Accepted name: carboxylesterase
Reaction: a carboxylic ester + H2O = an alcohol + a carboxylate
Other name(s): ali-esterase; B-esterase; monobutyrase; cocaine esterase; procaine esterase; methylbutyrase; vitamin A esterase; butyryl esterase; carboxyesterase; carboxylate esterase; carboxylic esterase; methylbutyrate esterase; triacetin esterase; carboxyl ester hydrolase; butyrate esterase; methylbutyrase; α-carboxylesterase; propionyl esterase; nonspecific carboxylesterase; esterase D; esterase B; esterase A; serine esterase; carboxylic acid esterase; cocaine esterase
Systematic name: carboxylic-ester hydrolase
Comments: Wide specificity. The enzymes from microsomes also catalyse the reactions of EC (arylesterase), EC (lysophospholipase), EC (acetylesterase), EC (acylglycerol lipase), EC (acylcarnitine hydrolase), EC (palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase), EC (amidase) and EC (aryl-acylamidase). Also hydrolyses vitamin A esters.
1.  Augusteyn, R.C., de Jersey, J., Webb, E.C. and Zerner, B. On the homology of the active-site peptides of liver carboxylesterases. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 171 (1969) 128–137. [PMID: 4884138]
2.  Barker, D.L. and Jencks, W.P. Pig liver esterase. Physical properties. Biochemistry 8 (1969) 3879–3889. [PMID: 4981346]
3.  Bertram, J. and Krisch, K. Hydrolysis of vitamin A acetate by unspecific carboxylesterases from liver and kidney. Eur. J. Biochem. 11 (1969) 122–126. [PMID: 5353595]
4.  Burch, J. The purification and properties of horse liver esterase. Biochem. J. 58 (1954) 415–426. [PMID: 13208632]
5.  Horgan, D.J., Stoops, J.K., Webb, E.C. and Zerner, B. Carboxylesterases (EC 3.1.1). A large-scale purification of pig liver carboxylesterase. Biochemistry 8 (1969) 2000–2006. [PMID: 5785220]
6.  Malhotra, O.P. and Philip, G. Specificity of goat intestinal esterase. Biochem. Z. 346 (1966) 386–402.
7.  Mentlein, R., Schumann, M. and Heymann, E. Comparative chemical and immunological characterization of five lipolytic enzymes (carboxylesterases) from rat liver microsomes. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 234 (1984) 612–621. [PMID: 6208846]
8.  Runnegar, M.T.C., Scott, K., Webb, E.C. and Zerner, B. Carboxylesterases (EC 3.1.1). Purification and titration of ox liver carboxylesterase. Biochemistry 8 (1969) 2013–2018. [PMID: 5785222]
[EC created 1961]
Accepted name: arylesterase
Reaction: a phenyl acetate + H2O = a phenol + acetate
Other name(s): A-esterase (ambiguous); paraoxonase (ambiguous); aromatic esterase
Systematic name: aryl-ester hydrolase
Comments: Acts on many phenolic esters. The reactions of EC aryldialkylphosphatase, were previously attributed to this enzyme. It is likely that the three forms of human paraoxonase are lactonases rather than aromatic esterases [7,8]. The natural substrates of the paraoxonases are lactones [7,8], with (±)-5-hydroxy-6E,8Z,11Z,4Z-eicostetraenoic-acid 1,5-lactone being the best substrate [8].
1.  Aldridge, W.N. Serum esterases. I. Two types of esterase (A and B) hydrolysing p-nitrophenyl acetate, propionate and butyrate and a method for their determination. Biochem. J. 53 (1953) 110–117. [PMID: 13032041]
2.  Augustinsson, K.-B. and Olsson, B. Esterases in the milk and blood plasma of swine. 1. Substrate specificity and electrophoresis studies. Biochem. J. 71 (1959) 477–484. [PMID: 13638253]
3.  Bosmann, H.B. Membrane marker enzymes. Characterization of an arylesterase of guinea pig cerebral cortex utilizing p-nitrophenyl acetate as substrate. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 276 (1972) 180–191. [PMID: 5047702]
4.  Kim, D.-H., Yang, Y.-S. and Jakoby, W.B. Nonserine esterases from rat liver cytosol. Protein Expr. Purif. 1 (1990) 19–27. [PMID: 2152179]
5.  Mackness, M.I., Thompson, H.M., Hardy, A.R. and Walker, C.H. Distinction between 'A′-esterases and arylesterases. Implications for esterase classification. Biochem. J. 245 (1987) 293–296. [PMID: 2822017]
6.  Reiner, E., Aldridge, W.N. and Hoskin, C.G. (Ed.), Enzymes Hydrolysing Organophosphorus Compounds, Ellis Horwood, Chichester, UK, 1989.
7.  Khersonsky, O. and Tawfik, D.S. Structure-reactivity studies of serum paraoxonase PON1 suggest that its native activity is lactonase. Biochemistry 44 (2005) 6371–6382. [PMID: 15835926]
8.  Draganov, D.I., Teiber, J.F., Speelman, A., Osawa, Y., Sunahara, R. and La Du, B.N. Human paraoxonases (PON1, PON2, and PON3) are lactonases with overlapping and distinct substrate specificities. J. Lipid Res. 46 (2005) 1239–1247. [PMID: 15772423]
[EC created 1961, modified 1989]
Accepted name: triacylglycerol lipase
Reaction: triacylglycerol + H2O = diacylglycerol + a carboxylate
Other name(s): lipase (ambiguous); butyrinase; tributyrinase; Tween hydrolase; steapsin; triacetinase; tributyrin esterase; Tweenase; amno N-AP; Takedo 1969-4-9; Meito MY 30; Tweenesterase; GA 56; capalase L; triglyceride hydrolase; triolein hydrolase; tween-hydrolyzing esterase; amano CE; cacordase; triglyceridase; triacylglycerol ester hydrolase; amano P; amano AP; PPL; glycerol-ester hydrolase; GEH; meito Sangyo OF lipase; hepatic lipase; lipazin; post-heparin plasma protamine-resistant lipase; salt-resistant post-heparin lipase; heparin releasable hepatic lipase; amano CES; amano B; tributyrase; triglyceride lipase; liver lipase; hepatic monoacylglycerol acyltransferase; PNLIP (gene name); LIPF (gene name)
Systematic name: triacylglycerol acylhydrolase
Comments: The enzyme is found in diverse organisms including animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria. It hydrolyses triglycerides into diglycerides and subsequently into monoglycerides and free fatty acids. The enzyme is highly soluble in water and acts at the surface of oil droplets. Access to the active site is controlled by the opening of a lid, which, when closed, hides the hydrophobic surface that surrounds the active site. The lid opens when the enzyme contacts an oil-water interface (interfacial activation). The pancreatic enzyme requires a protein cofactor, namely colipase, to counteract the inhibitory effects of bile salts.
1.  Singer, T.P. and Hofstee, B.H.J. Studies on wheat germ lipase. I. Methods of estimation, purification and general properties of the enzyme. Arch. Biochem. 18 (1948) 229–243. [PMID: 18875045]
2.  Singer, T.P. and Hofstee, B.H.J. Studies on wheat germ lipase. II. Kinetics. Arch. Biochem. 18 (1948) 245–259. [PMID: 18875046]
3.  Sarda, L. and Desnuelle, P. Action de la lipase pancréatique sur les esters en émulsion. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 30 (1958) 513–521. [PMID: 13618257]
4.  Lynn, W.S. and Perryman, N.C. Properties and purification of adipose tissue lipase. J. Biol. Chem. 235 (1960) 1912–1916. [PMID: 14419169]
5.  Paznokas, J.L. and Kaplan, A. Purification and properties of a triacylglycerol lipase from Mycobacterium phlei. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 487 (1977) 405–421. [PMID: 18200]
6.  Tiruppathi, C. and Balasubramanian, K.A. Purification and properties of an acid lipase from human gastric juice. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 712 (1982) 692–697. [PMID: 7126632]
7.  Hills, M.J. and Mukherjee, K.D. Triacylglycerol lipase from rape (Brassica napus L.) suitable for biotechnological purposes. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 26 (1990) 1–10. [PMID: 2268143]
8.  Winkler, F.K., D'Arcy, A. and Hunziker, W. Structure of human pancreatic lipase. Nature 343 (1990) 771–774. [PMID: 2106079]
9.  Kim, K.K., Song, H.K., Shin, D.H., Hwang, K.Y. and Suh, S.W. The crystal structure of a triacylglycerol lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia reveals a highly open conformation in the absence of a bound inhibitor. Structure 5 (1997) 173–185. [PMID: 9032073]
10.  Kurat, C.F., Natter, K., Petschnigg, J., Wolinski, H., Scheuringer, K., Scholz, H., Zimmermann, R., Leber, R., Zechner, R. and Kohlwein, S.D. Obese yeast: triglyceride lipolysis is functionally conserved from mammals to yeast. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 491–500. [PMID: 16267052]
11.  Ranaldi, S., Belle, V., Woudstra, M., Bourgeas, R., Guigliarelli, B., Roche, P., Vezin, H., Carriere, F. and Fournel, A. Amplitude of pancreatic lipase lid opening in solution and identification of spin label conformational subensembles by combining continuous wave and pulsed EPR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics. Biochemistry 49 (2010) 2140–2149. [PMID: 20136147]
[EC created 1961]
Accepted name: phospholipase A2
Reaction: phosphatidylcholine + H2O = 1-acylglycerophosphocholine + a carboxylate
Other name(s): lecithinase A; phosphatidase; phosphatidolipase; phospholipase A
Systematic name: phosphatidylcholine 2-acylhydrolase
Comments: Also acts on phosphatidylethanolamine, choline plasmalogen and phosphatides, removing the fatty acid attached to the 2-position. Requires Ca2+.
1.  Doery, H.M. and Pearson, J.E. Haemolysins in venoms of Australian snakes. Observations on the haemolysins of the venoms of some Australian snakes and the separation of phospholipase A from the venom of Pseudechis porphyriacus. Biochem. J. 78 (1961) 820–827. [PMID: 13723433]
2.  Fraenkel-Conrat, H. and Fraenkel-Conrat, J. Inactivation of crotoxin by group-specific reagents. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 5 (1950) 98–104. [PMID: 15433984]
3.  Hanahan, D.J., Brockerhoff, H. and Barron, E.J. The site of attack of phospholipase (lecithinase) A on lecithin: a re-evaluation. Position of fatty acids on lecithins and triglycerides. J. Biol. Chem. 235 (1960) 1917–1923. [PMID: 14399412]
4.  Moore, J.H. and Williams, D.L. Some observations on the specificity of phospholipase A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 84 (1964) 41–54. [PMID: 14124755]
5.  Saito, K. and Hanahan, D.J. A study of the purification and properties of the phospholipase A of Crotalus adamanteus venom. Biochemistry 1 (1962) 521–532. [PMID: 14496116]
6.  van den Bosch, H. Intracellular phospholipases A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 604 (1980) 191–246. [PMID: 6252969]
[EC created 1961, modified 1976, modified 1983]
Accepted name: lysophospholipase
Reaction: 2-lysophosphatidylcholine + H2O = glycerophosphocholine + a carboxylate
Other name(s): lecithinase B; lysolecithinase; phospholipase B; lysophosphatidase; lecitholipase; phosphatidase B; lysophosphatidylcholine hydrolase; lysophospholipase A1; lysophopholipase L2; lysophospholipase transacylase; neuropathy target esterase; NTE; NTE-LysoPLA; NTE-lysophospholipase
Systematic name: 2-lysophosphatidylcholine acylhydrolase
1.  Abe, M., Ohno, K. and Sato, R. Possible identity of lysolecithin acyl-hydrolase with lysolecithin-lysolecithin acyl-transferase in rat-lung soluble fraction. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 369 (1974) 361–370.
2.  Contardi, A. and Ercoli, A. The enzymic cleavage of lecithin and lysolecithin. Biochem. Z. 261 (1933) 275–302.
3.  Dawson, R.M.C. Studies on the hydrolysis of lecithin by Penicillium notatum phospholipase B preparation. Biochem. J. 70 (1958) 559–570. [PMID: 13607409]
4.  Fairbairn, D. The preparation and properties of a lysophospholipase from Penicillium notatum. J. Biol. Chem. 173 (1948) 705–714. [PMID: 18910725]
5.  Shapiro, B. Purification and properties of a lysolecithinase from pancreas. Biochem. J. 53 (1953) 663–666. [PMID: 13032127]
6.  van den Bosch, H., Aarsman, A.J., De Jong, J.G.N. and van Deenen, L.L.M. Studies on lysophospholipases. I. Purification and some properties of a lysophospholipase from beef pancreas. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 296 (1973) 94–104. [PMID: 4693514]
7.  van den Bosch, H., Vianen, G.M. and van Heusden, G.P.H. Lysophospholipase-transacylase from rat lung. Methods Enzymol. 71 (1981) 513–521. [PMID: 7278668]
8.  van Tienhoven, M., Atkins, J., Li, Y. and Glynn, P. Human neuropathy target esterase catalyzes hydrolysis of membrane lipids. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 20942–20948. [PMID: 11927584]
9.  Quistad, G.B., Barlow, C., Winrow, C.J., Sparks, S.E. and Casida, J.E. Evidence that mouse brain neuropathy target esterase is a lysophospholipase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100 (2003) 7983–7987. [PMID: 12805562]
10.  Lush, M.J., Li, Y., Read, D.J., Willis, A.C. and Glynn, P. Neuropathy target esterase and a homologous Drosophila neurodegeneration-associated mutant protein contain a novel domain conserved from bacteria to man. Biochem. J. 332 (1998) 1–4. [PMID: 9576844]
11.  Winrow, C.J., Hemming, M.L., Allen, D.M., Quistad, G.B., Casida, J.E. and Barlow, C. Loss of neuropathy target esterase in mice links organophosphate exposure to hyperactivity. Nat. Genet. 33 (2003) 477–485. [PMID: 12640454]
[EC created 1961, modified 1976, modified 1983]
Accepted name: acetylesterase
Reaction: an acetic ester + H2O = an alcohol + acetate
Other name(s): C-esterase (in animal tissues); acetic ester hydrolase; chloroesterase; p-nitrophenyl acetate esterase; Citrus acetylesterase
Systematic name: acetic-ester acetylhydrolase
1.  Aldridge, W.N. Serum esterases. I. Two types of esterase (A and B) hydrolysing p-nitrophenyl acetate, propionate and butyrate and a method for their determination. Biochem. J. 53 (1953) 110–117. [PMID: 13032041]
2.  Bergmann, F. and Rimon, S. Fractionation of C-esterase from the hog's kidney extract. Biochem. J. 77 (1960) 209–214. [PMID: 16748846]
3.  Jansen, E.F., Nutting, M.-D.F. and Balls, A.K. The reversible inhibition of acetylesterase by diisopropyl fluorophosphate and tetraethyl pyrophosphate. J. Biol. Chem. 175 (1948) 975–987. [PMID: 18880795]
[EC created 1961]
Accepted name: acetylcholinesterase
Reaction: acetylcholine + H2O = choline + acetate
Other name(s): true cholinesterase; choline esterase I; cholinesterase; acetylthiocholinesterase; acetylcholine hydrolase; acetyl.β-methylcholinesterase; AcCholE
Systematic name: acetylcholine acetylhydrolase
Comments: Acts on a variety of acetic esters; also catalyses transacetylations.
1.  Augustinsson, K.-B. Cholinesterases. A study in comparative enzymology. Acta Physiol. Scand. 15, Suppl. 2 (1948) .
2.  Bergmann, F., Rimon, S. and Segal, R. Effect of pH on the activity of eel esterase towards different substrates. Biochem. J. 68 (1958) 493–499. [PMID: 13522650]
3.  Cilliv, G. and Ozand, P.T. Human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase purification, properties and kinetic behavior. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 284 (1972) 136–156. [PMID: 5073758]
4.  Leuzinger, W., Baker, A.L. and Cauvin, E. Acetylcholinesterase. II. Crystallization, absorption spectra, isoionic point. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 59 (1968) 620–623. [PMID: 5238989]
5.  Nachmansohn, D. and Wilson, I.B. The enzymic hydrolysis and synthesis of acetylcholine. Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Subj. Biochem. 12 (1951) 259–339. [PMID: 14885021]
6.  Zittle, C.A., DellaMonica, E.S., Custer, J.H. and Krikorian, R. Purification of human red cell acetylcholinesterase by electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation and gradient extraction. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 56 (1955) 469–475. [PMID: 14377597]
[EC created 1961]
Accepted name: cholinesterase
Reaction: an acylcholine + H2O = choline + a carboxylate
Other name(s): pseudocholinesterase; butyrylcholine esterase; non-specific cholinesterase; choline esterase II (unspecific); benzoylcholinesterase; choline esterase; butyrylcholinesterase; propionylcholinesterase; BtChoEase
Systematic name: acylcholine acylhydrolase
Comments: Acts on a variety of choline esters and a few other compounds.
