The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: (-)-α-pinene synthase
Reaction: geranyl diphosphate = (-)-α-pinene + diphosphate
For diagram of pinene and related monoterpenoids, click here
Glossary: (-)-α-pinene = (1S,5S)-2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene
Other name(s): (-)-α-pinene/(-)-camphene synthase; (-)-α-pinene cyclase
Systematic name: geranyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase [cyclizing, (-)-α-pinene-forming]
Comments: Cyclase II of Salvia officinalis (sage) gives about equal parts (-)-α-pinene, (-)-β-pinene and (-)-camphene, plus traces of other monoterpenoids. (3S)-Linalyl diphosphate can also be used by the enzyme in preference to (3R)-linalyl diphosphate. The 4-pro-S-hydrogen of geranyl diphosphate is lost. Requires Mg2+ (preferred to Mn2+) [1-6]. The enzyme from Abies grandis (grand fir) gives roughly equal parts (-)-α-pinene and (-)-β-pinene. However the clone ag11 gave 35% (-)-limonene, 24% (-)-α-pinene and 20% (-)-β-phellandrene. It requires Mn2+ and K+ (Mg2+ is ineffective) [7-10]. Synthase I from Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) produces (-)-α-pinene with traces of (-)-β-pinene and requires Mn2+ (preferred to Mg2+) [11,12]. The enzyme from Picea sitchensis (Sika spruce) forms 70% (-)-α-pinene and 30% (-)-β-pinene [13]. The recombinant PmeTPS1 enzyme from Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir) gave roughly equal proportions of (-)-α-pinene and (-)-camphene plus traces of other monoterpenoids [14]. See also EC, (-)-β-pinene synthase; EC, (-)-camphene synthase; EC, (-)-limonene synthase; and EC, (-)-β-phellandrene synthase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Gambliel, H. and Croteau, R. Pinene cyclases I and II. Two enzymes from sage (Salvia officinalis) which catalyze stereospecific cyclizations of geranyl pyrophosphate to monoterpene olefins of opposite configuration. J. Biol. Chem. 259 (1984) 740–748. [PMID: 6693393]
2.  Croteau, R.B., Wheeler, C.J., Cane, D.E., Ebert, R. and Ha, H.J. Isotopically sensitive branching in the formation of cyclic monoterpenes: proof that (-)-α-pinene and (-)-β-pinene are synthesized by the same monoterpene cyclase via deprotonation of a common intermediate. Biochemistry 26 (1987) 5383–5389. [PMID: 3314988]
3.  Croteau, R., Satterwhite, D.M., Cane, D.E. and Chang, C.C. Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Enantioselectivity in the enzymatic cyclization of (+)- and (-)-linalyl pyrophosphate to (+)- and (-)-pinene and (+)- and (-)-camphene. J. Biol. Chem. 263 (1988) 10063–10071. [PMID: 3392006]
4.  Croteau, R. and Satterwhite, D.M. Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Stereochemical implications of acyclic and monocyclic olefin formation by (+)- and (-)-pinene cyclases from sage. J. Biol. Chem. 264 (1989) 15309–15315. [PMID: 2768265]
5.  Pyun, H.J., Wagschal, K.C., Jung, D.I., Coates, R.M. and Croteau, R. Stereochemistry of the proton elimination in the formation of (+)- and (-)-α-pinene by monoterpene cyclases from sage (Salvia officinalis). Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 308 (1994) 488–496. [DOI] [PMID: 8109979]
6.  Lu, S., Xu, R., Jia, J.W., Pang, J., Matsuda, S.P. and Chen, X.Y. Cloning and functional characterization of a β-pinene synthase from Artemisia annua that shows a circadian pattern of expression. Plant Physiol. 130 (2002) 477–486. [DOI] [PMID: 12226526]
7.  Lewinsohn, E., Gijzen, M. and Croteau, R. Wound-inducible pinene cyclase from grand fir: purification, characterization, and renaturation after SDS-PAGE. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 293 (1992) 167–173. [DOI] [PMID: 1731633]
8.  Bohlmann, J., Steele, C.L. and Croteau, R. Monoterpene synthases from grand fir (Abies grandis). cDNA isolation, characterization, and functional expression of myrcene synthase, (-)-(4S)-limonene synthase, and (-)-(1S,5S)-pinene synthase. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 21784–21792. [DOI] [PMID: 9268308]
9.  Bohlmann, J., Phillips, M., Ramachandiran, V., Katoh, S. and Croteau, R. cDNA cloning, characterization, and functional expression of four new monoterpene synthase members of the Tpsd gene family from grand fir (Abies grandis). Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 368 (1999) 232–243. [DOI] [PMID: 10441373]
10.  Hyatt, D.C. and Croteau, R. Mutational analysis of a monoterpene synthase reaction: altered catalysis through directed mutagenesis of (-)-pinene synthase from Abies grandis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 439 (2005) 222–233. [DOI] [PMID: 15978541]
11.  Phillips, M.A., Savage, T.J. and Croteau, R. Monoterpene synthases of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) produce pinene isomers and enantiomers. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 372 (1999) 197–204. [DOI] [PMID: 10562434]
12.  Phillips, M.A., Wildung, M.R., Williams, D.C., Hyatt, D.C. and Croteau, R. cDNA isolation, functional expression, and characterization of (+)-α-pinene synthase and (-)-α-pinene synthase from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda): stereocontrol in pinene biosynthesis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 411 (2003) 267–276. [DOI] [PMID: 12623076]
13.  McKay, S.A., Hunter, W.L., Godard, K.A., Wang, S.X., Martin, D.M., Bohlmann, J. and Plant, A.L. Insect attack and wounding induce traumatic resin duct development and gene expression of (-)-pinene synthase in Sitka spruce. Plant Physiol. 133 (2003) 368–378. [DOI] [PMID: 12970502]
14.  Huber, D.P.W., Philippe, R.N., Godard, K.-A., Sturrock, R.N. and Bohlmann, J. Characterization of four terpene synthase cDNAs from methyl jasmonate-induced Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii. Phytochemistry 66 (2005) 1427–1439. [DOI] [PMID: 15921711]
[EC created 2012]

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