Accepted name: methylglyoxal reductase (NADH)
Reaction: (R)-lactaldehyde + NAD+ = 2-oxopropanal + NADH + H+
Glossary: 2-oxopropanal = methylglyoxal
Other name(s): methylglyoxal reductase; D-lactaldehyde dehydrogenase; methylglyoxal reductase (NADH-dependent)
Systematic name: (R)-lactaldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: This mammalian enzyme differs from the yeast enzyme, EC, methylglyoxal reductase (NADPH-dependent), by its coenzyme requirement, reaction direction, and enantiomeric preference.
1.  Ting, S.-M., Miller, O.N. and Sellinger, O.Z. The metabolism of lactaldehyde. VII. The oxidation of D-lactaldehyde in rat liver. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 97 (1965) 407–415. [PMID: 14323585]
2.  Ray, M. and Ray, S. Purification and partial characterization of a methylglyoxal reductase from goat liver. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 802 (1984) 119–127. [PMID: 6386056]
[EC created 1972, modified 2005, modified 2013]
Accepted name: methylglyoxal reductase (NADPH)
Reaction: (S)-lactaldehyde + NADP+ = 2-oxopropanal + NADPH + H+
Glossary: 2-oxopropanal = methylglyoxal
Other name(s): lactaldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+); GRE2 (gene name); methylglyoxal reductase (NADPH-dependent); lactaldehyde:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Systematic name: (S)-lactaldehyde:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalyses the reduction of a keto group in a number of compounds, forming enantiopure products. Among the substrates are methylglyoxal (which is reduced to (S)-lactaldehyde) [1,2], 3-methylbutanal [3], hexane-2,5-dione [4] and 3-chloro-1-phenylpropan-1-one [5]. The enzyme differs from EC, methylglyoxal reductase (NADH), which is found in mammals, by its coenzyme requirement, reaction direction, and enantiomeric preference.
1.  Murata, K., Fukuda, Y., Simosaka, M., Watanabe, K., Saikusa, T. and Kimura, A. Metabolism of 2-oxoaldehyde in yeasts. Purification and characterization of NADPH-dependent methylglyoxal-reducing enzyme from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eur. J. Biochem. 151 (1985) 631–636. [PMID: 3896793]
2.  Chen, C.N., Porubleva, L., Shearer, G., Svrakic, M., Holden, L.G., Dover, J.L., Johnston, M., Chitnis, P.R. and Kohl, D.H. Associating protein activities with their genes: rapid identification of a gene encoding a methylglyoxal reductase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast 20 (2003) 545–554. [PMID: 12722185]
3.  Hauser, M., Horn, P., Tournu, H., Hauser, N.C., Hoheisel, J.D., Brown, A.J. and Dickinson, J.R. A transcriptome analysis of isoamyl alcohol-induced filamentation in yeast reveals a novel role for Gre2p as isovaleraldehyde reductase. FEMS Yeast Res. 7 (2007) 84–92. [PMID: 16999827]
4.  Muller, M., Katzberg, M., Bertau, M. and Hummel, W. Highly efficient and stereoselective biosynthesis of (2S,5S)-hexanediol with a dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Org. Biomol. Chem. 8 (2010) 1540–1550. [PMID: 20237665]
5.  Choi, Y.H., Choi, H.J., Kim, D., Uhm, K.N. and Kim, H.K. Asymmetric synthesis of (S)-3-chloro-1-phenyl-1-propanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae reductase with high enantioselectivity. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 87 (2010) 185–193. [PMID: 20111861]
6.  Breicha, K., Muller, M., Hummel, W. and Niefind, K. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Gre2p, an NADP+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 66 (2010) 838–841. [PMID: 20606287]
[EC created 2005, modified 2013]
Accepted name: (methyl)glyoxal oxidase
Reaction: (1) glyoxal + H2O + O2 = glyoxylate + H2O2
(2) 2-oxopropanal + H2O + O2 = pyruvate + H2O2
Glossary: 2-oxopropanal = methylglyoxal
Other name(s): glx1 (gene name); glx2 (gene name)
Systematic name: (methyl)glyoxal:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme, originally characterized from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, utilizes a free radical-coupled copper complex for catalysis.