1.  Augustinsson, K.-B. Cholinesterases. A study in comparative enzymology. Acta Physiol. Scand. 15, Suppl. 2 (1948) .
2.  Augustinsson, K.-B. and Olsson, B. Esterases in the milk and blood plasma of swine. 1. Substrate specificity and electrophoresis studies. Biochem. J. 71 (1959) 477–484. [PMID: 13638253]
3.  Koelle, G.B. Cholinesterases of the tissues and sera of rabbits. Biochem. J. 53 (1953) 217–226. [PMID: 13032058]
4.  Nachmansohn, D. and Wilson, I.B. The enzymic hydrolysis and synthesis of acetylcholine. Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Subj. Biochem. 12 (1951) 259–339. [PMID: 14885021]
5.  Sawyer, C.H. Hydrolysis of choline esters by liver. Science 101 (1945) 385–386. [PMID: 17780326]
6.  Strelitz, F. Studies on cholinesterase. 4. Purification of pseudo-cholinesterase from horse serum. Biochem. J. 38 (1944) 86–88. [PMID: 16747753]
[EC created 1961]
Deleted entry:  benzoylcholinesterase; a side reaction of EC cholinesterase
[EC created 1961, deleted 1972]
Accepted name: tropinesterase
Reaction: atropine + H2O = tropine + tropate
Other name(s): tropine esterase; atropinase; atropine esterase
Systematic name: atropine acylhydrolase
Comments: Also acts on cocaine and other tropine esters.
1.  Glick, D., Glaubach, S. and Moore, D.H. Azolesterase activities of electrophoretically separated proteins of serum. J. Biol. Chem. 144 (1942) 525–528.
2.  Moog, P. and Krisch, K. [The purification and characterization of atropine esterase from rabbit liver microsomes] Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 355 (1974) 529–542. [PMID: 4435736]
[EC created 1961, deleted 1972, reinstated 1976]
Accepted name: pectinesterase
Reaction: pectin + n H2O = n methanol + pectate
Other name(s): pectin demethoxylase; pectin methoxylase; pectin methylesterase; pectase; pectin methyl esterase; pectinoesterase
Systematic name: pectin pectylhydrolase
1.  Deuel, H. and Stutz, E. Pectic substances and pectic enzymes. Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Areas Mol. Biol. 20 (1958) 341–382. [PMID: 13605988]
2.  Lineweaver, H. and Jansen, E.F. Pectic enzymes. Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Subj. Biochem. 11 (1951) 267–295.
3.  Mills, G.B. A biochemical study of Pseudomonas prunicola Wormald. I. Pectin esterase. Biochem. J. 44 (1949) 302–305. [PMID: 16748520]
[EC created 1961]
Deleted entry:  vitamin A esterase, now believed to be identical with EC carboxylesterase
[EC created 1961, deleted 1972]
Accepted name: sterol esterase
Reaction: a steryl ester + H2O = a sterol + a fatty acid
Other name(s): cholesterol esterase; cholesteryl ester synthase; triterpenol esterase; cholesteryl esterase; cholesteryl ester hydrolase; sterol ester hydrolase; cholesterol ester hydrolase; cholesterase; acylcholesterol lipase
Systematic name: steryl-ester acylhydrolase
Comments: A group of enzymes of broad specificity, acting on esters of sterols and long-chain fatty acids, that may also bring about the esterification of sterols. Activated by bile salts.
1.  Hyun, J., Kothari, H., Herm, E., Mortenson, J., Treadwell, C.R. and Vahouny, G.V. Purification and properties of pancreatic juice cholesterol esterase. J. Biol. Chem. 244 (1969) 1937–1945. [PMID: 5780846]
2.  Okawa, Y. and Yamaguchi, T. Studies on sterol-ester hydrolase from Fusarium oxysporum. I. Partial purification and properties. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 81 (1977) 1209–1215. [PMID: 19426]
3.  Vahouny, G.V. and Tradwell, C.R. Enzymatic synthesis and hydrolysis of cholesterol esters. Methods Biochem. Anal. 16 (1968) 219–272. [PMID: 4877146]
4.  Warnaar, F. Triterpene ester synthesis in latex of Euphorbia species. Phytochemistry 26 (1987) 2715–2721.
[EC created 1961, modified 1990]
Accepted name: chlorophyllase
Reaction: chlorophyll + H2O = phytol + chlorophyllide
Other name(s): CLH; Chlase
Systematic name: chlorophyll chlorophyllidohydrolase
Comments: Chlorophyllase has been found in higher plants, diatoms, and in the green algae Chlorella [3]. This enzyme forms part of the chlorophyll degradation pathway and is thought to take part in de-greening processes such as fruit ripening, leaf senescence and flowering, as well as in the turnover and homeostasis of chlorophyll [4]. This enzyme acts preferentially on chlorophyll a but will also accept chlorophyll b and pheophytins as substrates [5]. Ethylene and methyl jasmonate, which are known to accelerate senescence in many species, can enhance the activity of the hormone-inducible form of this enzyme [5].
1.  Holden, M. The breakdown of chlorophyll by chlorophyllase. Biochem. J. 78 (1961) 359–364. [PMID: 13715233]
2.  Klein, A.O. and Vishniac, W. Activity and partial purification of chlorophyllase in aqueous systems. J. Biol. Chem. 236 (1961) 2544–2547. [PMID: 13756631]
3.  Tsuchiya, T., Ohta, H., Okawa, K., Iwamatsu, A., Shimada, H., Masuda, T. and Takamiya, K. Cloning of chlorophyllase, the key enzyme in chlorophyll degradation: finding of a lipase motif and the induction by methyl jasmonate. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999) 15362–15367. [PMID: 10611389]
4.  Okazawa, A., Tango, L., Itoh, Y., Fukusaki, E. and Kobayashi, A. Characterization and subcellular localization of chlorophyllase from Ginkgo biloba. Z. Naturforsch. [C] 61 (2006) 111–117. [PMID: 16610227]
5.  Hörtensteiner, S. Chlorophyll degradation during senescence. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 57 (2006) 55–77. [PMID: 16669755]
[EC created 1961, modified 2007]
Accepted name: L-arabinonolactonase
Reaction: L-arabinono-1,4-lactone + H2O = L-arabinonate
Systematic name: L-arabinono-1,4-lactone lactonohydrolase
1.  Weimberg, R. and Doudoroff, M. The oxidation of L-arabinose by Pseudomonas saccharophila. J. Biol. Chem. 217 (1955) 607–624. [PMID: 13271422]
[EC created 1961]
Deleted entry:  4-carboxymethyl-4-hydroxyisocrotonolactonase. This reaction was due to a mixture of EC (muconolactone Δ-isomerase) and EC (3-oxoadipate enol-lactonase)
[EC created 1961, deleted 1972]
Accepted name: gluconolactonase
Reaction: D-glucono-1,5-lactone + H2O = D-gluconate
Other name(s): lactonase; aldonolactonase; glucono-δ-lactonase; gulonolactonase
Systematic name: D-glucono-1,5-lactone lactonohydrolase
Comments: Acts on a wide range of hexose-1,5-lactones. The hydrolysis of L-gulono-1,5-lactone was previously listed separately.
1.  Brodie, A.F. and Lipmann, F. Identification of a gluconolactonase. J. Biol. Chem. 212 (1955) 677–685. [PMID: 14353869]
2.  Bublitz, C. and Lehninger, A.L. The role of aldonolactonase in the conversion of L-gulonate to L-ascorbate. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 47 (1961) 288–297.
3.  Suzuki, K., Kawada, M. and Shimazono, N. Soluble lactonase. Identity of lactonase I and aldonolactonase with gluconolactonase. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 49 (1961) 448–449.
[EC created 1961 (EC created 1961, incorporated 1982)]
Deleted entry:  aldonolactonase. Now included with EC gluconolactonase
[EC created 1961, deleted 1982]
Accepted name: uronolactonase
Reaction: D-glucurono-6,2-lactone + H2O = D-glucuronate
Other name(s): glucuronolactonase
Systematic name: D-glucurono-6,2-lactone lactonohydrolase
1.  Winkelman, J. and Lehninger, A.L. Aldono- and uronolactonase of animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 233 (1958) 794–799. [PMID: 13587494]
[EC created 1961]
Accepted name: tannase
Reaction: digallate + H2O = 2 gallate
Glossary: gallate = 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate
digallate = 3,4-dihydroxy-5-(3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoyloxy)benzoate
Other name(s): tannase S; tannin acetylhydrolase
Systematic name: tannin acylhydrolase
Comments: Also hydrolyses ester links in other tannins.
1.  Dyckerhoff, H. and Armbruster, R. Zur Kenntnis der Tannase. Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 219 (1933) 38–56.
[EC created 1961]
Deleted entry: retinyl-palmitate esterase. Now known to be catalysed by EC, carboxylesterase and EC, triacylglycerol lipase.
[EC created 1972, deleted 2011]
Accepted name: hydroxybutyrate-dimer hydrolase
Reaction: (R)-3-((R)-3-hydroxybutanoyloxy)butanoate + H2O = 2 (R)-3-hydroxybutanoate
Other name(s): D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate-dimer hydrolase
Systematic name: (R)-3-((R)-3-hydroxybutanoyloxy)butanoate hydroxybutanoylhydrolase
1.  Delafield, F.P., Cooksey, K.E. and Doudoroff, M. β-Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase and dimer hydrolase of Pseudomonas lemoignei. J. Biol. Chem. 240 (1965) 4023–4028. [PMID: 4954074]
[EC created 1972]
Accepted name: acylglycerol lipase
Reaction: Hydrolyses glycerol monoesters of long-chain fatty acids
Other name(s): monoacylglycerol lipase; monoacylglycerolipase; monoglyceride lipase; monoglyceride hydrolase; fatty acyl monoester lipase; monoacylglycerol hydrolase; monoglyceridyllipase; monoglyceridase
Systematic name: glycerol-ester acylhydrolase
1.  Mentlein, R., Heiland, S. and Heymann, E. Simultaneous purification and comparative characterization of six serine hydrolases from rat liver microsomes. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 200 (1980) 547–559. [PMID: 6776896]
2.  Pope, J.L., McPherson, J.C. and Tidwell, H.C. A study of a monoglyceride-hydrolyzing enzyme of intestinal mucosa. J. Biol. Chem. 241 (1966) 2306–2310. [PMID: 5916497]
[EC created 1972]
Accepted name: 3-oxoadipate enol-lactonase
Reaction: 3-oxoadipate enol-lactone + H2O = 3-oxoadipate
Other name(s): carboxymethylbutenolide lactonase; β-ketoadipic enol-lactone hydrolase; 3-ketoadipate enol-lactonase; 3-oxoadipic enol-lactone hydrolase; β-ketoadipate enol-lactone hydrolase
Systematic name: 4-carboxymethylbut-3-en-4-olide enol-lactonohydrolase
Comments: The enzyme acts on the product of EC 4-carboxymuconolactone decarboxylase.
1.  Ornston, L.N. The conversion of catechol and protocatechuate to β-ketoadipate by Pseudomonas putida. II. Enzymes of the protocatechuate pathway. J. Biol. Chem. 241 (1966) 3787–3794. [PMID: 5916392]
2.  Ornston, L.N. Conversion of catechol and protocatechuate to β-ketoadipate (Pseudomonas putida). Methods Enzymol. 17A (1970) 529–549.
[EC created 1961 as EC, part transferred 1972 to EC]
Accepted name: 1,4-lactonase
Reaction: a 1,4-lactone + H2O = a 4-hydroxyacid
Other name(s): γ-lactonase
Systematic name: 1,4-lactone hydroxyacylhydrolase
Comments: The enzyme is specific for 1,4-lactones with 4-8 carbon atoms. It does not hydrolyse simple aliphatic esters, acetylcholine, sugar lactones or substituted aliphatic lactones, e.g. 3-hydroxy-4-butyrolactone; requires Ca2+.
1.  Fishbein, W.N. and Bessman, S.P. Purification and properties of an enzyme in human blood and rat liver microsomes catalyzing the formation and hydrolysis of γ-lactones. I. Tissue localization, stoichiometry, specificity, distinction from esterase. J. Biol. Chem. 241 (1966) 4835–4841. [PMID: 4958984]
2.  Fishbein, W.N. and Bessman, S.P. Purification and properties of an enzyme in human blood and rat liver microsomes catalyzing the formation and hydrolysis of γ-lactones. II. Metal ion effects, kinetics, and equilibria. J. Biol. Chem. 241 (1966) 4842–4847. [PMID: 4958985]
[EC created 1972, modified 1981]
Accepted name: galactolipase
Reaction: 1,2-diacyl-3-β-D-galactosyl-sn-glycerol + 2 H2O = 3-β-D-galactosyl-sn-glycerol + 2 carboxylates
Other name(s): galactolipid lipase; polygalactolipase; galactolipid acylhydrolase
Systematic name: 1,2-diacyl-3-β-D-galactosyl-sn-glycerol acylhydrolase
Comments: Also acts on 2,3-di-O-acyl-1-O-(6-O-α-D-galactosyl-β-D-galactosyl)-D-glycerol, and phosphatidylcholine and other phospholipids.
1.  Helmsing, P.J. Purification and properties of galactolipase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 178 (1969) 519–533. [PMID: 5784904]
2.  Hirayama, O., Matsuda, H., Takeda, H., Maenaka, K. and Takatsuka, H. Purification and properties of a lipid acyl-hydrolase from potato tubers. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 384 (1975) 127–137. [PMID: 236765]
[EC created 1972]
Accepted name: 4-pyridoxolactonase
Reaction: 4-pyridoxolactone + H2O = 4-pyridoxate
Systematic name: 4-pyridoxolactone lactonohydrolase
1.  Burg, R.W. and Snell, E.E. The bacterial oxidation of vitamin B6. VI. Pyridoxal dehydrogenase and 4-pyridoxolactonase. J. Biol. Chem. 244 (1969) 2585–2589. [PMID: 4306030]
[EC created 1972]
Accepted name: acylcarnitine hydrolase
Reaction: O-acylcarnitine + H2O = a fatty acid + L-carnitine
Other name(s): high activity acylcarnitine hydrolase; HACH; carnitine ester hydrolase; palmitoylcarnitine hydrolase; palmitoyl-L-carnitine hydrolase; long-chain acyl-L-carnitine hydrolase; palmitoyl carnitine hydrolase
Systematic name: O-acylcarnitine acylhydrolase
Comments: Acts on higher fatty acid (C6 to C18) esters of L-carnitine; highest activity is with O-decanoyl-L-carnitine.
1.  Mahadevan, S. and Sauer, F. Carnitine ester hydrolase of rat liver. J. Biol. Chem. 244 (1969) 4448–4453. [PMID: 5806585]
2.  Mentlein, R., Reuter, G. and Heymann, E. Specificity of two different purified acylcarnitine hydrolases from rat liver, their identity with other carboxylesterases, and their possible function. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 240 (1985) 801–810. [PMID: 4026306]
[EC created 1972]
Accepted name: aminoacyl-tRNA hydrolase
Reaction: N-substituted aminoacyl-tRNA + H2O = N-substituted amino acid + tRNA
Other name(s): aminoacyl-transfer ribonucleate hydrolase; N-substituted aminoacyl transfer RNA hydrolase; peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase
Systematic name: aminoacyl-tRNA aminoacylhydrolase
1.  Jost, J.-P. and Bock, R.M. Enzymatic hydrolysis of N-substituted aminoacyl transfer ribonucleic acid in yeast. J. Biol. Chem. 244 (1969) 5866–5873. [PMID: 4981785]
[EC created 1972]
Accepted name: D-arabinonolactonase
Reaction: D-arabinono-1,4-lactone + H2O = D-arabinonate
Systematic name: D-arabinono-1,4-lactone lactonohydrolase
1.  Palleroni, N.J. and Doudoroff, M. Metabolism of carbohydrates by Pseudomonas saccharophilla. III. Oxidation of D-arabinose. J. Bacteriol. 74 (1957) 180–185. [PMID: 13475218]
[EC created 1972]
Accepted name: 6-phosphogluconolactonase
Reaction: 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone + H2O = 6-phospho-D-gluconate
Other name(s): phosphogluconolactonase; 6-PGL
Systematic name: 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone lactonohydrolase
1.  Kawada, M., Kagawa, Y., Takiguchi, H. and Shimazono, N. Purification of 6-phosphogluconolactonase from rat liver and yeast; its separation from gluconolactonase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 57 (1962) 404–407. [PMID: 14454532]
2.  Miclet, E., Stoven, V., Michels, P.A., Opperdoes, F.R., Lallemand, J.-Y. and Duffieux, F. NMR spectroscopic analysis of the first two steps of the pentose-phosphate pathway elucidates the role of 6-phosphogluconolactonase. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 34840–34846. [PMID: 11457850]
[EC created 1972]
Accepted name: phospholipase A1
Reaction: phosphatidylcholine + H2O = 2-acylglycerophosphocholine + a carboxylate
Systematic name: phosphatidylcholine 1-acylhydrolase
Comments: This enzyme has a much broader specificity than EC phospholipase A2. Requires Ca2+.
