The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: glutamine synthetase
Reaction: ATP + L-glutamate + NH3 = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine
For diagram of glutamic acid biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): glutamate—ammonia ligase; glutamylhydroxamic synthetase; L-glutamine synthetase; GS
Systematic name: L-glutamate:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming)
Comments: Glutamine synthetase, which catalyses the incorporation of ammonium into glutamate, is a key enzyme of nitrogen metabolism found in all domains of life. Several types have been described, differing in their oligomeric structures and cofactor requirements.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9023-70-5
1.  Elliott, W.H. Isolation of glutamine synthetase and glutamotransferase from green peas. J. Biol. Chem. 201 (1953) 661–672. [PMID: 13061404]
2.  Fry, B.A. Glutamine synthesis by Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus. Biochem. J. 59 (1955) 579–589. [PMID: 14363150]
3.  Lajtha, A., Mela, P. and Waelsch, H. Manganese-dependent glutamotransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 205 (1953) 553–564. [PMID: 13129232]
4.  Meister, A. Glutamine synthesis. In: Boyer, P.D., Lardy, H. and Myrbäck, K. (Ed.), The Enzymes, 2nd edn, vol. 6, Academic Press, New York, 1962, pp. 443–468.
5.  Woolfolk, C.A., Shapiro, B. and Stadtman, E.R. Regulation of glutamine synthetase. I. Purification and properties of glutamine synthetase from Escherichia coli. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 116 (1966) 177–192. [PMID: 5336023]
6.  Kumada, Y., Benson, D.R., Hillemann, D., Hosted, T.J., Rochefort, D.A., Thompson, C.J., Wohlleben, W. and Tateno, Y. Evolution of the glutamine synthetase gene, one of the oldest existing and functioning genes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90 (1993) 3009–3013. [DOI] [PMID: 8096645]
7.  Llorca, O., Betti, M., Gonzalez, J.M., Valencia, A., Marquez, A.J. and Valpuesta, J.M. The three-dimensional structure of an eukaryotic glutamine synthetase: functional implications of its oligomeric structure. J. Struct. Biol. 156 (2006) 469–479. [DOI] [PMID: 16884924]
8.  Martinez-Espinosa, R.M., Esclapez, J., Bautista, V. and Bonete, M.J. An octameric prokaryotic glutamine synthetase from the haloarchaeon Haloferax mediterranei. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 264 (2006) 110–116. [DOI] [PMID: 17020556]
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