1.  Kersten, P.J. and Kirk, T.K. Involvement of a new enzyme, glyoxal oxidase, in extracellular H2O2 production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. J. Bacteriol. 169 (1987) 2195–2201. [PMID: 3553159]
2.  Kersten, P.J. and Cullen, D. Cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding glyoxal oxidase, a H2O2-producing enzyme from the lignin-degrading basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90 (1993) 7411–7413. [PMID: 8346264]
3.  Kersten, P.J., Witek, C., vanden Wymelenberg, A. and Cullen, D. Phanerochaete chrysosporium glyoxal oxidase is encoded by two allelic variants: structure, genomic organization, and heterologous expression of glx1 and glx2. J. Bacteriol. 177 (1995) 6106–6110. [PMID: 7592374]
4.  Whittaker, M.M., Kersten, P.J., Nakamura, N., Sanders-Loehr, J., Schweizer, E.S. and Whittaker, J.W. Glyoxal oxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a new radical-copper oxidase. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 681–687. [PMID: 8557673]
[EC created 2016]
Accepted name: acetylacetone-cleaving enzyme
Reaction: pentane-2,4-dione + O2 = acetate + 2-oxopropanal
Glossary: 2-oxopropanal = methylglyoxal
Other name(s): Dke1; acetylacetone dioxygenase; diketone cleaving dioxygenase; diketone cleaving enzyme
Systematic name: acetylacetone:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: An Fe(II)-dependent enzyme. Forms the first step in the acetylacetone degradation pathway of Acinetobacter johnsonii. While acetylacetone is by far the best substrate, heptane-3,5-dione, octane-2,4-dione, 2-acetylcyclohexanone and ethyl acetoacetate can also act as substrates.
1.  Straganz, G.D., Glieder, A., Brecker, L., Ribbons, D.W. and Steiner, W. Acetylacetone-cleaving enzyme Dke1: a novel C-C-bond-cleaving enzyme from Acinetobacter johnsonii. Biochem. J. 369 (2003) 573–581. [PMID: 12379146]
[EC created 2003]
Accepted name: 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose 1-phosphate synthase
Reaction: (1) 2-oxopropanal + D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate = D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + 1-deoxy-D-threo-hexo-2,5-diulose 6-phosphate
(2) 2-oxopropanal + D-fructose 1-phosphate = D-glyceraldehyde + 1-deoxy-D-threo-hexo-2,5-diulose 6-phosphate
Glossary: 2-oxopropanal = methylglyoxal
1-deoxy-D-threo-hexo-2,5-diulose 6-phosphate = 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose 1-phosphate
Other name(s): DKFP synthase
Systematic name: 2-oxopropanal:D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate glycerone-phosphotransferase
Comments: The enzyme plays a key role in an alternative pathway of the biosynthesis of 3-dehydroquinate (DHQ), which is involved in the canonical pathway for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. The enzyme can also catalyse the reaction of EC, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase.
1.  White, R.H. and Xu, H. Methylglyoxal is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose-1-phosphate: a precursor for aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. Biochemistry 45 (2006) 12366–12379. [PMID: 17014089]
2.  Samland, A.K., Wang, M. and Sprenger, G.A. MJ0400 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii exhibits fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase activity. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 281 (2008) 36–41. [PMID: 18318840]
[EC created 2012]
Accepted name: protein deglycase
Reaction: (1) an Nω-(1-hydroxy-2-oxopropyl)-[protein]-L-arginine + H2O = a [protein]-L-arginine + lactate
(2) an N6-(1-hydroxy-2-oxopropyl)-[protein]-L-lysine + H2O = a [protein]-L-lysine + lactate
(3) an S-(1-hydroxy-2-oxopropyl)-[protein]-L-cysteine + H2O = a [protein]-L-cysteine + lactate
Glossary: 2-oxopropanal = methylglyoxal
Other name(s): PARK7 (gene name); DJ-1 protein; yhbO (gene name); yajL (gene name); glyoxylase III (incorrect)
Systematic name: a [protein]-L-amino acid-1-hydroxypropan-2-one hydrolase [(R)-lactate-forming]
Comments: The enzyme, previously thought to be a glyoxalase, acts on glycated L-arginine, L-lysine, and L-cysteine residues within proteins that have been attacked and modified by glyoxal or 2-oxopropanal. The attack forms hemithioacetal in the case of cysteines and aminocarbinols in the case of arginines and lysines. The enzyme repairs the amino acids, releasing glycolate or lactate (70-80% (S)-lactate and 20-30% (R)-lactate), depending on whether the attacking agent was glyoxal or 2-oxopropanal, respectively [3,4].