1.  Gatt, S. Purification and properties of phospholipase A-1 from rat and calf brain. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 159 (1968) 304–316. [PMID: 5657461]
2.  Scandella, C.J. and Kornberg, A. A membrane-bound phospholipase A1 purified from Escherichia coli. Biochemistry 10 (1971) 4447–4456. [PMID: 4946924]
3.  van den Bosch, H. Intracellular phospholipases A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 604 (1980) 191–246. [PMID: 6252969]
4.  van den Bosch, H., Aarsman, A.J. and van Deenen, L.L.M. Isolation and properties of a phospholipase A1 activity from beef pancreas. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 348 (1974) 197–209. [PMID: 4858811]
[EC created 1972, modified 1976]
Accepted name: 6-acetylglucose deacetylase
Reaction: 6-acetyl-D-glucose + H2O = D-glucose + acetate
Other name(s): 6-O-acetylglucose deacetylase
Systematic name: 6-acetyl-D-glucose acetylhydrolase
1.  Duff, R.B. and Webley, D.M. Metabolism of 6-O-acetyl-D-glucopyranose and other monoacetyl-sugars by strains of Bacillus megaterium and other soil organisms. Biochem. J. 70 (1958) 520–528. [PMID: 13596370]
[EC created 1972]
Accepted name: lipoprotein lipase
Reaction: triacylglycerol + H2O = diacylglycerol + a carboxylate
Other name(s): clearing factor lipase; diacylglycerol lipase; postheparin esterase; diglyceride lipase; postheparin lipase; diacylglycerol hydrolase; lipemia-clearing factor; hepatic triacylglycerol lipase; LIPC (gene name); LPL (gene name); triacylglycero-protein acylhydrolase
Systematic name: triacylglycerol acylhydrolase (lipoprotein-dependent)
Comments: Hydrolyses triacylglycerols and diacylglycerol in chylomicrons and low-density lipoprotein particles. Human protein purified from post-heparin plasma (LPL) shows no activity against triglyceride in the absence of added lipoprotein. The principal reaction sequence of that enzyme is triglyceride → 1,2-diglyceride → 2-monoglyceride. The hepatic enzyme (LIPC) also hydrolyses triglycerides and phospholipids present in circulating plasma lipoproteins.
1.  Egelrud, T. and Olivecrona, T. Purified bovine milk (lipoprotein) lipase: activity against lipid substrates in the absence of exogenous serum factors. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 306 (1973) 115–127. [PMID: 4703566]
2.  Fielding, C.J. Human lipoprotein lipase. I. Purification and substrate specificity. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 206 (1970) 109–117. [PMID: 5441398]
3.  Greten, H., Levy, R.I., Fales, H. and Fredrickson, D.S. Hydrolysis of diglyceride and glyceryl monoester diethers with lipoprotein lipase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 210 (1970) 39–45. [PMID: 5466051]
4.  Morley, N. and Kuksis, A. Positional specificity of lipoprotein lipase. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 6389–6393. [PMID: 5076762]
5.  Nilsson-Ehle, P., Belfrage, P. and Borgström, B. Purified human lipoprotein lipase: positional specificity. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 248 (1971) 114–120. [PMID: 5168777]
6.  Santamarina-Fojo, S., Gonzalez-Navarro, H., Freeman, L., Wagner, E. and Nong, Z. Hepatic lipase, lipoprotein metabolism, and atherogenesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 24 (2004) 1750–1754. [PMID: 15284087]
[EC created 1972, modified 1976]
Accepted name: dihydrocoumarin hydrolase
Reaction: dihydrocoumarin + H2O = melilotate
Systematic name: dihydrocoumarin lactonohydrolase
Comments: Also hydrolyses some other benzenoid 1,4-lactones.
1.  Kosuge, T. and Conn, E.E. The metabolism of aromatic compounds in higher plants. V. Purification and properties of dihydrocoumarin hydrolase of Melilotus alba. J. Biol. Chem. 237 (1962) 1653–1656. [PMID: 14458747]
[EC created 1972]
Accepted name: limonin-D-ring-lactonase
Reaction: limonoate D-ring-lactone + H2O = limonoate
Other name(s): limonin-D-ring-lactone hydrolase; limonin lactone hydrolase
Systematic name: limonoate-D-ring-lactone lactonohydrolase
Comments: Limonoate is a triterpenoid.
1.  Maier, V.P., Hasegawa, S. and Hera, E. Limonin D-ring-lactone hydrolase. A new enzyme from Citrus seeds. Phytochemistry 8 (1969) 405–407.
[EC created 1972]
Accepted name: steroid-lactonase
Reaction: testololactone + H2O = testolate
Glossary: testololactone = 3-oxo-13,17-secoandrost-4-eno-17,13-lactone
testolate = 13-hydroxy-3-oxo-13,17-secoandrost-4-en-17-oate
Systematic name: testololactone lactonohydrolase
1.  Holmlund, C.E. and Blank, R.H. Preparation and properties of a steroid lactonase. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 109 (1965) 29–35. [PMID: 14281950]
[EC created 1972]
Accepted name: triacetate-lactonase
Reaction: triacetate lactone + H2O = triacetate
Other name(s): triacetic lactone hydrolase; triacetic acid lactone hydrolase; TAL hydrolase; triacetate lactone hydrolase
Systematic name: triacetolactone lactonohydrolase
1.  Kato, S., Ueda, H., Nonomura, S. and Tatsumi, C. [Degradation of dehydroacetic acid by microorganisms. III. Properties of triacetic acid lactone hydrolase.] Nippon Nogei Kagaku Kaishi 42 (1968) 596–600. (in Japanese)
[EC created 1972]
Accepted name: actinomycin lactonase
Reaction: actinomycin + H2O = actinomycinic monolactone
Systematic name: actinomycin lactonohydrolase
1.  Hou, C.T. and Perlman, D. Microbial transformations of peptide antibiotics. V. Purification and properties of the actinomycin lactonase from Actinoplanes missouriensis. J. Biol. Chem. 245 (1970) 1289–1295. [PMID: 4191854]
[EC created 1972]
Accepted name: orsellinate-depside hydrolase
Reaction: orsellinate depside + H2O = 2 orsellinate
Glossary: orsellinate = 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate
Other name(s): lecanorate hydrolase
Systematic name: orsellinate-depside hydrolase
Comments: The enzyme will only hydrolyse those substrates based on the 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate structure that also have a free hydroxy group ortho to the depside linkage.
1.  Schultz, J. and Mosbach, K. Studies on lichen enzymes. Purification and properties of an orsellinate depside hydrolase obtained from Lasallia pustulata. Eur. J. Biochem. 22 (1971) 153–157. [PMID: 5116606]
[EC created 1976]
Accepted name: cephalosporin-C deacetylase
Reaction: cephalosporin C + H2O = deacetylcephalosporin C + acetate
Other name(s): cephalosporin C acetyl-hydrolase; cephalosporin C acetylase; cephalosporin acetylesterase; cephalosporin C acetylesterase; cephalosporin C acetyl-esterase; cephalosporin C deacetylase
Systematic name: cephalosporin-C acetylhydrolase
Comments: Hydrolyses the acetyl ester bond on the 10-position of the antibiotic cephalosporin C.
1.  Fujisawa, Y., Shirafuji, H., Kida, M. and Nara, K. New findings on cephalosporin C biosynthesis. Nat. New Biol. 246 (1973) 154–155. [PMID: 4519146]
[EC created 1976]
Accepted name: chlorogenate hydrolase
Reaction: chlorogenate + H2O = caffeate + quinate
Other name(s): chlorogenase; chlorogenic acid esterase
Systematic name: chlorogenate hydrolase
Comments: Also acts, more slowly, on isochlorogenate. No other substrates are known.
1.  Schöbel, B. and Pollmann, W. Isolation and characterization of a chlorogenic acid esterase from Aspergillus niger. Z. Naturforsch. C: Biosci. 35 (1980) 209–212. [PMID: 7385941]
2.  Schöbel, B. and Pollmann, W. Weitere Charakterisierung einer Chlorogensäure - Hydrolase aus Aspergillus niger. Z. Naturforsch. C: Biosci. 35 (1980) 699–701. [PMID: 7445677]
[EC created 1981]
Accepted name: α-amino-acid esterase
Reaction: an α-amino acid ester + H2O = an α-amino acid + an alcohol
Other name(s): α-amino acid ester hydrolase
Systematic name: α-amino-acid-ester aminoacylhydrolase
Comments: Also catalyses α-aminoacyl transfer to a number of amine nucleophiles.
1.  Kato, K., Kawahara, K., Takahashi, T. and Kakinuma, A. Purification of an α-amino acid ester hydrolase from Xanthomonas citri. Agric. Biol. Chem. 44 (1980) 1069–1074.
2.  Kato, K., Kawahara, K., Takahashi, T. and Kakinuma, A. Substrate specificity of an α-amino acid ester hydrolase from Xanthomonas citri. Agric. Biol. Chem. 44 (1980) 1075–1081.
3.  Takahashi, T., Yamazaki, Y. and Kato, K. Substrate specificity of an α-amino acid ester hydrolase produced by Acetobacter turbidans A. T.C.C. 9325. Biochem. J. 137 (1974) 497–503. [PMID: 4424889]
[EC created 1983]
Accepted name: 4-methyloxaloacetate esterase
Reaction: oxaloacetate 4-methyl ester + H2O = oxaloacetate + methanol
Systematic name: oxaloacetate-4-methyl-ester oxaloacetohydrolase
1.  Donnelly, M.I. and Dagley, S. Production of methanol from aromatic acids by Pseudomonas putida. J. Bacteriol. 142 (1980) 916–924. [PMID: 7380811]
[EC created 1983]
Accepted name: carboxymethylenebutenolidase
Reaction: 4-carboxymethylenebut-2-en-4-olide + H2O = 4-oxohex-2-enedioate
Other name(s): maleylacetate enol-lactonase; dienelactone hydrolase; carboxymethylene butenolide hydrolase
Systematic name: 4-carboxymethylenebut-2-en-4-olide lactonohydrolase
1.  Schmidt, E. and Knackmuss, H.-J. Chemical structure and biodegradability of halogenated aromatic compounds. Conversion of chlorinated muconic acids into maleoylacetic acid. Biochem. J. 192 (1980) 339–347. [PMID: 7305906]
[EC created 1983]
Accepted name: deoxylimonate A-ring-lactonase
Reaction: deoxylimonate + H2O = deoxylimononic acid D-ring-lactone
Systematic name: deoxylimonate A-ring-lactonohydrolase
Comments: The enzyme opens the A-ring-lactone of the triterpenoid deoxylimonic acid, leaving the D-ring-lactone intact.
1.  Hasegawa, H., Bennett, R.D. and Verdon, C.P. Metabolism of limonoids via a deoxylimonoid pathway in Citrus. Phytochemistry 19 (1980) 1445–1447.
[EC created 1983]
Accepted name: 1-alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine esterase
Reaction: 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O = 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
Other name(s): 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetylhydrolase; alkylacetyl-GPC:acetylhydrolase
Systematic name: 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetohydrolase
1.  Blank, M.L., Lee, T.-C., Fitzgerald, V. and Snyder, F. A specific acetylhydrolase for 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (a hypotensive and platelet-activating lipid). J. Biol. Chem. 256 (1981) 175–178. [PMID: 7451433]
[EC created 1984]
Accepted name: fusarinine-C ornithinesterase
Reaction: N5-acyl-L-ornithine ester + H2O = N5-acyl-L-ornithine + an alcohol
Other name(s): ornithine esterase; 5-N-acyl-L-ornithine-ester hydrolase
Systematic name: N5-acyl-L-ornithine-ester hydrolase
Comments: Hydrolyses the three ornithine ester bonds in fusarinine C. Also acts on N5-dinitrophenyl-L-ornithine methyl ester.
1.  Emery, T. Fungal ornithine esterases: relationship to iron transport. Biochemistry 15 (1976) 2723–2728. [PMID: 949472]
[EC created 1984]
Accepted name: sinapine esterase
Reaction: sinapoylcholine + H2O = sinapate + choline
Other name(s): aromatic choline esterase
Systematic name: sinapoylcholine sinapohydrolase
1.  Nurmann, G. and Strack, D. Sinapine esterase. 1. Characterization of sinapine esterase from cotyledons of Raphanus sativus. Z. Naturforsch. C: Biosci. 34 (1979) 715–720.
[EC created 1984]
Accepted name: wax-ester hydrolase
Reaction: a wax ester + H2O = a long-chain alcohol + a long-chain carboxylate
Other name(s): jojoba wax esterase; WEH
Systematic name: wax-ester acylhydrolase
Comments: Also acts on long-chain acylglycerol, but not diacyl- or triacylglycerols.
1.  Huang, A.H.C., Moreau, R.A. and Liu, K.D.F. Development and properties of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings. Plant Physiol. 61 (1978) 339–341. [PMID: 16660288]
2.  Moreau, R.A. and Huang, A.H.C. Enzymes of wax ester catabolism in jojoba. Methods Enzymol. 71 (1981) 804–813.
[EC created 1984]
Accepted name: phorbol-diester hydrolase
Reaction: phorbol 12,13-dibutanoate + H2O = phorbol 13-butanoate + butanoate
Other name(s): diacylphorbate 12-hydrolase; diacylphorbate 12-hydrolase; phorbol-12,13-diester 12-ester hydrolase; PDEH
Systematic name: 12,13-diacylphorbate 12-acylhydrolase
Comments: Hydrolyses the 12-ester bond in a variety of 12,13-diacylphorbols (phorbol is a diterpenoid); this reaction inactivates the tumour promotor 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate from croton oil.
1.  Shoyab, M., Warren, T.C. and Todaro, G.J. Isolation and characterization of an ester hydrolase active on phorbol diesters from murine liver. J. Biol. Chem. 256 (1981) 12529–12534. [PMID: 6946062]
[EC created 1984]
Accepted name: phosphatidylinositol deacylase
Reaction: 1-phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol + H2O = 1-acylglycerophosphoinositol + a carboxylate
Other name(s): phosphatidylinositol phospholipase A2; phospholipase A2
Systematic name: 1-phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol 2-acylhydrolase
1.  Gray, N.C.C. and Strickland, K.P. The purification and characterization of a phospholipase A2 activity from the 106,000 x g pellet (microsomal fraction) of bovine brain acting on phosphatidylinositol. Can. J. Biochem. 60 (1982) 108–117. [PMID: 7083039]
2.  Gray, N.C.C. and Strickland, K.P. On the specificity of a phospholipase A2 purified from the 106,000 X g pellet of bovine brain. Lipids 17 (1982) 91–96. [PMID: 7087686]
[EC created 1984]
Accepted name: sialate O-acetylesterase
Reaction: N-acetyl-O-acetylneuraminate + H2O = N-acetylneuraminate + acetate
Other name(s): N-acetylneuraminate acetyltransferase; sialate 9(4)-O-acetylesterase; sialidase
Systematic name: N-acyl-O-acetylneuraminate O-acetylhydrolase
Comments: Acts on free and glycosidically bound N-acetyl- or N-glycoloyl-neuraminic acid; acts mainly on the 4-O- and 9-O-acetyl groups. Also acts on some other O-acetyl esters, both cyclic and acyclic compounds, which are not sialic acids.
1.  Garcia-Sastre, A., Villar, E., Manuguerra, J.C., Hannoun, C. and Cabezas, J.A. Activity of influenza C virus O-acetylesterase with O-acetyl-containing compounds. Biochem. J. 273 (1991) 435–441. [PMID: 1991039]
2.  Shukla, A.K. and Schauer, R. High performance liquid chromatography of enzymes of sialic acid metabolism. Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 363 (1982) 1039–1040.
[EC created 1984]
Accepted name: acetoxybutynylbithiophene deacetylase
Reaction: 5-(4-acetoxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2′-bithiophene + H2O = 5-(4-hydroxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2′-bithiophene + acetate
Other name(s): acetoxybutynylbithiophene esterase; 5-(4-acetoxy-1-butynyl)-2,2′-bithiophene:acetate esterase
Systematic name: 5-(4-acetoxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2′-bithiophene O-acetylhydrolase
Comments: The enzyme is highly specific.
1.  Sütfeld, R. and Towers, G.H.N. 5-(4-Acetoxy-1-butinyl)-2,2′-bithiophene:acetate esterase from Tagetes patula. Phytochemistry 21 (1982) 277–279.
[EC created 1986]
Accepted name: acetylsalicylate deacetylase
Reaction: acetylsalicylate + H2O = salicylate + acetate
Other name(s): aspirin esterase; aspirin esterase; acetylsalicylic acid esterase; aspirin hydrolase
Systematic name: acetylsalicylate O-acetylhydrolase
Comments: Not identical with EC (carboxylesterase), EC (arylesterase), EC (acetylcholinesterase) or EC (cholinesterase). The activity of the liver cytosol enzyme is highest with acetyl esters of aryl alcohols, and thioesters are also hydrolysed; the microsomal enzyme also hydrolyses some other negatively charged esters, with highest activity on esters of salicylate with long-chain alcohols.
