenocarcinoma and derived cell lines is due to activation of a normally unexpressed β1→3N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 15649–15658. [PMID: 2960671]
3.  Percy, A.K., Gottfries, J., Vilbergsson, G., Maansson, J.E. and Svennerholm, J. Glycosphingolipid glycosyltransferases in human fetal brain. J. Neurochem. 56 (1991) 1461–1465. [DOI] [PMID: 1901591]
[EC 2.4.1.206 created 1992]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.78     Relevance: 17.8%
Accepted name: mannan endo-1,4-β-mannosidase
Reaction: Random hydrolysis of (1→4)-β-D-mannosidic linkages in mannans, galactomannans and glucomannans
Other name(s): endo-1,4-β-mannanase; endo-β-1,4-mannase; β-mannanase B; β-1,4-mannan 4-mannanohydrolase; endo-β-mannanase; β-D-mannanase; 1,4-β-D-mannan mannanohydrolase
Systematic name: 4-β-D-mannan mannanohydrolase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37288-54-3
References:
1.  Eriksson, A.F.V. Purification and characterisation of a fungal β-mannanase. Acta Chem. Scand. 22 (1968) 1924–1934.
2.  Reese, E.T. β-Mannanases of fungi. Can. J. Microbiol. 11 (1965) 167–183. [PMID: 14323029]
[EC 3.2.1.78 created 1972]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.72     Relevance: 17.7%
Accepted name: xylan 1,3-β-xylosidase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of successive xylose residues from the non-reducing termini of (1→3)-β-D-xylans
Other name(s): 1,3-β-D-xylosidase; exo-1,3-β-xylosidase; β-1,3′-xylanase; exo-β-1,3′-xylanase; 1,3-β-D-xylan xylohydrolase
Systematic name: 3-β-D-xylan xylohydrolase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37288-50-9
References:
1.  Fukui, S., Suzuki, T., Kitahara, K. and Miwa, T. β-1,3′-Xylanase. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 6 (1960) 270–282.
[EC 3.2.1.72 created 1972]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.25     Relevance: 17.7%
Accepted name: β-mannosidase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing β-D-mannose residues in β-D-mannosides
Other name(s): mannanase; mannase; β-D-mannosidase; β-mannoside mannohydrolase; exo-β-D-mannanase
Systematic name: β-D-mannoside mannohydrolase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9025-43-8
References:
1.  Adams, M., Richtmyer, N.K. and Hudson, C.S. Some enzymes present in highly purified invertase preparations; a contribution to the study of fructofuranosidases, galactosidases, glucosidases and mannosidases. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65 (1943) 1369–1380.
2.  Bartholomew, B.A. and Perry, A.L. The properties of synovial fluid β-mannosidase activity. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 315 (1973) 123–127. [DOI] [PMID: 4743897]
3.  Deuel, H., Lewuenberger, R. and Huber, G. Über den enzymatischen Abbau von Carubin, dem Galaktomannan aus Ceratonia siliqua L. Helv. Chim. Acta 33 (1950) 942–946.
4.  Hylin, J.W. and Sawai, K. The enzymatic hydrolysis of Leucaena glauca galactomannan. Isolation of crystalline galactomannan depolymerase. J. Biol. Chem. 239 (1964) 990–992. [PMID: 14165949]
[EC 3.2.1.25 created 1961]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.179     Relevance: 17.6%
Accepted name: lactosylceramide β-1,3-galactosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-galactose + β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-R = UDP + β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-R
For diagram of glycolipid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: lactosylceramide = β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide
Other name(s): uridine diphosphogalactose-lactosylceramide β1→3-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:D-galactosyl-1,4-β-D-glucosyl-R β-1,3-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-R 3-β-galactosyltransferase; UDP-α-D-galactose:D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-R 3-β-galactosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-galactose:β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-R 3-β-galactosyltransferase
Comments: R may be an oligosaccharide or a glycolipid; lactose can also act as acceptor, but more slowly. Involved in the elongation of oligosaccharide chains, especially in glycolipids.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 106769-64-6
References:
1.  Bailly, P., Piller, F. and Cartron, J.-P. Characterization and specific assay for a galactoside β-3-galactosyltransferase of human kidney. Eur. J. Biochem. 173 (1988) 417–422. [DOI] [PMID: 3129295]
[EC 2.4.1.179 created 1989]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.73     Relevance: 17.6%
Accepted name: licheninase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of (1→4)-β-D-glucosidic linkages in β-D-glucans containing (1→3)- and (1→4)-bonds
Other name(s): lichenase; β-(1→4)-D-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase; 1,3;1,4-β-glucan endohydrolase; 1,3;1,4-β-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase; 1,3-1,4-β-D-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase
Systematic name: (1→3)-(1→4)-β-D-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase
Comments: Acts on lichenin and cereal β-D-glucans, but not on β-D-glucans containing only 1,3- or 1,4-bonds.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37288-51-0
References:
1.  Barras, D.R., Moore, A.E. and Stone, B.A. Enzyme-substrate relations among β-glucan hydrolases. Adv. Chem. Ser. 95 (1969) 105–138.