1.  Misra, K., Banerjee, A.B., Ray, S. and Ray, M. Glyoxalase III from Escherichia coli: a single novel enzyme for the conversion of methylglyoxal into D-lactate without reduced glutathione. Biochem. J. 305 (1995) 999–1003. [PMID: 7848303]
2.  Subedi, K.P., Choi, D., Kim, I., Min, B. and Park, C. Hsp31 of Escherichia coli K-12 is glyoxalase III. Mol. Microbiol. 81 (2011) 926–936. [PMID: 21696459]
3.  Richarme, G., Mihoub, M., Dairou, J., Bui, L.C., Leger, T. and Lamouri, A. Parkinsonism-associated protein DJ-1/Park7 is a major protein deglycase that repairs methylglyoxal- and glyoxal-glycated cysteine, arginine, and lysine residues. J. Biol. Chem. 290 (2015) 1885–1897. [PMID: 25416785]
4.  Mihoub, M., Abdallah, J., Gontero, B., Dairou, J. and Richarme, G. The DJ-1 superfamily member Hsp31 repairs proteins from glycation by methylglyoxal and glyoxal. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 463 (2015) 1305–1310. [PMID: 26102038]
5.  Abdallah, J., Mihoub, M., Gautier, V. and Richarme, G. The DJ-1 superfamily members YhbO and YajL from Escherichia coli repair proteins from glycation by methylglyoxal and glyoxal. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 470 (2016) 282–286. [PMID: 26774339]
[EC created 2016]
Accepted name: D-lactate dehydratase
Reaction: (R)-lactate = 2-oxopropanal + H2O
Glossary: methylglyoxal = 2-oxopropanal
(R)-lactate = D-lactate
Other name(s): glyoxylase III; GLO3
Systematic name: (R)-lactate hydro-lyase
Comments: The enzyme, described from the fungi Candida albicans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, converts 2-oxopropanal to (R)-lactate in a single glutathione (GSH)-independent step. The other known route for this conversion is the two-step GSH-dependent pathway catalysed by EC (lactoylglutathione lyase) and EC (hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase).
1.  Hasim, S., Hussin, N.A., Alomar, F., Bidasee, K.R., Nickerson, K.W. and Wilson, M.A. A glutathione-independent glyoxalase of the DJ-1 superfamily plays an important role in managing metabolically generated methylglyoxal in Candida albicans. J. Biol. Chem. 289 (2014) 1662–1674. [PMID: 24302734]
2.  Zhao, Q., Su, Y., Wang, Z., Chen, C., Wu, T. and Huang, Y. Identification of glutathione (GSH)-independent glyoxalase III from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. BMC Evol Biol 14:86 (2014). [PMID: 24758716]
[EC created 2011]
Accepted name: methylglyoxal synthase
Reaction: glycerone phosphate = 2-oxopropanal + phosphate
Glossary: glycerone phosphate = dihydroxyacetone phosphate = 3-hydroxy-2-oxopropyl phosphate
2-oxopropanal = methylglyoxal
Other name(s): methylglyoxal synthetase; glycerone-phosphate phospho-lyase
Systematic name: glycerone-phosphate phosphate-lyase (methylglyoxal-forming)
Comments: Does not act on D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate.
1.  Cooper, R.A. and Anderson, A. The formation and catabolism of methylglyoxal during glycolysis in Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett. 11 (1970) 273–276. [PMID: 11945504]
2.  Hopper, D.J. and Cooper, R.A. The regulation of Escherichia coli methylglyoxal synthase; a new control site in glycolysis? FEBS Lett. 13 (1971) 213–216. [PMID: 11945670]
3.  Ray, S. and Ray, M. Isolation of methylglyoxal synthase from goat liver. J. Biol. Chem. 256 (1981) 6230–6233. [PMID: 7240200]
[EC created 1972 as EC, transferred 2000 to EC]
Accepted name: lactoylglutathione lyase
Reaction: (R)-S-lactoylglutathione = glutathione + 2-oxopropanal
Glossary: 2-oxopropanal = methylglyoxal
Other name(s): methylglyoxalase; aldoketomutase; ketone-aldehyde mutase; glyoxylase I; (R)-S-lactoylglutathione methylglyoxal-lyase (isomerizing)
Systematic name: (R)-S-lactoylglutathione methylglyoxal-lyase (isomerizing; glutathione-forming)
Comments: Also acts on 3-phosphoglycerol-glutathione.
1.  Ekwall, K. and Mannervik, B. The stereochemical configuration of the lactoyl group of S-lactoylglutathionine formed by the action of glyoxalase I from porcine erythrocytes and yeast. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 297 (1973) 297–299. [PMID: 4574550]
2.  Racker, E. The mechanism of action of glyoxalase. J. Biol. Chem. 190 (1951) 685–696. [PMID: 14841219]
[EC created 1961]