1.  Ali, B. and Kaur, S. Mammalian tissue acetylsalicylic acid esterase(s): identification, distribution and discrimination from other esterases. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 226 (1983) 589–594. [PMID: 6875867]
2.  Kim, D.-H., Yang, Y.-S. and Jakoby, W.B. Aspirin hydrolyzing esterases from rat liver cytosol. Biochem. Pharmacol. 40 (1990) 481–487. [PMID: 2383281]
3.  White, K.N. and Hope, D.B. Partial purification and characterization of a microsomal carboxylesterase specific for salicylate esters from guinea-pig liver. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 785 (1984) 138–147. [PMID: 6704404]
[EC created 1986, modified 1989]
Accepted name: methylumbelliferyl-acetate deacetylase
Reaction: 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate + H2O = 4-methylumbelliferone + acetate
Other name(s): esterase D
Systematic name: 4-methylumbelliferyl-acetate acylhydrolase
Comments: Acts on short-chain acyl esters of 4-methylumbelliferone, but not on naphthyl, indoxyl or thiocholine esters.
1.  Hopkinson, D.A., Mestriner, M.A., Cortner, J. and Harris, H. Esterase D: a new human polymorphism. Ann. Hum. Genet. 37 (1973) 119–137. [PMID: 4768551]
[EC created 1986]
Accepted name: 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate lactonase
Reaction: 2-oxo-2H-pyran-4,6-dicarboxylate + H2O = (1E)-4-oxobut-1-ene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate
Other name(s): 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate hydrolase; 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate lactonohydrolase
Systematic name: 2-oxo-2H-pyran-4,6-dicarboxylate lactonohydrolase
Comments: The product is most likely the keto-form of 4-oxalomesaconate (as shown in the reaction) [1,2]. It can be converted to the enol-form, 4-hydroxybuta-1,3-diene-1,2,4-trioate, either spontaneously or by EC, 4-oxalomesaconate tautomerase [3].
1.  Kersten, P.J., Dagley, S., Whittaker, J.W., Arciero, D.M. and Lipscomb, J.D. 2-Pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylic acid, a catabolite of gallic acids in Pseudomonas species. J. Bacteriol. 152 (1982) 1154–1162. [PMID: 7142106]
2.  Maruyama, K. Purification and properties of 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate hydrolase. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 93 (1983) 557–565. [PMID: 6841353]
3.  Nogales, J., Canales, A., Jiménez-Barbero, J., Serra B., Pingarrón, J. M., García, J. L. and Díaz, E. Unravelling the gallic acid degradation pathway in bacteria: the gal cluster from Pseudomonas putida. Mol. Microbiol. 79 (2011) 359–374. [PMID: 21219457]
[EC created 1986, modified 2010]
Accepted name: N-acetylgalactosaminoglycan deacetylase
Reaction: N-acetyl-D-galactosaminoglycan + H2O = D-galactosaminoglycan + acetate
Other name(s): polysaccharide deacetylase (misleading); Vi-polysaccharide deacetylase; N-acetyl galactosaminoglycan deacetylase
Systematic name: N-acetyl-D-galactosaminoglycan acetylhydrolase
1.  Jorge, J.A., Kinney, S.G. and Reissig, J.L. Purification and characterization of Neurospora crassa N-acetyl galactosaminoglycan deacetylase. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 15 (1982) 29–34. [PMID: 6217857]
[EC created 1986]
Accepted name: juvenile-hormone esterase
Reaction: (1) juvenile hormone I + H2O = juvenile hormone I acid + methanol
(2) juvenile hormone III + H2O = juvenile hormone III acid + methanol
Glossary: juvenile hormone I = methyl (2E,6E,10R,11S)-10,11-epoxy-7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-2,6-tridecadienoate
juvenile hormone I acid = (2E,6E,10R,11S)-10,11-epoxy-7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-2,6-tridecadienoate
juvenile hormone III = methyl (2E,6E,10R)-10,11-epoxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6-dienoate
juvenile hormone III acid = (2E,6E,10R)-10,11-epoxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6-dienoate
Other name(s): JH-esterase; juvenile hormone analog esterase; juvenile hormone carboxyesterase; methyl-(2E,6E)-(10R,11S)-10,11-epoxy-3,7,11-trimethyltrideca-2,6-dienoate acylhydrolase
Systematic name: methyl-(2E,6E,10R)-10,11-epoxy-3,7,11-trimethyltrideca-2,6-dienoate acylhydrolase
Comments: Demethylates the insect juvenile hormones JH1 and JH3, but does not hydrolyse the analogous ethyl or isopropyl esters.
1.  de Kort, C.A.D. and Granger, N.A. Regulation of the juvenile hormone titer. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 26 (1981) 1–28.
2.  Mitsui, T., Riddiford, L.M. and Bellamy, G. Metabolism of juvenile hormone by the epidermis of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta). Insect Biochem. 9 (1979) 637–643.
[EC created 1989, modified 2015]
Accepted name: bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate esterase
Reaction: bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate + H2O = 2-ethylhexyl phthalate + 2-ethylhexan-1-ol
Other name(s): DEHP esterase
Systematic name: bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate acylhydrolase
Comments: Also acts on 4-nitrophenyl esters, with optimum chain-length C6 to C8.
1.  Krell, H.-W. and Sandermann, H., Jr. Plant biochemistry of xenobiotics. Purification and properties of a wheat esterase hydrolyzing the plasticizer chemical, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Eur. J. Biochem. 143 (1984) 57–62. [PMID: 6468391]
[EC created 1989]
Accepted name: protein-glutamate methylesterase
Reaction: protein L-glutamate O5-methyl ester + H2O = protein L-glutamate + methanol
Other name(s): chemotaxis-specific methylesterase; methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein methyl-esterase; CheB methylesterase; methylesterase CheB; protein methyl-esterase; protein carboxyl methylesterase; PME; protein methylesterase; protein-L-glutamate-5-O-methyl-ester acylhydrolase
Systematic name: protein-L-glutamate-O5-methyl-ester acylhydrolase
Comments: Hydrolyses the products of EC (protein-L-isoaspartate(D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase), EC (isoorientin 3′-O-methyltransferase), EC (protein-glutamate O-methyltransferase) and EC (protein-S-isoprenylcysteine O-methyltransferase).
1.  Gagnon, C., Harbour, G. and Camato, R. Purification and characterization of protein methylesterase from rat kidney. J. Biol. Chem. 259 (1984) 10212–10215. [PMID: 6469959]
2.  Kehry, M.R., Doak, T.G. and Dahlquist, F.W. Stimulus-induced changes in methylesterase activity during chemotaxis in Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 259 (1984) 11828–11835. [PMID: 6384215]
[EC created 1989, modified 2002]
Deleted entry: N-acetyldiaminopimelate deacylase. Now listed as EC, N-acetyldiaminopimelate deacetylase
[EC created 1989, deleted 1992]
Accepted name: 11-cis-retinyl-palmitate hydrolase
Reaction: 11-cis-retinyl palmitate + H2O = 11-cis-retinol + palmitate
Other name(s): 11-cis-retinol palmitate esterase; RPH
Systematic name: 11-cis-retinyl-palmitate acylhydrolase
Comments: Activated by bile salts.
1.  Blaner, W.S., Das, S.R., Gouras, P. and Flood, M.T. Hydrolysis of 11-cis- and all-trans-retinyl palmitate by homogenates of human retinal epithelial cells. J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 53–58. [PMID: 3793734]
2.  Blaner, W.S., Prystowsky, J.H., Smith, J.E. and Goodman, D.S. Rat liver retinyl palmitate hydrolase activity. Relationship to cholesteryl oleate and triolein hydrolase activities. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 794 (1984) 419–427. [PMID: 6743673]
[EC created 1989]
Accepted name: retinoid isomerohydrolase
Reaction: an all-trans-retinyl ester + H2O = 11-cis-retinol + a fatty acid
Other name(s): all-trans-retinyl-palmitate hydrolase (ambiguous); retinol isomerase (ambiguous); all-trans-retinol isomerase:hydrolase (ambiguous); all-trans-retinylester 11-cis isomerohydrolase; RPE65 (gene name)
Systematic name: all-trans-retinyl ester acylhydrolase, 11-cis retinol-forming
Comments: This enzyme, which operates in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), catalyses the cleavage and isomerization of all-trans-retinyl fatty acid esters to 11-cis-retinol, a key step in the regeneration of the visual chromophore in the vertebrate visual cycle [4]. Interaction of the enzyme with the membrane is critical for its enzymic activity [6].
1.  Blaner, W.S., Das, S.R., Gouras, P. and Flood, M.T. Hydrolysis of 11-cis- and all-trans-retinyl palmitate by homogenates of human retinal epithelial cells. J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 53–58. [PMID: 3793734]
2.  Bernstein, P.S., Law, W.C. and Rando, R.R. Isomerization of all-trans-retinoids to 11-cis-retinoids in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84 (1987) 1849–1853. [PMID: 3494246]
3.  Bridges, C.D. and Alvarez, R.A. The visual cycle operates via an isomerase acting on all-trans retinol in the pigment epithelium. Science 236 (1987) 1678–1680. [PMID: 3603006]
4.  Moiseyev, G., Chen, Y., Takahashi, Y., Wu, B.X. and Ma, J.X. RPE65 is the isomerohydrolase in the retinoid visual cycle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102 (2005) 12413–12418. [PMID: 16116091]
5.  Nikolaeva, O., Takahashi, Y., Moiseyev, G. and Ma, J.X. Purified RPE65 shows isomerohydrolase activity after reassociation with a phospholipid membrane. FEBS J. 276 (2009) 3020–3030. [PMID: 19490105]
6.  Golczak, M., Kiser, P.D., Lodowski, D.T., Maeda, A. and Palczewski, K. Importance of membrane structural integrity for RPE65 retinoid isomerization activity. J. Biol. Chem. 285 (2010) 9667–9682. [PMID: 20100834]
[EC created 1989 (EC created 1989, incorporated 2011), modified 2011]
Accepted name: L-rhamnono-1,4-lactonase
Reaction: L-rhamnono-1,4-lactone + H2O = L-rhamnonate
Other name(s): L-rhamno-γ-lactonase; L-rhamnono-γ-lactonase; L-rhamnonate dehydratase
Systematic name: L-rhamnono-1,4-lactone lactonohydrolase
1.  Rigo, L.U., Maréchal, L.R., Vieira, M.M. and Veiga, L.A. Oxidative pathway for L-rhamnose degradation in Pallularia pullulans. Can. J. Microbiol. 31 (1985) 817–822.
[EC created 1989]
Accepted name: 5-(3,4-diacetoxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2′-bithiophene deacetylase
Reaction: 5-(3,4-diacetoxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2′-bithiophene + H2O = 5-(3-hydroxy-4-acetoxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2′-bithiophene + acetate
Other name(s): diacetoxybutynylbithiophene acetate esterase; 3,4-diacetoxybutinylbithiophene:4-acetate esterase
Systematic name: 5-(3,4-diacetoxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2′-bithiophene acetylhydrolase
Comments: A highly specific enzyme from Tagetes patula.
1.  Pensl, R. and Suetfeld, R. Occurrence of 3,4-diacetoybutinylbithiophene in Tagetes patula and its enzymatic conversion. Z. Naturforsch. C: Biosci. 40 (1985) 3–7.
[EC created 1989]
Accepted name: fatty-acyl-ethyl-ester synthase
Reaction: a long-chain-fatty-acyl ethyl ester + H2O = a long-chain-fatty acid + ethanol
Glossary: a long-chain-fatty acid = a fatty acid with an aliphatic chain of 13-22 carbons.
Other name(s): FAEES
Systematic name: long-chain-fatty-acyl-ethyl-ester acylhydrolase
Comments: The reaction, forms ethyl esters from fatty acids and ethanol in the absence of coenzyme A or ATP. Best substrates are unsaturated octadecanoic acids; palmitate, stearate and arachidonate also act, but more slowly.
1.  Mogelson, S. and Lange, L.G. Nonoxidative ethanol metabolism in rabbit myocardium: purification to homogeneity of fatty acyl ethyl ester synthase. Biochemistry 23 (1984) 4075–4081. [PMID: 6487591]
[EC created 1989]
Accepted name: xylono-1,4-lactonase
Reaction: D-xylono-1,4-lactone + H2O = D-xylonate
Other name(s): xylono-γ-lactonase; xylonolactonase
Systematic name: D-xylono-1,4-lactone lactonohydrolase
1.  Buchert, J. and Viikari, L. The role of xylonolactone in xylonic acid production by Pseudomonas fragi. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 27 (1988) 333–336.
[EC created 1990]
Transferred entry: N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol deacetylase. Now EC, N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol deacetylase. Previously classified erroneously as an enzyme that hydrolysed an ester and not an amide
[EC created 1992, deleted 2002]
Accepted name: cetraxate benzylesterase
Reaction: cetraxate benzyl ester + H2O = cetraxate + benzyl alcohol
Systematic name: cetraxate-benzyl-ester benzylhydrolase
Comments: Acts on a number of benzyl esters of substituted phenyl propanoates, and on the benzyl esters of phenylalanine and tyrosine.
1.  Kuroda, H., Miyadera, A., Imura, A. and Suzuki, A. Partial purification, and some properties and reactivities of cetraxate benzyl ester hydrochloride-hydrolyzing enzyme. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 37 (1989) 2929–2932. [PMID: 2632040]
[EC created 1992]
Accepted name: acetylalkylglycerol acetylhydrolase
Reaction: 2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycerol + H2O = 1-alkyl-sn-glycerol + acetate
Other name(s): alkylacetylglycerol acetylhydrolase
Systematic name: 2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycerol acetylhydrolase
Comments: Hydrolysis of the acetyl group from the 1-alkyl-2-acetyl and 1-alkyl-3-acetyl substrates occurs at apparently identical rates. The enzyme from Erlich ascites cells is membrane-bound. It differs from lipoprotein lipase (EC since 1,2-diacetyl-sn-glycerols are not substrates. It also differs from EC, 1-acetyl-2-alkyl-glycerophosphocholine esterase.
1.  Blank, M.L., Smith, Z.L., Cress, E.A., Snyder, F. Characterization of the enzymatic hydrolysis of acetate from alkylacetylglycerols in the de novo pathway of PAF biosynthesis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1042 (1990) 153–158. [PMID: 2302414]
[EC created 1999]
Accepted name: acetylxylan esterase
Reaction: Deacetylation of xylans and xylo-oligosaccharides
Systematic name: acetylxylan esterase
Comments: Catalyses the hydrolysis of acetyl groups from polymeric xylan, acetylated xylose, acetylated glucose, α-napthyl acetate, p-nitrophenyl acetate but not from triacetylglycerol. Does not act on acetylated mannan or pectin.
1.  Sundberg, M., Poutanen, K. Purification and properties of two acetylxylan esterases of Trichoderma reesei. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 13 (1991) 1–11.
2.  Poutanen, K., Sundberg, M., Korte, H., Puls, J. Deacetylation of xylans by acetyl esterases of Trichoderma reesei. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 33 (1990) 506–510.
3.  Margolles-Clark, E., Tenkanen, M., Söderland, H., Penttilä, M. Acetyl xylan esterase from Trichoderma reesei contains an active site serine and a cellulose binding domain. Eur. J. Biochem. 237 (1996) 553–560. [PMID: 8647098]
[EC created 1999]
Accepted name: feruloyl esterase
Reaction: feruloyl-polysaccharide + H2O = ferulate + polysaccharide
Glossary: ferulate = 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate
Other name(s): ferulic acid esterase; hydroxycinnamoyl esterase; hemicellulase accessory enzyme; FAE-III; cinnamoyl ester hydrolase; FAEA; cinnAE; FAE-I; FAE-II
Systematic name: 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamoyl-sugar hydrolase
Comments: Catalyses the hydrolysis of the 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamoyl (feruloyl) group from an esterified sugar, which is usually arabinose in "natural" substrates. p-Nitrophenol acetate and methyl ferulate are poorer substrates. All microbial ferulate esterases are secreted into the culture medium. They are sometimes called hemicellulase accessory enzymes, since they help xylanases and pectinases to break down plant cell wall hemicellulose.
1.  Faulds, C.B. and Williamson, G. The purification and characterisation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-cinnamic (ferulic) acid esterase from Streptomyces olivochromogenes (3232). J. Gen. Microbiol. 137 (1991) 2339–2345. [PMID: 1663152]
2.  Faulds, C.B. and Williamson, G. Purification and characterisation of a ferulic acid esterase (FAE-III) from Aspergillus niger. Specificity for the phenolic moiety and binding to microcrystalline cellulose. Microbiology 140 (1994) 779–787.