[EC 3.2.1.73 created 1972]
 
 
EC 2.7.11.15     Relevance: 17.5%
Accepted name: β-adrenergic-receptor kinase
Reaction: ATP + [β-adrenergic receptor] = ADP + phospho-[β-adrenergic receptor]
Other name(s): ATP:β-adrenergic-receptor phosphotransferase; [β-adrenergic-receptor] kinase; β-adrenergic receptor-specific kinase; β-AR kinase; β-ARK; β-ARK 1; β-ARK 2; β-receptor kinase; GRK2; GRK3; β-adrenergic-receptor kinase (phosphorylating); β2ARK; βARK1; β-adrenoceptor kinase; β-adrenoceptor kinase 1; β-adrenoceptor kinase 2; ADRBK1; BARK1; adrenergic receptor kinase; STK15
Systematic name: ATP:[β-adrenergic receptor] phosphotransferase
Comments: Requires G-protein for activation and therefore belongs to the family of G-protein-dependent receptor kinases (GRKs). Acts on the agonist-occupied form of the receptor; also phosphorylates rhodopsin, but more slowly. Does not act on casein or histones. The enzyme is inhibited by Zn2+ and digitonin but is unaffected by cyclic-AMP (cf. EC 2.7.11.14, rhodopsin kinase and EC 2.7.11.16, G-protein-coupled receptor kinase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 102925-39-3
References:
1.  Benovic, J.L., Mayor, F., Jr., Staniszewski, C., Lefkowitz, R.J. and Caron, M.G. Purification and characterization of the β-adrenergic receptor kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 9026–9032. [PMID: 3036840]
2.  Kim, C.M., Dion, S.B., Onorato, J.J. and Benovic, J.L. Expression and characterization of two β-adrenergic receptor kinase isoforms using the baculovirus expression system. Receptor 3 (1993) 39–55. [PMID: 8394172]
3.  Laugwitz, K.L., Kronsbein, K., Schmitt, M., Hoffmann, K., Seyfarth, M., Schomig, A. and Ungerer, M. Characterization and inhibition of β-adrenergic receptor kinase in intact myocytes. Cardiovasc Res 35 (1997) 324–333. [PMID: 9349395]
4.  Ferguson, S.S., Menard, L., Barak, L.S., Koch, W.J., Colapietro, A.M. and Caron, M.G. Role of phosphorylation in agonist-promoted β2-adrenergic receptor sequestration. Rescue of a sequestration-defective mutant receptor by betaARK1. J. Biol. Chem. 270 (1995) 24782–24789. [DOI] [PMID: 7559596]
5.  Willets, J.M., Challiss, R.A. and Nahorski, S.R. Non-visual GRKs: are we seeing the whole picture? Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 24 (2003) 626–633. [DOI] [PMID: 14654303]
[EC 2.7.11.15 created 1989 as EC 2.7.1.126, transferred 2005 to EC 2.7.11.15]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.32     Relevance: 17.5%
Accepted name: endo-1,3-β-xylanase
Reaction: Random endohydrolysis of (1→3)-β-D-glycosidic linkages in (1→3)-β-D-xylans
Other name(s): xylanase (ambiguous); endo-1,3-β-xylosidase (misleading); 1,3-β-xylanase; 1,3-xylanase; β-1,3-xylanase; endo-β-1,3-xylanase; 1,3-β-D-xylan xylanohydrolase; xylan endo-1,3-β-xylosidase
Systematic name: 3-β-D-xylan xylanohydrolase
Comments: This enzyme is found mostly in marine bacteria, which break down the β(1,3)-xylan found in the cell wall of some green and red algae. The enzyme produces mainly xylobiose, xylotriose and xylotetraose.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9025-55-2
References:
1.  Chen, W.P., Matsuo, M. and Tsuneo, Y. Purification and some properties of β-1,3-xylanase from Aspergillus terreus A-07. Agric. Biol. Chem. 50 (1986) 1183–1194.