3.  Kroon, P.A., Faulds, C.B. and Williamson, G. Purification and characterisation of a novel ferulic acid esterase induced by growth of Aspergillus niger on sugarbeet pulp. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 23 (1996) 255–262. [PMID: 8679110]
4.  deVries, R.P. , Michelsen,B., Poulsen, C.H., Kroon, P.A., van den Heuvel, R.H.H., Faulds, C.B., Williamson, G., van den Homberg, J.P.T.W. and Visser, J. The faeA genes from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis encode ferulic acid esterases involved in degradation of complex cell wall polysaccharides. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63 (1997) 4638–4644. [PMID: 9406381]
5.  Castanares, A., Mccrae, S.I. and Wood, T.M. Purification and properties of a feruloyl/p-coumaroyl esterase from the fungus Penicillium pinophilum. Enzyme Microbiol. Technol. 14 (1992) 875–884.
[EC created 2000]
Accepted name: cutinase
Reaction: cutin + H2O = cutin monomers
Systematic name: cutin hydrolase
Comments: Cutin, a polymeric structural component of plant cuticles, is a polymer of hydroxy fatty acids that are usually C16 or C18 and contain up to three hydroxy groups. The enzyme from several fungal sources also hydrolyses the p-nitrophenyl esters of hexadecanoic acid. It is however inactive towards several esters that are substrates for non-specific esterases.
1.  Garcia-Lepe, R., Nuero, O.M., Reyes, F. and Santamaria, F. Lipases in autolysed cultures of filamentous fungi. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 25 (1997) 127–130. [PMID: 9281862]
2.  Purdy, R.E. and Kolattukudy, P.E. Hydrolysis of plant cuticle by plant pathogens. Purification, amino acid composition, and molecular weight of two isoenzymes of cutinase and a nonspecific esterase from Fusarium solani f. pisi. Biochemistry 14 (1975) 2824–2831. [PMID: 1156575]
3.  Purdy, R.E. and Kolattukudy, P.E. Hydrolysis of plant cuticle by plant pathogens. Properties of cutinase I, cutinase II, and a nonspecific esterase isolated from Fusarium solani pisi. Biochemistry 14 (1975) 2832–2840. [PMID: 239740]
[EC created 2000]
Accepted name: poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase
Reaction: [(R)-3-hydroxybutanoate]n + H2O = [(R)-3-hydroxybutanoate]n-x + [(R)-3-hydroxybutanoate]x; x = 1–5
Other name(s): PHB depolymerase; poly(3HB) depolymerase; poly[(R)-hydroxyalkanoic acid] depolymerase; poly(HA) depolymerase; poly(HASCL) depolymerase; poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] hydrolase
Systematic name: poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutanoate] hydrolase
Comments: Reaction also occurs with esters of other short-chain-length (C1-C5) hydroxyalkanoic acids (HA). There are two types of polymers: native (intracellular) granules are amorphous and have an intact surface layer; denatured (extracellular) granules either have no surface layer or a damaged surface layer and are partially crystalline.
1.  Jendrossek, D. Microbial degradation of polyesters. Adv. Biochem. Eng./Biotechnol. 71 (2001) 293–325. [PMID: 11217416]
2.  García, B., Olivera, E.R., Miñambres, B., Fernández-Valverde, Cañedo, L.M., Prieto, M.A., García, J.L., Martínez, M. and Luengo, J.M. Novel biodegradable aromatic plastics from a bacterial source. Genetic and biochemical studies on a route of the phenylacetyl-CoA catabolon. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 29228–29241. [PMID: 10506180]
[EC created 2001]
Accepted name: poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) depolymerase
Reaction: Hydrolyses the polyester poly{oxycarbonyl[(R)-2-pentylethylene]} to oligomers
Other name(s): PHO depolymerase; poly(3HO) depolymerase; poly[(R)-hydroxyalkanoic acid] depolymerase; poly(HA) depolymerase; poly(HAMCL) depolymerase; poly[(R)-3-hydroxyoctanoate] hydrolase
Systematic name: poly{oxycarbonyl[(R)-2-pentylethylene]} hydrolase
Comments: The main product after prolonged incubation is the dimer [3]. Besides hydrolysing polymers of 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid, the enzyme also hydrolyses other polymers derived from medium-chain-length (C6-C12) hydroxyalkanoic acids and copolymers of mixtures of these. It also hydrolyses p-nitrophenyl esters of fatty acids. Polymers of short-chain-length hydroxyalkanoic acids such as poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutanoic acid] and poly[(R)-3-hydroxypentanoic acid] are not hydrolysed.
1.  Jendrossek, D. Microbial degradation of polyesters. Adv. Biochem. Eng./Biotechnol. 71 (2001) 293–325. [PMID: 11217416]
2.  García, B., Olivera, E.R., Miñambres, B., Fernández-Valverde, Cañedo, L.M., Prieto, M.A., García, J.L., Martínez, M. and Luengo, J.M. Novel biodegradable aromatic plastics from a bacterial source. Genetic and biochemical studies on a route of the phenylacetyl-CoA catabolon. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 29228–29241. [PMID: 10506180]
3.  Schirmer, A., Jendrossek, D. and Schlegel, H.G. Degradation of poly(3-hydroxyoctanoic acid) [P(3HO)] by bacteria: purification and properties of a P(3HO) depolymerase from Pseudomonas fluorescens GK13. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59 (1993) 1220–1227. [PMID: 8476295]
[EC created 2001, modified 2005]
Accepted name: acyloxyacyl hydrolase
Reaction: 3-(acyloxy)acyl group of bacterial toxin + H2O = 3-hydroxyacyl group of bacterial toxin + a fatty acid
Comments: The substrate is lipid A on the reducing end of the toxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Salmonella typhimurium and related organisms. It consists of diglucosamine, β-D-GlcN-(1→ 6)-D-GlcN, attached by glycosylation on O-6 of its non-reducing residue, phosphorylated on O-4 of this residue and on O-1 of its potentially reducing residue. Both residues carry 3-(acyloxy)acyl groups on N-2 and O-3. The enzyme from human leucocytes detoxifies the lipid by hydrolysing the secondary acyl groups from O-3 of the 3-hydroxyacyl groups on the disaccharide (LPS). It also possesses a wide range of phospholipase and acyltransferase activities [e.g. EC (phospholipase A2), EC (lysophospholipase), EC (phospholipase A1) and EC (phosphatidylinositol deacylase)], hydrolysing diacylglycerol and phosphatidyl compounds, but not triacylglycerols. It has a preference for saturated C12-C16 acyl groups.
1.  Erwin, A.L. and Munford, R.S. Deacylation of structurally diverse lipopolysaccharides by human acyloxyacyl hydrolase. J. Biol. Chem. 265 (1990) 16444–16449. [PMID: 2398058]
2.  Hagen, F.S., Grant, F.J., Kuijper, J.L., Slaughter, C.A., Moomaw, C.R., Orth, K., O'Hara, P.J. and Munford, R.S. Expression and characterization of recombinant human acyloxyacyl hydrolase, a leukocyte enzyme that deacylates bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Biochemistry 30 (1991) 8415–8423. [PMID: 1883828]
3.  Munford, R.S. and Hunter, J.P. Acyloxyacyl hydrolase, a leukocyte enzyme that deacylates bacterial lipopolysaccharides, has phospholipase, lysophospholipase, diacylglycerollipase, and acyltransferase activities in vitro. J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 10116–10121. [PMID: 1577781]
[EC created 2001]
Accepted name: polyneuridine-aldehyde esterase
Reaction: polyneuridine aldehyde + H2O = 16-epivellosimine + CO2 + methanol
Other name(s): polyneuridine aldehyde esterase; PNAE
Systematic name: polyneuridine aldehyde hydrolase (decarboxylating)
Comments: Following hydrolysis of this indole alkaloid ester the carboxylic acid decarboxylates spontaneously giving the sarpagan skeleton. The enzyme also acts on akuammidine aldehyde (the 16-epimer of polyneuridine aldehyde).
1.  Pfitzner, A. and Stöckigt, J. Characterization of polyneuridine aldehyde esterase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of sarpagine ajmaline type alkaloids. Planta Med. 48 (1983) 221–227. [PMID: 17404987]
2.  Pfitzner, A. and Stöckigt, J. Polyneuridine aldehyde esterase: an unusual specific enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of sarpagine type alkaloids. J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. (1983) 459–460.
3.  Dogru, E., Warzecha, H., Seibel, F., Haebel, S., Lottspeich, F. and Stöckigt, J. The gene encoding polyneuridine aldehyde esterase of monoterpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in plants is an ortholog of the hydrolase super family. Eur. J. Biochem. 267 (2000) 1397–1406. [PMID: 10691977]
4.  Mattern-Dogru, E., Ma, X., Hartmann, J., Decker, H. and Stöckigt, J. Potential active-site residues in polyneuridine aldehyde esterase, a central enzyme of indole alkaloid biosynthesis, by modelling and site-directed mutagenesis. Eur. J. Biochem. 269 (2002) 2889–2896. [PMID: 12071952]
[EC created 2002]
Accepted name: hormone-sensitive lipase
Reaction: (1) diacylglycerol + H2O = monoacylglycerol + a carboxylate
(2) triacylglycerol + H2O = diacylglycerol + a carboxylate
(3) monoacylglycerol + H2O = glycerol + a carboxylate
Other name(s): HSL
Systematic name: diacylglycerol acylhydrolase
Comments: This enzyme is a serine hydrolase. Compared with other lipases, hormone-sensitive lipase has a uniquely broad substrate specificity. It hydrolyses all acylglycerols (triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol) [2,3,4] as well as cholesteryl esters [2,4], steroid fatty acid esters [5], retinyl esters [6] and p-nitrophenyl esters [4,7]. It exhibits a preference for the 1- or 3-ester bond of its acylglycerol substrate compared with the 2-ester bond [8]. The enzyme shows little preference for the fatty acids in the triacylglycerol, although there is some increase in activity with decreasing chain length. The enzyme activity is increased in response to hormones that elevate intracellular levels of cAMP.
1.  Holm, C., Osterlund, T., Laurell, H. and Contreras, J.A. Molecular mechanisms regulating hormone-sensitive lipase and lipolysis. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 20 (2000) 365–393. [PMID: 10940339]
2.  Fredrikson, G., Stralfors, P., Nilsson, N.O. and Belfrage, P. Hormone-sensitive lipase of rat adipose tissue. Purification and some properties. J. Biol. Chem. 256 (1981) 6311–6320. [PMID: 7240206]
3.  Vaughan, M., Berger, J.E. and Steinberg, D. Hormone-sensitive lipase and monoglyceride lipase activities in adipose tissue. J. Biol. Chem. 239 (1964) 401–409. [PMID: 14169138]
4.  Østerlund, T., Danielsson, B., Degerman, E., Contreras, J.A., Edgren, G., Davis, R.C., Schotz, M.C. and Holm, C. Domain-structure analysis of recombinant rat hormone-sensitive lipase. Biochem. J. 319 ( Pt 2) (1996) 411–420. [PMID: 8912675]
5.  Lee, F.T., Adams, J.B., Garton, A.J. and Yeaman, S.J. Hormone-sensitive lipase is involved in the hydrolysis of lipoidal derivatives of estrogens and other steroid hormones. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 963 (1988) 258–264. [PMID: 3196730]
6.  Wei, S., Lai, K., Patel, S., Piantedosi, R., Shen, H., Colantuoni, V., Kraemer, F.B. and Blaner, W.S. Retinyl ester hydrolysis and retinol efflux from BFC-1β adipocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1977) 14159–14165. [PMID: 9162045]
7.  Tsujita, T., Ninomiya, H. and Okuda, H. p-Nitrophenyl butyrate hydrolyzing activity of hormone-sensitive lipase from bovine adipose tissue. J. Lipid Res. 30 (1989) 997–1004. [PMID: 2794798]
8.  Yeaman, S.J. Hormone-sensitive lipase - new roles for an old enzyme. Biochem. J. 379 (2004) 11–22. [PMID: 14725507]
[EC created 2004]
Accepted name: acetylajmaline esterase
Reaction: (1) 17-O-acetylajmaline + H2O = ajmaline + acetate
(2) 17-O-acetylnorajmaline + H2O = norajmaline + acetate
Other name(s): AAE; 2β(R)-17-O-acetylajmalan:acetylesterase; acetylajmalan esterase
Systematic name: 17-O-acetylajmaline O-acetylhydrolase
Comments: This plant enzyme is responsible for the last stages in the biosynthesis of the indole alkaloid ajmaline. The enzyme is highly specific for the substrates 17-O-acetylajmaline and 17-O-acetylnorajmaline as the structurally related acetylated alkaloids vinorine, vomilenine, 1,2-dihydrovomilenine and 1,2-dihydroraucaffricine cannot act as substrates [2]. This is a novel member of the GDSL family of serine esterases/lipases.
1.  Polz, L., Schübel, H. and Stöckigt, J. Characterization of 2β(R)-17-O-acetylajmalan:acetylesterase—a specific enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the Rauwolfia alkaloid ajmaline. Z. Naturforsch. [C] 42 (1987) 333–342. [PMID: 2955586]
2.  Ruppert, M., Woll, J., Giritch, A., Genady, E., Ma, X. and Stöckigt, J. Functional expression of an ajmaline pathway-specific esterase from Rauvolfia in a novel plant-virus expression system. Planta 222 (2005) 888–898. [PMID: 16133216]
[EC created 2006]
Accepted name: quorum-quenching N-acyl-homoserine lactonase
Reaction: an N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone + H2O = an N-acyl-L-homoserine
Other name(s): acyl homoserine degrading enzyme; acyl-homoserine lactone acylase; AHL lactonase; AHL-degrading enzyme; AHL-inactivating enzyme; AHLase; AhlD; AhlK; AiiA; AiiA lactonase; AiiA-like protein; AiiB; AiiC; AttM; delactonase; lactonase-like enzyme; N-acyl homoserine lactonase; N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolase; N-acyl-homoserine lactone lactonase; N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone hydrolase; quorum-quenching lactonase; quorum-quenching N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolase
Systematic name: N-acyl-L-homoserine-lactone lactonohydrolase
Comments: Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are produced by a number of bacterial species and are used by them to regulate the expression of virulence genes in a process known as quorum-sensing. Each bacterial cell has a basal level of AHL and, once the population density reaches a critical level, it triggers AHL-signalling which, in turn, initiates the expression of particular virulence genes [5]. Plants or animals capable of degrading AHLs would have a therapeutic advantage in avoiding bacterial infection as they could prevent AHL-signalling and the expression of virulence genes in quorum-sensing bacteria [5]. N-(3-Oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone and N-(3-oxooctanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone can act as substrates [5].
1.  Thomas, P.W., Stone, E.M., Costello, A.L., Tierney, D.L. and Fast, W. The quorum-quenching lactonase from Bacillus thuringiensis is a metalloprotein. Biochemistry 44 (2005) 7559–7569. [PMID: 15895999]
2.  Dong, Y.H., Gusti, A.R., Zhang, Q., Xu, J.L. and Zhang, L.H. Identification of quorum-quenching N-acyl homoserine lactonases from Bacillus species. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68 (2002) 1754–1759. [PMID: 11916693]
3.  Wang, L.H., Weng, L.X., Dong, Y.H. and Zhang, L.H. Specificity and enzyme kinetics of the quorum-quenching N-acyl homoserine lactone lactonase (AHL-lactonase). J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 13645–13651. [PMID: 14734559]
4.  Dong, Y.H., Xu, J.L., Li, X.Z. and Zhang, L.H. AiiA, an enzyme that inactivates the acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal and attenuates the virulence of Erwinia carotovora. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97 (2000) 3526–3531. [PMID: 10716724]
5.  Dong, Y.H., Wang, L.H., Xu, J.L., Zhang, H.B., Zhang, X.F. and Zhang, L.H. Quenching quorum-sensing-dependent bacterial infection by an N-acyl homoserine lactonase. Nature 411 (2001) 813–817. [PMID: 11459062]
6.  Lee, S.J., Park, S.Y., Lee, J.J., Yum, D.Y., Koo, B.T. and Lee, J.K. Genes encoding the N-acyl homoserine lactone-degrading enzyme are widespread in many subspecies of Bacillus thuringiensis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68 (2002) 3919–3924. [PMID: 12147491]
7.  Park, S.Y., Lee, S.J., Oh, T.K., Oh, J.W., Koo, B.T., Yum, D.Y. and Lee, J.K. AhlD, an N-acylhomoserine lactonase in Arthrobacter sp., and predicted homologues in other bacteria. Microbiology 149 (2003) 1541–1550. [PMID: 12777494]
8.  Ulrich, R.L. Quorum quenching: enzymatic disruption of N-acylhomoserine lactone-mediated bacterial communication in Burkholderia thailandensis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70 (2004) 6173–6180. [PMID: 15466564]
9.  Kim, M.H., Choi, W.C., Kang, H.O., Lee, J.S., Kang, B.S., Kim, K.J., Derewenda, Z.S., Oh, T.K., Lee, C.H. and Lee, J.K. The molecular structure and catalytic mechanism of a quorum-quenching N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone hydrolase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102 (2005) 17606–17611. [PMID: 16314577]
10.  Liu, D., Lepore, B.W., Petsko, G.A., Thomas, P.W., Stone, E.M., Fast, W. and Ringe, D. Three-dimensional structure of the quorum-quenching N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolase from Bacillus thuringiensis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102 (2005) 11882–11887. [PMID: 16087890]
11.  Yang, F., Wang, L.H., Wang, J., Dong, Y.H., Hu, J.Y. and Zhang, L.H. Quorum quenching enzyme activity is widely conserved in the sera of mammalian species. FEBS Lett. 579 (2005) 3713–3717. [PMID: 15963993]
[EC created 2007]
Accepted name: pheophorbidase
Reaction: pheophorbide a + H2O = pyropheophorbide a + methanol + CO2 (overall reaction)
(1a) pheophorbide a + H2O = C-132-carboxypyropheophorbide a + methanol
(1b) C-132-carboxypyropheophorbide a = pyropheophorbide a + CO2 (spontaneous)
Other name(s): phedase; PPD
Systematic name: pheophorbide-a hydrolase
Comments: This enzyme forms part of the chlorophyll degradation pathway, and is found in higher plants and in algae. In higher plants it participates in de-greening processes such as fruit ripening, leaf senescence, and flowering. The enzyme exists in two forms: type 1 is induced by senescence whereas type 2 is constitutively expressed [1,2]. The enzyme is highly specific for pheophorbide as substrate (with a preference for pheophorbide a over pheophorbide b) as other chlorophyll derivatives such as protochlorophyllide a, pheophytin a and c, chlorophyll a and b, and chlorophyllide a cannot act as substrates [2]. Another enzyme, called pheophorbide demethoxycarbonylase (PDC), produces pyropheophorbide a from pheophorbide a without forming an intermediate although the precise reaction is not yet known [1].
1.  Suzuki, Y., Doi, M. and Shioi, Y. Two enzymatic reaction pathways in the formation of pyropheophorbide a. Photosynth. Res. 74 (2002) 225–233. [PMID: 16228561]
2.  Suzuki, Y., Amano, T. and Shioi, Y. Characterization and cloning of the chlorophyll-degrading enzyme pheophorbidase from cotyledons of radish. Plant Physiol. 140 (2006) 716–725. [PMID: 16384908]
3.  Hörtensteiner, S. Chlorophyll degradation during senescence. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 57 (2006) 55–77. [PMID: 16669755]
[EC created 2007]
Accepted name: monoterpene ε-lactone hydrolase
Reaction: (1) isoprop(en)ylmethyloxepan-2-one + H2O = 6-hydroxyisoprop(en)ylmethylhexanoate (general reaction)
(2) 4-isopropenyl-7-methyloxepan-2-one + H2O = 6-hydroxy-3-isopropenylheptanoate
(3) 7-isopropyl-4-methyloxepan-2-one + H2O = 6-hydroxy-3,7-dimethyloctanoate
Other name(s): MLH
Systematic name: isoprop(en)ylmethyloxepan-2-one lactonohydrolase
Comments: The enzyme catalyses the ring opening of ε-lactones which are formed during degradation of dihydrocarveol by the Gram-positive bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14. The enzyme also acts on ethyl caproate, indicating that it is an esterase with a preference for lactones (internal cyclic esters). The enzyme is not stereoselective.
1.  van der Vlugt-Bergmans , C.J. and van der Werf , M.J. Genetic and biochemical characterization of a novel monoterpene ε-lactone hydrolase from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67 (2001) 733–741. [PMID: 11157238]
[EC created 2008]
Accepted name: cocaine esterase
Reaction: cocaine + H2O = ecgonine methyl ester + benzoate
Glossary: ecgonine methyl ester = 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-tropine = methyl (1R,2R,3S,5S)-3-hydroxy-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylate
Other name(s): CocE; hCE2; hCE-2; human carboxylesterase 2
Systematic name: cocaine benzoylhydrolase
Comments: Rhodococcus sp. strain MB1 and Pseudomonas maltophilia strain MB11L can utilize cocaine as sole source of carbon and energy [2,3].
1.  Gao, D., Narasimhan, D.L., Macdonald, J., Brim, R., Ko, M.C., Landry, D.W., Woods, J.H., Sunahara, R.K. and Zhan, C.G. Thermostable variants of cocaine esterase for long-time protection against cocaine toxicity. Mol. Pharmacol. 75 (2009) 318–323. [PMID: 18987161]
2.  Bresler, M.M., Rosser, S.J., Basran, A. and Bruce, N.C. Gene cloning and nucleotide sequencing and properties of a cocaine esterase from Rhodococcus sp. strain MB1. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66 (2000) 904–908. [PMID: 10698749]
3.  Britt, A.J., Bruce, N.C. and Lowe, C.R. Identification of a cocaine esterase in a strain of Pseudomonas maltophilia. J. Bacteriol. 174 (1992) 2087–2094. [PMID: 1551831]
4.  Larsen, N.A., Turner, J.M., Stevens, J., Rosser, S.J., Basran, A., Lerner, R.A., Bruce, N.C. and Wilson, I.A. Crystal structure of a bacterial cocaine esterase. Nat. Struct. Biol. 9 (2002) 17–21. [PMID: 11742345]
5.  Pindel, E.V., Kedishvili, N.Y., Abraham, T.L., Brzezinski, M.R., Zhang, J., Dean, R.A. and Bosron, W.F. Purification and cloning of a broad substrate specificity human liver carboxylesterase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of cocaine and heroin. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 14769–14775. [PMID: 9169443]
[EC created 2010]
Accepted name: pimelyl-[acyl-carrier protein] methyl ester esterase
Reaction: pimeloyl-[acyl-carrier protein] methyl ester + H2O = pimeloyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + methanol
Other name(s): BioH
Systematic name: pimeloyl-[acyl-carrier protein] methyl ester hydrolase
Comments: Involved in biotin biosynthesis in Gram-negative bacteria. The enzyme exhibits carboxylesterase activity, particularly toward substrates with short acyl chains [1,2]. Even though the enzyme can interact with coenzyme A thioesters [3], the in vivo role of the enzyme is to hydrolyse the methyl ester of pimeloyl-[acyl carrier protein], terminating the part of the biotin biosynthesis pathway that is catalysed by the fatty acid elongation enzymes [4].
1.  Sanishvili, R., Yakunin, A.F., Laskowski, R.A., Skarina, T., Evdokimova, E., Doherty-Kirby, A., Lajoie, G.A., Thornton, J.M., Arrowsmith, C.H., Savchenko, A., Joachimiak, A. and Edwards, A.M. Integrating structure, bioinformatics, and enzymology to discover function: BioH, a new carboxylesterase from Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 26039–26045. [PMID: 12732651]
2.  Lemoine, Y., Wach, A. and Jeltsch, J.M. To be free or not: the fate of pimelate in Bacillus sphaericus and in Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 19 (1996) 645–647. [PMID: 8830257]
3.  Tomczyk, N.H., Nettleship, J.E., Baxter, R.L., Crichton, H.J., Webster, S.P. and Campopiano, D.J. Purification and characterisation of the BIOH protein from the biotin biosynthetic pathway. FEBS Lett. 513 (2002) 299–304. [PMID: 11904168]
4.  Lin, S., Hanson, R.E. and Cronan, J.E. Biotin synthesis begins by hijacking the fatty acid synthetic pathway. Nat. Chem. Biol. 6 (2010) 682–688. [PMID: 20693992]
[EC created 2011]
Accepted name: rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase
Reaction: Hydrolytic cleavage of 2-O-acetyl- or 3-O-acetyl groups of α-D-galacturonic acid in rhamnogalacturonan I.
Other name(s): RGAE
Systematic name: rhamnogalacturonan 2/3-O-acetyl-α-D-galacturonate O-acetylhydrolase
Comments: The degradation of rhamnogalacturonan by rhamnogalacturonases depends on the removal of the acetyl esters from the substrate [1].
1.  Kauppinen, S., Christgau, S., Kofod, L.V., Halkier, T., Dorreich, K. and Dalboge, H. Molecular cloning and characterization of a rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase from Aspergillus aculeatus. Synergism between rhamnogalacturonan degrading enzymes. J. Biol. Chem. 270 (1995) 27172–27178. [PMID: 7592973]
2.  Molgaard, A., Kauppinen, S. and Larsen, S. Rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase elucidates the structure and function of a new family of hydrolases. Structure 8 (2000) 373–383. [PMID: 10801485]
[EC created 2011]
Accepted name: fumonisin B1 esterase
Reaction: fumonisin B1 + 2 H2O = aminopentol + 2 propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate
Glossary: fumonisin B1 = (2R,2′R)-2,2′-{[(5R,6R,7S,9S,11R,16R,18S,19S)-19-amino-11,16,18-trihydroxy-5,9-dimethylicosane-6,7-diyl]bis[oxy(2-oxoethane-2,1-diyl)]}dibutanedioic acid
aminopentol = (2S,3S,5R,10R,12S,14S,15R,16R)-2-amino-12,16-dimethylicosane-3,5,10,14,15-pentol
Other name(s): fumD (gene name)
Systematic name: fumonisin B1 acylhydrolase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in degradation of fumonisin B1 [1].
1.  Heinl, S., Hartinger, D., Thamhesl, M., Vekiru, E., Krska, R., Schatzmayr, G., Moll, W.D. and Grabherr, R. Degradation of fumonisin B1 by the consecutive action of two bacterial enzymes. J. Biotechnol. 145 (2010) 120–129. [PMID: 19922747]
[EC created 2011]
Accepted name: pyrethroid hydrolase
Reaction: trans-permethrin + H2O = (3-phenoxyphenyl)methanol + (1S,3R)-3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate
Other name(s): pyrethroid-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase; pyrethroid-hydrolysing esterase; pyrethroid-hydrolyzing esterase; pyrethroid-selective esterase; pyrethroid-cleaving enzyme; permethrinase; PytH; EstP
Systematic name: pyrethroid-ester hydrolase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in degradation of pyrethroid pesticides. The enzymes from Sphingobium sp., Klebsiella sp. and Aspergillus niger hydrolyse cis-permethrin at approximately equal rate to trans-permethrin [1-3]. The enzyme from mouse hydrolyses trans-permethrin at a rate about 22-fold higher than cis-permethrin [4].
1.  Wang, B.Z., Guo, P., Hang, B.J., Li, L., He, J. and Li, S.P. Cloning of a novel pyrethroid-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase gene from Sphingobium sp. strain JZ-1 and characterization of the gene product. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75 (2009) 5496–5500. [PMID: 19581484]
2.  Wu, P.C., Liu, Y.H., Wang, Z.Y., Zhang, X.Y., Li, H., Liang, W.Q., Luo, N., Hu, J.M., Lu, J.Q., Luan, T.G. and Cao, L.X. Molecular cloning, purification, and biochemical characterization of a novel pyrethroid-hydrolyzing esterase from Klebsiella sp. strain ZD112. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54 (2006) 836–842. [PMID: 16448191]
3.  Liang, W.Q., Wang, Z.Y., Li, H., Wu, P.C., Hu, J.M., Luo, N., Cao, L.X. and Liu, Y.H. Purification and characterization of a novel pyrethroid hydrolase from Aspergillus niger ZD11. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53 (2005) 7415–7420. [PMID: 16159167]
4.  Stok, J.E., Huang, H., Jones, P.D., Wheelock, C.E., Morisseau, C. and Hammock, B.D. Identification, expression, and purification of a pyrethroid-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase from mouse liver microsomes. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 29863–29869. [PMID: 15123619]
5.  Maloney, S.E., Maule, A. and Smith, A.R. Purification and preliminary characterization of permethrinase from a pyrethroid-transforming strain of Bacillus cereus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59 (1993) 2007–2013. [PMID: 8357241]
6.  Guo, P., Wang, B., Hang, B., Li, L., Ali, W., He, J. and Li, S. Pyrethroid-degrading Sphingobium sp. JZ-2 and the purification and characterization of a novel pyrethroid hydrolase. Int. Biodeter. Biodegrad. 63 (2009) 1107–1112.
[EC created 2011]
Accepted name: protein phosphatase methylesterase-1
Reaction: [phosphatase 2A protein]-leucine methyl ester + H2O = [phosphatase 2A protein]-leucine + methanol
Other name(s): PME-1; PPME1
Systematic name: [phosphatase 2A protein]-leucine ester acylhydrolase
Comments: A key regulator of protein phosphatase 2A. The methyl ester is formed by EC (leucine carboxy methyltransferase-1). Occurs mainly in the nucleus.
1.  Ogris, E., Du, X., Nelson, K.C., Mak, E.K., Yu, X.X., Lane, W.S. and Pallas, D.C. A protein phosphatase methylesterase (PME-1) is one of several novel proteins stably associating with two inactive mutants of protein phosphatase 2A. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 14382–14391. [PMID: 10318862]
2.  Xing, Y., Li, Z., Chen, Y., Stock, J.B., Jeffrey, P.D. and Shi, Y. Structural mechanism of demethylation and inactivation of protein phosphatase 2A. Cell 133 (2008) 154–163. [PMID: 18394995]
[EC created 2011]
Accepted name: all-trans-retinyl ester 13-cis isomerohydrolase
Reaction: an all-trans-retinyl ester + H2O = 13-cis-retinol + a fatty acid
Systematic name: all-trans-retinyl ester acylhydrolase, 13-cis-retinol-forming
Comments: All-trans-retinyl esters, which are a storage form of vitamin A, are generated by the activity of EC, phosphatidylcholine—retinol O-acyltransferase (LRAT). They can be hydrolysed to 11-cis-retinol by EC, retinoid isomerohydrolase (RPE65), or to 13-cis-retinol by this enzyme.
1.  Takahashi, Y., Moiseyev, G., Chen, Y., Farjo, K., Nikolaeva, O. and Ma, J.X. An enzymatic mechanism for generating the precursor of endogenous 13-cis retinoic acid in the brain. FEBS J. 278 (2011) 973–987. [PMID: 21235714]
[EC created 2011]
Accepted name: 2-oxo-3-(5-oxofuran-2-ylidene)propanoate lactonase
Reaction: 2-oxo-3-(5-oxofuran-2-ylidene)propanoate + H2O = maleylpyruvate
Other name(s): naaC (gene name)
Systematic name: 2-oxo-3-(5-oxofuran-2-ylidene)propanoate lactonohydrolase
Comments: This enzyme, characterized from the soil bacterium Bradyrhizobium sp. JS329, is involved in the pathway of 5-nitroanthranilate degradation.
1.  Qu, Y. and Spain, J.C. Molecular and biochemical characterization of the 5-nitroanthranilic acid degradation pathway in Bradyrhizobium sp. strain JS329. J. Bacteriol. 193 (2011) 3057–3063. [PMID: 21498645]
[EC created 2012]
Accepted name: 4-sulfomuconolactone hydrolase
Reaction: 4-sulfomuconolactone + H2O = maleylacetate + sulfite
Glossary: 4-sulfomuconolactone = 4-carboxymethylen-4-sulfobut-2-en-olide = 2-(5-oxo-2-sulfo-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl)acetic acid
maleylacetate = (2Z)-4-oxohex-2-enedioate
Systematic name: 4-sulfomuconolactone sulfohydrolase
Comments: The enzyme was isolated from the bacteria Hydrogenophaga intermedia and Agrobacterium radiobacter S2. It catalyses a step in the degradation of 4-sulfocatechol.
1.  Halak, S., Basta, T., Burger, S., Contzen, M., Wray, V., Pieper, D.H. and Stolz, A. 4-sulfomuconolactone hydrolases from Hydrogenophaga intermedia S1 and Agrobacterium radiobacter S2. J. Bacteriol. 189 (2007) 6998–7006. [PMID: 17660282]
[EC created 2012]
Accepted name: mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide esterase
Reaction: mycophenolic acid O-acyl-glucuronide + H2O = mycophenolate + D-glucuronate
Glossary: mycophenolate = (4E)-6-(4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-methyl-3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)-4-methylhex-4-enoate
mycophenolic acid O-acyl-glucuronide = 1-O-[(4E)-6-(4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-methyl-3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)-4-methylhex-4-enoyl]-β-D-glucopyranuronic acid
Other name(s): mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide deglucuronidase; AcMPAG deglucuronidase
Systematic name: mycophenolic acid O-acyl-glucuronide-ester hydrolase
Comments: This liver enzyme deglucuronidates mycophenolic acid O-acyl-glucuronide, a metabolite of the immunosuppressant drug mycophenolate that is thought to be immunotoxic.