2.  Aoki, T., Araki, T. and Kitamikado, M. Purification and characterization of an endo-β-1,3-xylanase from Vibrio species. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 54 (1988) 277–281.
3.  Araki, T., Tani, S., Maeda, K., Hashikawa, S., Nakagawa, H. and Morishita, T. Purification and characterization of β-1,3-xylanase from a marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. XY-214. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 63 (1999) 2017–2019. [PMID: 10635569]
4.  Araki, T., Inoue, N. and Morishita, T. Purification and characterization of β-1,3-xylanase from a marine bacterium, Alcaligenes sp. XY-234. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 44 (1998) 269–274. [PMID: 12501421]
5.  Okazaki, F., Shiraki, K., Tamaru, Y., Araki, T. and Takagi, M. The first thermodynamic characterization of β-1,3-xylanase from a marine bacterium. Protein J. 24 (2005) 413–421. [DOI] [PMID: 16328734]
[EC 3.2.1.32 created 1965, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 3.4.19.5     Relevance: 17.4%
Accepted name: β-aspartyl-peptidase
Reaction: Cleavage of a β-linked Asp residue from the N-terminus of a polypeptide
Other name(s): β-aspartyl dipeptidase; β-aspartyl peptidase; β-aspartyldipeptidase
Comments: Other isopeptide bonds, e.g. γ-glutamyl and β-alanyl, are not hydrolysed. A mammalian, cytosolic enzyme.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37288-74-7
References:
1.  Haley, E.E. β-Aspartyl peptidase from rat liver. Methods Enzymol. 19 (1970) 737–741.
[EC 3.4.19.5 created 1972 as EC 3.4.13.10, transferred 1992 to EC 3.4.19.5, modified 1997]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.153     Relevance: 17.4%
Accepted name: fructan β-(2,1)-fructosidase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing (2→1)-linked β-D-fructofuranose residues in fructans
For diagram of reaction, click here
Other name(s): β-(2-1)-D-fructan fructohydrolase; β-(2-1)fructan exohydrolase; inulinase; 1-FEH II; 1-fructan exohydrolase; 1-FEH w1; 1-FEH w2; β-(2-1)-linkage-specific fructan-β-fructosidase; β-(2,1)-D-fructan fructohydrolase
Systematic name: β-(2→1)-D-fructan fructohydrolase
Comments: Possesses one of the activities of EC 3.2.1.80, fructan β-fructosidase. While the best substrates are the inulin-type fructans, such as 1-kestose [β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside] and 1,1-nystose [β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside], some (but not all) levan-type fructans can also be hydrolysed, but more slowly [see EC 3.2.1.154, fructan β-(2,6)-fructosidase]. Sucrose, while being a very poor substrate, can substantially inhibit enzyme activity in some cases.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 1000593-08-7
References:
1.  De Roover, J., Van Laere, A., De Winter, M., Timmermans, J.W. and Van den Ende, W. Purification and properties of a second fructan exohydrolase from the roots of Cichorium intybus. Physiol. Plant. 106 (1999) 28–34.