1.  Iwamura, A., Fukami, T., Higuchi, R., Nakajima, M. and Yokoi, T. Human α/β hydrolase domain containing 10 (ABHD10) is responsible enzyme for deglucuronidation of mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide in liver. J. Biol. Chem. 287 (2012) 9240–9249. [PMID: 22294686]
[EC created 2012]
Accepted name: versiconal hemiacetal acetate esterase
Reaction: (1) versiconal hemiacetal acetate + H2O = versiconal + acetate
(2) versiconol acetate + H2O = versiconol + acetate
Glossary: versiconal = (2S,3S)-2,4,6,8-tetrahydroxy-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)anthra[2,3-b]furan-5,10-dione
versiconal hemiacetal acetate = 2-[(2S,3S)-2,4,6,8-tetrahydroxy-5,10-dioxo-5,10-dihydroanthra[2,3-b]furan-3-yl]ethyl acetate
versiconol = 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxy-3-[(2S)-1,4-dihydroxybutan-2-yl]anthracene-5,10-dione
versiconol acetate = (3S)-4-hydroxy-3-[1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxy-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-2-yl]butyl acetate
Other name(s): VHA esterase
Systematic name: versiconal-hemiacetal-acetate O-acetylhydrolase
Comments: Isolated from the mold Aspergillus parasiticus. Involved in a metabolic grid that leads to aflatoxin biosynthesis.
1.  Kusumoto, K. and Hsieh, D.P. Purification and characterization of the esterases involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. Can. J. Microbiol. 42 (1996) 804–810. [PMID: 8776851]
2.  Chang, P.K., Yabe, K. and Yu, J. The Aspergillus parasiticus estA-encoded esterase converts versiconal hemiacetal acetate to versiconal and versiconol acetate to versiconol in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70 (2004) 3593–3599. [PMID: 15184162]
[EC created 2013]
Accepted name: aclacinomycin methylesterase
Reaction: aclacinomycin T + H2O = 15-demethylaclacinomycin T + methanol
Glossary: aclacinomycin T = 2-ethyl-1,2,3,4,6,11-hexahydro-2,5,7-trihydroxy-6,11-dioxo-4-{[2,3,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-α-L-lyxo-hexopyranosyl]oxy}-1-naphthacenecarboxylic acid methyl ester = methyl (1R,2R,4S)-2-ethyl-2,5,7-trihydroxy-6,11-dioxo-4-{[2,3,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-α-L-lyxo-hexopyranosyl]oxy}-1,2,3,4,6,11-hexahydrotetracene-1-carboxylate
15-demethoxyaclacinomycin T = (1R,2R,4S)-2-ethyl-1,2,3,4,6,11-hexahydro-2,5,7-trihydroxy-6,11-dioxo-4-{[2,3,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-α-L-lyxo-hexopyranosyl]oxy}-1-naphthacenecarboxylic acid = (1R,2R,4S)-2-ethyl-2,5,7-trihydroxy-6,11-dioxo-4-{[2,3,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-α-L-lyxo-hexopyranosyl]oxy}-1,2,3,4,6,11-hexahydrotetracene-1-carboxylic acid
Other name(s): RdmC; aclacinomycin methyl esterase
Systematic name: aclacinomycin T acylhydrolase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the modification of the aklavinone skeleton in the biosynthesis of anthracyclines in Streptomyces species.
1.  Wang, Y., Niemi, J., Airas, K., Ylihonko, K., Hakala, J. and Mantsala, P. Modifications of aclacinomycin T by aclacinomycin methyl esterase (RdmC) and aclacinomycin-10-hydroxylase (RdmB) from Streptomyces purpurascens. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1480 (2000) 191–200. [PMID: 11004563]
2.  Jansson, A., Niemi, J., Mantsala, P. and Schneider, G. Crystal structure of aclacinomycin methylesterase with bound product analogues: implications for anthracycline recognition and mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 39006–39013. [PMID: 12878604]
[EC created 2013]
Accepted name: D-aminoacyl-tRNA deacylase
Reaction: (1) a D-aminoacyl-tRNA + H2O = a D-amino acid + tRNA
(2) glycyl-tRNAAla + H2O = glycine + tRNAAla
Other name(s): Dtd2; D-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) deacylase; D-Tyr-tRNATyr deacylase; D-tyrosyl-tRNATyr aminoacylhydrolase; dtdA (gene name)
Systematic name: D-aminoacyl-tRNA aminoacylhydrolase
Comments: The enzyme, found in all domains of life, can cleave mischarged glycyl-tRNAAla [5]. The enzyme from Escherichia coli can cleave D-tyrosyl-tRNATyr, D-aspartyl-tRNAAsp and D-tryptophanyl-tRNATrp [1]. Whereas the enzyme from the archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi is a zinc protein, the enzyme from Escherichia coli does not carry any zinc [2].
1.  Soutourina, J., Plateau, P. and Blanquet, S. Metabolism of D-aminoacyl-tRNAs in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 32535–32542. [PMID: 10918062]
2.  Ferri-Fioni, M.L., Schmitt, E., Soutourina, J., Plateau, P., Mechulam, Y. and Blanquet, S. Structure of crystalline D-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) deacylase. A representative of a new class of tRNA-dependent hydrolases. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 47285–47290. [PMID: 11568181]
3.  Ferri-Fioni, M.L., Fromant, M., Bouin, A.P., Aubard, C., Lazennec, C., Plateau, P. and Blanquet, S. Identification in archaea of a novel D-Tyr-tRNATyr deacylase. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 27575–27585. [PMID: 16844682]
4.  Wydau, S., Ferri-Fioni, M.L., Blanquet, S. and Plateau, P. GEK1, a gene product of Arabidopsis thaliana involved in ethanol tolerance, is a D-aminoacyl-tRNA deacylase. Nucleic Acids Res. 35 (2007) 930–938. [PMID: 17251192]
5.  Pawar, K.I., Suma, K., Seenivasan, A., Kuncha, S.K., Routh, S.B., Kruparani, S.P. and Sankaranarayanan, R. Role of D-aminoacyl-tRNA deacylase beyond chiral proofreading as a cellular defense against glycine mischarging by AlaRS. Elife 6:e24001 (2017). [PMID: 28362257]
[EC created 2014, modified 2019]
Accepted name: methylated diphthine methylhydrolase
Reaction: diphthine methyl ester-[translation elongation factor 2] + H2O = diphthine-[translation elongation factor 2] + methanol
Glossary: diphthine methyl ester = 2-[(3S)-3-carboxy methyl ester-3-(trimethylammonio)propyl]-L-histidine
diphthine = 2-[(3S)-3-carboxy-3-(trimethylammonio)propyl]-L-histidine
Other name(s): Dph7; diphthine methylesterase (incorrect)
Systematic name: diphthine methyl ester acylhydrolase
Comments: The protein is only present in eukaryotes.
1.  Lin, Z., Su, X., Chen, W., Ci, B., Zhang, S. and Lin, H. Dph7 catalyzes a previously unknown demethylation step in diphthamide biosynthesis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136 (2014) 6179–6182. [PMID: 24739148]
[EC created 2014, modified 2015]
Accepted name: [Wnt protein] O-palmitoleoyl-L-serine hydrolase
Reaction: [Wnt]-O-(9Z)-hexadec-9-enoyl-L-serine + H2O = [Wnt]-L-serine + (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoate
Glossary: (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoate = palmitoleoate
Other name(s): Notum
Systematic name: [Wnt]-O-(9Z)-hexadec-9-enoyl-L-serine acylhydrolase
Comments: The enzyme removes the palmitoleate modification that is introduced to specific L-serine residues in Wnt proteins by EC, [Wnt protein]-O-palmitoleoyl transferase.
1.  Kakugawa, S., Langton, P.F., Zebisch, M., Howell, S.A., Chang, T.H., Liu, Y., Feizi, T., Bineva, G., O'Reilly, N., Snijders, A.P., Jones, E.Y. and Vincent, J.P. Notum deacylates Wnt proteins to suppress signalling activity. Nature (2015) . [PMID: 25731175]
[EC created 2015]
Accepted name: 6-deoxy-6-sulfogluconolactonase
Reaction: 6-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucono-1,5-lactone + H2O = 6-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-gluconate
Other name(s): SGL lactonase
Systematic name: 6-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucono-1,5-lactone lactonohydrolase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida SQ1, participates in a sulfoquinovose degradation pathway.
1.  Felux, A.K., Spiteller, D., Klebensberger, J. and Schleheck, D. Entner-Doudoroff pathway for sulfoquinovose degradation in Pseudomonas putida SQ1. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112 (2015) E4298–E4305. [PMID: 26195800]
[EC created 2016]
Accepted name: chlorophyllide a hydrolase
Reaction: chlorophyllide a + H2O = 8-ethyl-12-methyl-3-vinyl-bacteriochlorophyllide d + methanol + CO2
Other name(s): bciC (gene name)
Systematic name: chlorophyllide-a hydrolase
Comments: This enzyme, found in green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) and green filamentous bacteria (Chloroflexaceae), catalyses the first committed step in the biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophylls c, d and e, the removal of the C-132-methylcarboxyl group from chlorophyllide a. The reaction is very similar to the conversion of pheophorbide a to pyropheophorbide a during chlorophyll a degradation, which is catalysed by EC, pheophorbidase.
1.  Liu, Z. and Bryant, D.A. Identification of a gene essential for the first committed step in the biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll c. J. Biol. Chem. 286 (2011) 22393–22402. [PMID: 21550979]
[EC created 2016]
Accepted name: poly(ethylene terephthalate) hydrolase
Reaction: (ethylene terephthalate)n + H2O = (ethylene terephthalate)n-1 + 4-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)carbonyl]benzoate
Glossary: poly(ethylene terephthalate) = PET
4-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)carbonyl]benzoate = mono(ethylene terephthalate) = MHET
Other name(s): PETase; PET hydrolase
Systematic name: poly(ethylene terephthalate) hydrolase
Comments: The enzyme, isolated from the bacterium Ideonella sakaiensis, also produces small amounts of terephthalate (cf. EC, mono(ethylene terephthalate) hydrolase). The reaction takes place on PET-film placed in solution.
1.  Yoshida, S., Hiraga, K., Takehana, T., Taniguchi, I., Yamaji, H., Maeda, Y., Toyohara, K., Miyamoto, K., Kimura, Y. and Oda, K. A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate). Science 351 (2016) 1196–1199. [PMID: 26965627]
[EC created 2016]
Accepted name: mono(ethylene terephthalate) hydrolase
Reaction: 4-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)carbonyl]benzoate + H2O = terephthalate + ethylene glycol
Glossary: 4-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)carbonyl]benzoate = mono(ethylene terephthalate) = MHET
Other name(s): MHET hydrolase; MHETase
Systematic name: 4-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)carbonyl]benzoate acylhydrolase
Comments: The enzyme, isolated from the bacterium Ideonella sakaiensis, has no activity with poly(ethylene terephthalate) PET (cf. EC, poly(ethylene terephthalate) hydrolase).
1.  Yoshida, S., Hiraga, K., Takehana, T., Taniguchi, I., Yamaji, H., Maeda, Y., Toyohara, K., Miyamoto, K., Kimura, Y. and Oda, K. A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate). Science 351 (2016) 1196–1199. [PMID: 26965627]
[EC created 2016]
Accepted name: teichoic acid D-alanine hydrolase
Reaction: [(4-D-Ala)-(2-GlcNAc)-Rib-ol-P]n-[Gro-P]m-β-D-ManNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-P-peptidoglycan + n H2O = [(2-GlcNAc)-Rib-ol-P]n-[Gro-P]m-β-D-ManNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-P-peptidoglycan + n D-alanine
Glossary: Rib-ol = ribitol
Other name(s): fmtA (gene name)
Systematic name: teichoic acid D-alanylhydrolase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, removes D-alanine groups from the teichoic acid produced by this organism, thus modulating the electrical charge of the bacterial surface. The activity greatly increases methicillin resistance in MRSA strains.
1.  Komatsuzawa, H., Sugai, M., Ohta, K., Fujiwara, T., Nakashima, S., Suzuki, J., Lee, C.Y. and Suginaka, H. Cloning and characterization of the fmt gene which affects the methicillin resistance level and autolysis in the presence of triton X-100 in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41 (1997) 2355–2361. [PMID: 9371333]
2.  Qamar, A. and Golemi-Kotra, D. Dual roles of FmtA in Staphylococcus aureus cell wall biosynthesis and autolysis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 56 (2012) 3797–3805. [PMID: 22564846]
3.  Rahman, M.M., Hunter, H.N., Prova, S., Verma, V., Qamar, A. and Golemi-Kotra, D. The Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistance factor FmtA is a D-amino esterase that acts on teichoic acids. MBio 7 (2016) e02070. [PMID: 26861022]
[EC created 2018]
Accepted name: 5-phospho-D-xylono-1,4-lactonase
Reaction: (1) D-xylono-1,4-lactone 5-phosphate + H2O = 5-phospho-D-xylonate
(2) L-arabino-1,4-lactone 5-phosphate + H2O = 5-phospho-L-arabinate
Systematic name: 5-phospho-D-xylono-1,4-lactone hydrolase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from Mycoplasma spp., contains a binuclear metal center with two zinc cations. The enzyme is specific for the phosphorylated forms, and is unable to hydrolyse non-phosphorylated 1,4-lactones.
1.  Korczynska, M., Xiang, D.F., Zhang, Z., Xu, C., Narindoshvili, T., Kamat, S.S., Williams, H.J., Chang, S.S., Kolb, P., Hillerich, B., Sauder, J.M., Burley, S.K., Almo, S.C., Swaminathan, S., Shoichet, B.K. and Raushel, F.M. Functional annotation and structural characterization of a novel lactonase hydrolyzing D-xylono-1,4-lactone-5-phosphate and L-arabino-1,4-lactone-5-phosphate. Biochemistry 53 (2014) 4727–4738. [PMID: 24955762]
[EC created 2018]
Accepted name: 3-O-acetylpapaveroxine carboxylesterase
Reaction: 3-O-acetylpapaveroxine + H2O = narcotine hemiacetal + acetate
Glossary: 3-O-acetylpapaveroxine = 6-{(S)-acetoxy[(5R)-4-methoxy-6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-g]isoquinolin-5-yl]methyl}-2,3-dimethoxybenzaldehyde
narcotine hemiacetal = (3S)-6,7-dimethoxy-3-[(5R)-4-methoxy-6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-g]isoquinolin-5-yl]-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-ol
Other name(s): CXE1 (gene name)
Systematic name: 3-O-acetylpapaveroxine acetatehydrolase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plant Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), participates in the biosynthesis of the isoquinoline alkaloid noscapine.
1.  Dang, T.T., Chen, X. and Facchini, P.J. Acetylation serves as a protective group in noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy. Nat. Chem. Biol. 11 (2015) 104–106. [PMID: 25485687]
2.  Park, M.R., Chen, X., Lang, D.E., Ng, K.KS. and Facchini, P.J. Heterodimeric O-methyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of noscapine in opium poppy. Plant J. 95 (2018) 252–267. [PMID: 29723437]
[EC created 2019]
Accepted name: O-acetyl-ADP-ribose deacetylase
Reaction: (1) 3′′-O-acetyl-ADP-D-ribose + H2O = ADP-D-ribose + acetate
(2) 2′′-O-acetyl-ADP-D-ribose + H2O = ADP-D-ribose + acetate
Other name(s): ymdB (gene name); MACROD1 (gene name)
Systematic name: O-acetyl-ADP-D-ribose carboxylesterase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Escherichia coli and from human cells, removes the acetyl group from either the 2′′ or 3′′ position of O-acetyl-ADP-ribose, which are formed by the action of EC, protein acetyllysine N-acetyltransferase. The human enzyme can also remove ADP-D-ribose from phosphorylated double stranded DNA adducts.
1.  Chen, D., Vollmar, M., Rossi, M.N., Phillips, C., Kraehenbuehl, R., Slade, D., Mehrotra, P.V., von Delft, F., Crosthwaite, S.K., Gileadi, O., Denu, J.M. and Ahel, I. Identification of macrodomain proteins as novel O-acetyl-ADP-ribose deacetylases. J. Biol. Chem. 286 (2011) 13261–13271. [PMID: 21257746]
2.  Zhang, W., Wang, C., Song, Y., Shao, C., Zhang, X. and Zang, J. Structural insights into the mechanism of Escherichia coli YmdB: A 2′-O-acetyl-ADP-ribose deacetylase. J. Struct. Biol. 192 (2015) 478–486. [PMID: 26481419]
3.  Agnew, T., Munnur, D., Crawford, K., Palazzo, L., Mikoc, A. and Ahel, I. MacroD1 is a promiscuous ADP-ribosyl hydrolase localized to mitochondria. Front. Microbiol. 9:20 (2018). [PMID: 29410655]
[EC created 2019]
Accepted name: apo-salmochelin esterase
Reaction: (1) enterobactin + H2O = N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine trimer
(2) triglucosyl-enterobactin + H2O = triglucosyl-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine)3
(3) diglucosyl-enterobactin + H2O = diglucosyl-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine)3
(4) monoglucosyl-enterobactin + H2O = monoglucosyl-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine)3
Glossary: N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine trimer = O-3-{O-3-[N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-seryl]-N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-seryl}-N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine
diglucosyl-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine)3 = salmochelin S2 = O-3-{O-3-[N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-C-5-deoxy-β-D-glucosyl-L-seryl]-N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-C-5-deoxy-β-D-glucosyl-L-seryl}-N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine
enterobactin = N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-O-[N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-O-[N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-seryl]-L-seryl]-L-serine-(3→1(3))-lactone
monoglucosyl-enterobactin = N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-O-[N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-O-[N-(5-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-seryl]-L-seryl]-L-serine-3→1(3)-lactone = mono-C-glucosyl-enterobactin = salmochelin MGE
diglucosyl-enterobactin = N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-O-[N-(5-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-O-[N-(5-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-seryl]-L-seryl]-L-serine-(3→1(3))-lactone = salmochelin S4 = di-C-glucosyl-enterobactin
triglucosyl-enterobactin = N-(5-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-O-[N-(5-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-O-[N-(5-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-seryl]-L-seryl]-L-serine-(3→1(3))-lactone = tri-C-glucosyl-enterobactin = salmochelin TGE
Other name(s): iroE (gene name)
Systematic name: apo-salmochelin esterase
Comments: This bacterial enzyme is present in pathogenic Salmonella species, uropathogenic and avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, and certain Klebsiella strains. Unlike EC, ferric enterobactin esterase, which acts only on enterobactin, this enzyme can also act on the C-glucosylated forms known as salmochelins. Unlike EC, ferric salmochelin esterase (IroD), IroE prefers apo siderophores as substrates, and is assumed to act before the siderophores are exported out of the cell. It hydrolyses the trilactone only once, producing linearized trimers.