2.  Van den Ende, W., Clerens, S., Vergauwen, R., Van Riet, L., Van Laere, A., Yoshida, M. and Kawakami, A. Fructan 1-exohydrolases. β-(2,1)-Trimmers during graminan biosynthesis in stems of wheat? Purification, characterization, mass mapping, and cloning of two fructan 1-exohydrolase isoforms. Plant Physiol. 131 (2003) 621–631. [DOI] [PMID: 12586886]
[EC 3.2.1.153 created 2005]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.275     Relevance: 17.3%
Accepted name: neolactotriaosylceramide β-1,4-galactosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-galactose + N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide = UDP + β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide
For diagram of neolactotetraosylceramide biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide = neolactotriaosylceramide
Other name(s): β4Gal-T4; UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide β-1,4-galactosyltransferase; lactotriaosylceramide β-1,4-galactosyltransferase (incorrect)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-galactose:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide 4-β-D-galactosyltransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Schwientek, T., Almeida, R., Levery, S.B., Holmes, E.H., Bennett, E. and Clausen, H. Cloning of a novel member of the UDP-galactose:β-N-acetylglucosamine β1,4-galactosyltransferase family, β4Gal-T4, involved in glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 29331–29340. [DOI] [PMID: 9792633]
[EC 2.4.1.275 created 2011, modified 2013]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.197     Relevance: 17.3%
Accepted name: β-1,2-mannosidase
Reaction: β-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→2)-D-mannopyranose + H2O = β-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→2)-D-mannopyranose + α-D-mannopyranose
Systematic name: β-1,2-D-mannoside mannohydrolase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from multiple bacterial species, catalyses the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing D-mannose residues from β-1,2-mannotriose and β-1,2-mannobiose. The mechanism involves anomeric inversion, resulting in the release of α-D-mannopyranose. Activity with β-1,2-mannotriose or higher oligosaccharides is higher than that with β-1,2-mannobiose.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Cuskin, F., Basle, A., Ladeveze, S., Day, A.M., Gilbert, H.J., Davies, G.J., Potocki-Veronese, G. and Lowe, E.C. The GH130 family of mannoside phosphorylases contains glycoside hydrolases that target β-1,2-mannosidic linkages in Candida mannan. J. Biol. Chem. 290 (2015) 25023–25033. [DOI] [PMID: 26286752]
2.  Nihira, T., Chiku, K., Suzuki, E., Nishimoto, M., Fushinobu, S., Kitaoka, M., Ohtsubo, K. and Nakai, H. An inverting β-1,2-mannosidase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 130 from Dyadobacter fermentans. FEBS Lett. 589 (2015) 3604–3610. [DOI] [PMID: 26476324]
[EC 3.2.1.197 created 2016]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.100     Relevance: 17.3%
Accepted name: mannan 1,4-mannobiosidase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of (1→4)-β-D-mannosidic linkages in (1→4)-β-D-mannans, to remove successive mannobiose residues from the non-reducing chain ends
Other name(s): 1,4-β-D-mannan mannobiohydrolase; exo-β-mannanase; exo-1,4-β-mannobiohydrolase
Systematic name: 4-β-D-mannan mannobiohydrolase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 81811-49-6
References:
1.  Araki, T. and Kitamikado, M. Purification and characterization of a novel exo-β-mannanase from Aeromonas sp. F-25. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 91 (1982) 1181–1186. [PMID: 7096283]
[EC 3.2.1.100 created 1983]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.150     Relevance: 17.3%
Accepted name: N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-R = UDP + β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→6)]-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-R
Glossary: β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-R = type 2 precursor disaccharide
Other name(s): GCNT2 (gene name); GCNT3 (gene name); IGnT; I-branching β1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-acetyllactosaminide β1→6-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; Galβ1→4GlcNAc-R β1→6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:β-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminide β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide 6-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme acts on poly-N-acetyllactosamine [glycan chains of β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units connected by β(1,3) linkages] attached to proteins or lipids. It transfers a GlcNAc residue by β(1,6)-linkage to galactosyl residues close to non-reducing terminals, introducing a branching pattern known as I branching.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 85638-40-0
References:
1.  Van den Eijnden, D.H., Winterwerp, H., Smeeman, P. and Schiphorst, W.E.C.M. Novikoff ascites tumor cells contain N-acetyllactosaminide β1→3 and β1→6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity. J. Biol. Chem. 258 (1983) 3435–3437. [PMID: 6219989]
2.  Basu, M. and Basu, S. Biosynthesis in vitro of Ii core glycosphingolipids from neolactotetraosylceramide by β 1-3- and β 1-6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases from mouse T-lymphoma. J. Biol. Chem. 259 (1984) 12557–12562. [PMID: 6238026]
3.  Piller, F., Cartron, J.P., Maranduba, A., Veyrieres, A., Leroy, Y. and Fournet, B. Biosynthesis of blood group I antigens. Identification of a UDP-GlcNAc:GlcNAc β1-3Gal(-R) β1-6(GlcNAc to Gal) N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase in hog gastric mucosa. J. Biol. Chem. 259 (1984) 13385–13390. [PMID: 6490658]
4.  Bierhuizen, M.F., Maemura, K., Kudo, S. and Fukuda, M. Genomic organization of core 2 and I branching β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases. Implication for evolution of the β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase gene family. Glycobiology 5 (1995) 417–425. [DOI] [PMID: 7579796]
5.  Ujita, M., McAuliffe, J., Suzuki, M., Hindsgaul, O., Clausen, H., Fukuda, M.N. and Fukuda, M. Regulation of I-branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine synthesis. Concerted actions by I-extension enzyme, I-branching enzyme, and β1,4-galactosyltransferase I. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 9296–9304. [DOI] [PMID: 10092606]
6.  Yeh, J.C., Ong, E. and Fukuda, M. Molecular cloning and expression of a novel β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase that forms core 2, core 4, and I branches. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 3215–3221. [DOI] [PMID: 9915862]
[EC 2.4.1.150 created 1984 (EC 2.4.1.164 created 1989, incorporated 2016), modified 2017]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.58     Relevance: 17.3%
Accepted name: glucan 1,3-β-glucosidase
Reaction: Successive hydrolysis of β-D-glucose units from the non-reducing ends of (1→3)-β-D-glucans, releasing α-glucose
Other name(s): exo-1,3-β-glucosidase; β-1,3-glucan exo-hydrolase; exo (1→3)-glucanohydrolase; 1,3-β-glucan glucohydrolase
Systematic name: 3-β-D-glucan glucohydrolase
Comments: Acts on oligosaccharides, but very slowly on laminaribiose.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9073-49-8
References:
1.  Barras, D.R. and Stone, B.A. β-1,3-Glucan hydrolases from Euglena gracilis. I. The nature of the hydrolases. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 191 (1969) 329–341. [DOI] [PMID: 5354264]
2.  Barras, D.R. and Stone, B.A. β-1,3-Glucan hydrolases from Euglena gracilis. II. Purification and properties of the β-1,3-glucan exo-hydrolase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 191 (1969) 342–353. [DOI] [PMID: 5354265]
[EC 3.2.1.58 created 1972]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.201     Relevance: 17.2%
Accepted name: α-1,6-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)]-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-N-Asn-[protein] = UDP + β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)]-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)]-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-N-Asn-[protein]
For diagram of mannosyl-glycoprotein n-acetylglucosaminyltransferases, click here
Other name(s): MGAT4C (gene name); N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase VI; N-glycosyl-oligosaccharide-glycoprotein N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase VI; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-glycopeptide β-1→4-acetylglucosaminyltransferase VI; mannosyl-glycoprotein β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; GnTVI; GlcNAc-T VI; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:2,6-bis(N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl)-α-D-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→6)-[N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→2)]-α-D-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: Requires a high concentration of Mn2+ for maximal activity. The enzyme, characterized from hen oviduct membranes, participates in the processing of N-glycans in the Golgi apparatus. It transfers GlcNAc in β1-4 linkage to a D-mannose residue that already has GlcNAc residues attached at positions 2 and 6 by β linkages. No homologous enzyme appears to exist in mammals.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 119699-68-2
References:
1.  Brockhausen, I., Hull, E., Hindsgaul, O., Schachter, H., Shah, R.N., Michnick, S.W. and Carver, J.P. Control of glycoprotein synthesis. Detection and characterization of a novel branching enzyme from hen oviduct, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:GlcNAc β1-6 (GlcNAc β1-2)Man α-R (GlcNAc to Man) β-4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase VI. J. Biol. Chem. 264 (1989) 11211–11221. [PMID: 2525556]
2.  Taguchi, T., Ogawa, T., Inoue, S., Inoue, Y., Sakamoto, Y., Korekane, H. and Taniguchi, N. Purification and characterization of UDP-GlcNAc:GlcNAcβ1-6(GlcNAcβ1-2)Manα1-R [GlcNAc to Man]-β1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase VI from hen oviduct. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 32598–32602. [DOI] [PMID: 10903319]
3.  Sakamoto, Y., Taguchi, T., Honke, K., Korekane, H., Watanabe, H., Tano, Y., Dohmae, N., Takio, K., Horii, A. and Taniguchi, N. Molecular cloning and expression of cDNA encoding chicken UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc): GlcNAcβ 1-6(GlcNAcβ 1-2)- manα 1-R[GlcNAc to man]β 1,4N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase VI. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 36029–36034. [DOI] [PMID: 10962001]
[EC 2.4.1.201 created 1992, modified 2001, modified 2018]
 
 
EC 1.13.12.12      
Transferred entry: apo-β-carotenoid-14′,13′-dioxygenase. The enzyme was misclassified and has been transferred to EC 1.13.11.67, 8-apo-β-carotenoid 14′,13′-cleaving dioxygenase
[EC 1.13.12.12 created 2000, modified 2001, deleted 2012]
 
 


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