1.  Lin, H., Fischbach, M.A., Liu, D.R. and Walsh, C.T. In vitro characterization of salmochelin and enterobactin trilactone hydrolases IroD, IroE, and Fes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 (2005) 11075–11084. [PMID: 16076215]
[EC created 2019]
Accepted name: iron(III)-enterobactin esterase
Reaction: iron(III)-enterobactin + 3 H2O = iron(III)-N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine complex + 2 N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine (overall reaction)
(1a) iron(III)-enterobactin + H2O = iron(III)-N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine trimer complex
(1b) iron(III)-N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine trimer complex + H2O = iron(III)-N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine dimer complex + N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine
(1c) iron(III)-N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine dimer complex + H2O = iron(III)-N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine complex + N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine
Other name(s): fes (gene name); pfeE (gene name); enterochelin hydrolase; enterochelin esterase; ferric enterobactin esterase
Systematic name: iron(III)-enterobactin hydrolase
Comments: The enzyme, isolated from the bacterium Escherichia coli, allows the bacterium to grow in limited iron conditions. It can also act on enterobactin (with no complexed iron) and the aluminium(III) analogue of iron(III)-enterobactin. The trimer formed is further hydrolysed to form the dimer and the monomer.
1.  O'Brien, I.G., Cox, G.B. and Gibson, F. Enterochelin hydrolysis and iron metabolism in Escherichia coli. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 237 (1971) 537–549. [PMID: 4330269]
2.  Greenwood, K.T. and Luke, R.K. Enzymatic hydrolysis of enterochelin and its iron complex in Escherichia Coli K-12. Properties of enterochelin esterase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 525 (1978) 209–218. [PMID: 150859]
3.  Pettis, G.S. and McIntosh, M.A. Molecular characterization of the Escherichia coli enterobactin cistron entF and coupled expression of entF and the fes gene. J. Bacteriol. 169 (1987) 4154–4162. [PMID: 3040679]
4.  Brickman, T.J. and McIntosh, M.A. Overexpression and purification of ferric enterobactin esterase from Escherichia coli. Demonstration of enzymatic hydrolysis of enterobactin and its iron complex. J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 12350–12355. [PMID: 1534808]
5.  Winkelmann, G., Cansier, A., Beck, W. and Jung, G. HPLC separation of enterobactin and linear 2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine derivatives: a study on mutants of Escherichia coli defective in regulation (fur), esterase (fes) and transport (fepA). Biometals 7 (1994) 149–154. [PMID: 8148617]
6.  Perraud, Q., Moynie, L., Gasser, V., Munier, M., Godet, J., Hoegy, F., Mely, Y., Mislin, G.LA., Naismith, J.H. and Schalk, I.J. A key role for the periplasmic PfeE esterase in iron acquisition via the siderophore enterobactin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ACS Chem. Biol. 13 (2018) 2603–2614. [PMID: 30086222]
[EC created 2019]
Accepted name: iron(III)-salmochelin esterase
Reaction: (1) iron(III)-[diglucosyl-enterobactin] complex + H2O = iron(III)-[salmochelin S2] complex
(2) iron(III)-[monoglucosyl-enterobactin] complex + H2O = iron(III)-[monoglucosyl-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine)3] complex
(3) iron(III)-[salmochelin S2] complex + H2O = iron(III)-[diglucosyl-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine)2] complex + N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine
(4) iron(III)-[salmochelin S2] complex + H2O = iron(III)-[salmochelin S1] complex + salmochelin SX
(5) iron(III)-[monoglucosyl-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine)3] complex + H2O = iron(III)-[salmochelin S1] complex + N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine
(6) iron(III)-[diglucosyl-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine)2] complex + H2O = iron(III)-[salmochelin SX] complex + salmochelin SX
Glossary: salmochelin S2 = O-3-{O-3-[N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-C-5-deoxy-β-D-glucosyl-L-seryl]-N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-C-5-deoxy-β-D-glucosyl-L-seryl}-N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine
salmochelin S1 = O-3-[N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-seryl]-N-(C-5-deoxy-β-D-glucosyl-2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine
monoglucosyl-enterobactin = N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-O-[N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-O-[N-(5-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-seryl]-L-seryl]-L-serine-[3→1(3)]-lactone = mono-C-glucosyl-enterobactin = salmochelin MGE
diglucosyl-enterobactin = N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-O-[N-(5-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-O-[N-(5-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-seryl]-L-seryl]-L-serine-[3→1(3)]-lactone = salmochelin S4 = di-C-glucosyl-enterobactin
salmochelin SX = N-(C-5-deoxy-β-D-glucosyl-2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine
Other name(s): iroD (gene name); ferric-salmochelin esterase
Systematic name: iron(III)-salmochelin complex hydrolase
Comments: This bacterial enzyme is present in pathogenic Salmonella species, uropathogenic and avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, and certain Klebsiella strains. The enzyme acts on iron(III)-bound enterobactin and C-glucosylated derivatives known as salmochelins. Unlike EC, apo-salmochelin esterase (IroE), IroD prefers iron(III)-bound siderophores as substrates, and is assumed to act after the iron-siderophore complexes are imported into the cell. It catalyses several hydrolytic reactions, producing a mixture of iron(III)-[N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-serine] complex and salmochelin SX.
1.  Lin, H., Fischbach, M.A., Liu, D.R. and Walsh, C.T. In vitro characterization of salmochelin and enterobactin trilactone hydrolases IroD, IroE, and Fes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 (2005) 11075–11084. [PMID: 16076215]
[EC created 2019]
Accepted name: xylono-1,5-lactonase
Reaction: D-xylono-1,5-lactone + H2O = D-xylonate
Other name(s): xylC (gene name); D-xylono-1,5-lactone lactonase
Systematic name: D-xylono-1,5-lactone lactonohydrolase
Comments: The enzyme, found in bacteria, participates in the degradation of D-xylose. cf. EC, xylono-1,4-lactonase.
1.  Toivari, M., Nygard, Y., Kumpula, E.P., Vehkomaki, M.L., Bencina, M., Valkonen, M., Maaheimo, H., Andberg, M., Koivula, A., Ruohonen, L., Penttila, M. and Wiebe, M.G. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bioconversion of D-xylose to D-xylonate. Metab. Eng. 14 (2012) 427–436. [PMID: 22709678]
2.  Nygard, Y., Maaheimo, H., Mojzita, D., Toivari, M., Wiebe, M., Resnekov, O., Gustavo Pesce, C., Ruohonen, L. and Penttila, M. Single cell and in vivo analyses elucidate the effect of xylC lactonase during production of D-xylonate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Metab. Eng. 25 (2014) 238–247. [PMID: 25073011]
[EC created 2019]
Accepted name: phosphatidylserine sn-1 acylhydrolase
Reaction: (1) a phosphatidylserine + H2O = a 2-acyl-1-lyso-phosphatidylserine + a fatty acid
(2) a 1-acyl-2-lyso-phosphatidylserine + H2O = glycerophosphoserine + a fatty acid
Glossary: phosphatidylserine = 3-sn-phosphatidyl-L-serine = 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine
glycerophosphoserine = sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine
Other name(s): phosphatidylserine-specific phospholipase A1; PS-PLA1; PLA1A (gene name)
Systematic name: 3-sn-phosphatidyl-L-serine sn-1 acylhydrolase
Comments: The enzyme, which has been described from mammals, is specific for phosphatidylserine and 2-lysophosphatidylserine, and does not act on phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid or phosphatidylinositol.
1.  Sato, T., Aoki, J., Nagai, Y., Dohmae, N., Takio, K., Doi, T., Arai, H. and Inoue, K. Serine phospholipid-specific phospholipase A that is secreted from activated platelets. A new member of the lipase family. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 2192–2198. [PMID: 8999922]
2.  Nagai, Y., Aoki, J., Sato, T., Amano, K., Matsuda, Y., Arai, H. and Inoue, K. An alternative splicing form of phosphatidylserine-specific phospholipase A1 that exhibits lysophosphatidylserine-specific lysophospholipase activity in humans. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 11053–11059. [PMID: 10196188]
3.  Hosono, H., Aoki, J., Nagai, Y., Bandoh, K., Ishida, M., Taguchi, R., Arai, H. and Inoue, K. Phosphatidylserine-specific phospholipase A1 stimulates histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells through production of 2-acyl-1-lysophosphatidylserine. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 29664–29670. [PMID: 11395520]
4.  Aoki, J., Nagai, Y., Hosono, H., Inoue, K. and Arai, H. Structure and function of phosphatidylserine-specific phospholipase A1. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1582 (2002) 26–32. [PMID: 12069807]
[EC created 2019]
Accepted name: isoamyl acetate esterase
Reaction: 3-methylbutyl acetate + H2O = 3-methylbutanol + acetate
Other name(s): IAH1 (gene name)
Systematic name: 3-methylbutyl acetate acetohydrolase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, hydrolyses acetate esters. It acts preferentially on 3-methylbutyl acetate, a major determinant of sake flavor.
1.  Fukuda, K., Kiyokawa, Y., Yanagiuchi, T., Wakai, Y., Kitamoto, K., Inoue, Y. and Kimura, A. Purification and characterization of isoamyl acetate-hydrolyzing esterase encoded by the IAH1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from a recombinant Escherichia coli. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 53 (2000) 596–600. [PMID: 10855721]
[EC created 2019]
Accepted name: ethyl acetate hydrolase
Reaction: ethyl acetate + H2O = acetate + ethanol
Other name(s): mekB (gene name); estZ (gene name)
Systematic name: ethyl acetate acetohydrolase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from Pseudomonas strains, is involved in degradation of short chain alkyl methyl ketones.
1.  Hasona, A., York, S.W., Yomano, L.P., Ingram, L.O. and Shanmugam, K.T. Decreasing the level of ethyl acetate in ethanolic fermentation broths of Escherichia coli KO11 by expression of Pseudomonas putida estZ esterase. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68 (2002) 2651–2659. [PMID: 12039716]
2.  Onaca, C., Kieninger, M., Engesser, K.H. and Altenbuchner, J. Degradation of alkyl methyl ketones by Pseudomonas veronii MEK700. J. Bacteriol. 189 (2007) 3759–3767. [PMID: 17351032]
[EC created 2019]
Accepted name: methyl acetate hydrolase
Reaction: methyl acetate + H2O = acetate + methanol
Other name(s): acmB (gene name)
Systematic name: methyl acetate acetohydrolase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Gordonia sp. TY-5, participates in a propane utilization pathway.
1.  Kotani, T., Yurimoto, H., Kato, N. and Sakai, Y. Novel acetone metabolism in a propane-utilizing bacterium, Gordonia sp. strain TY-5. J. Bacteriol. 189 (2007) 886–893. [PMID: 17071761]
[EC created 2019]
Accepted name: D-apionolactonase
Reaction: D-apionolactone + H2O = D-apionate
Glossary: D-apionolactone = (3R,4R)-3,4-dihydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-one
Other name(s): apnL (gene name)
Systematic name: D-apionolactone lactonohydrolase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from several bacterial species, is involved in a catabolic pathway for D-apiose.
1.  Carter, M.S., Zhang, X., Huang, H., Bouvier, J.T., Francisco, B.S., Vetting, M.W., Al-Obaidi, N., Bonanno, J.B., Ghosh, A., Zallot, R.G., Andersen, H.M., Almo, S.C. and Gerlt, J.A. Functional assignment of multiple catabolic pathways for D-apiose. Nat. Chem. Biol. 14 (2018) 696–705. [PMID: 29867142]
[EC created 2020]
Accepted name: sn-1-specific diacylglycerol lipase
Reaction: a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol + H2O = a 2-acylglycerol + a fatty acid
Other name(s): DAGLA (gene name); DAGLB (gene name)
Systematic name: diacylglycerol sn-1-acylhydrolase
Comments: The enzyme, present in animals, is specific for the sn-1 position. When acting on 1-acyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol, the enzyme forms 2-arachidonoylglycerol, the most abundant endocannabinoid in the mammalian brain.
1.  Chau, L.Y. and Tau, H.H. Release of arachidonate from diglyceride in human platelets requires the sequential action of a diglyceride lipase and a monoglyceride lipase. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 100 (1988) 1688–1695. [PMID: 7295321]
2.  Bisogno, T., Howell, F., Williams, G., Minassi, A., Cascio, M.G., Ligresti, A., Matias, I., Schiano-Moriello, A., Paul, P., Williams, E.J., Gangadharan, U., Hobbs, C., Di Marzo, V. and Doherty, P. Cloning of the first sn1-DAG lipases points to the spatial and temporal regulation of endocannabinoid signaling in the brain. J. Cell Biol. 163 (2003) 463–468. [PMID: 14610053]
3.  Bisogno, T. Assay of DAGLα/β activity. Methods Mol. Biol. 1412 (2016) 149–156. [PMID: 27245901]
[EC created 2021]
Accepted name: (4-O-methyl)-D-glucuronate—lignin esterase
Reaction: a 4-O-methyl-D-glucopyranuronate ester + H2O = 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid + an alcohol
Other name(s): glucuronoyl esterase (ambiguous); 4-O-methyl-glucuronoyl methylesterase; glucuronoyl-lignin ester hydrolase
Systematic name: (4-O-methyl)-D-glucuronate—lignin ester hydrolase
Comments: The enzyme occurs in microorganisms and catalyses the cleavage of the ester bonds between glucuronoyl or 4-O-methyl-glucuronoyl groups attached to xylan and aliphatic or aromatic alcohols in lignin polymers.
1.  Spanikova, S. and Biely, P. Glucuronoyl esterase--novel carbohydrate esterase produced by Schizophyllum commune. FEBS Lett. 580 (2006) 4597–4601. [PMID: 16876163]
2.  Charavgi, M.D., Dimarogona, M., Topakas, E., Christakopoulos, P. and Chrysina, E.D. The structure of a novel glucuronoyl esterase from Myceliophthora thermophila gives new insights into its role as a potential biocatalyst. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 69 (2013) 63–73. [PMID: 23275164]
3.  Arnling Baath, J., Giummarella, N., Klaubauf, S., Lawoko, M. and Olsson, L. A glucuronoyl esterase from Acremonium alcalophilum cleaves native lignin-carbohydrate ester bonds. FEBS Lett. 590 (2016) 2611–2618. [PMID: 27397104]
4.  Huttner, S., Klaubauf, S., de Vries, R.P. and Olsson, L. Characterisation of three fungal glucuronoyl esterases on glucuronic acid ester model compounds. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 101 (2017) 5301–5311. [PMID: 28429057]
5.  Huynh, H.H. and Arioka, M. Functional expression and characterization of a glucuronoyl esterase from the fungus Neurospora crassa: identification of novel consensus sequences containing the catalytic triad. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 62 (2016) 217–224. [PMID: 27600355]
6.  Arnling Baath, J., Mazurkewich, S., Knudsen, R.M., Poulsen, J.N., Olsson, L., Lo Leggio, L. and Larsbrink, J. Biochemical and structural features of diverse bacterial glucuronoyl esterases facilitating recalcitrant biomass conversion. Biotechnol Biofuels 11:213 (2018). [PMID: 30083226]
7.  Mazurkewich, S., Poulsen, J.N., Lo Leggio, L. and Larsbrink, J. Structural and biochemical studies of the glucuronoyl esterase OtCE15A illuminate its interaction with lignocellulosic components. J. Biol. Chem. 294 (2019) 19978–19987. [PMID: 31740581]
8.  Ernst, H.A., Mosbech, C., Langkilde, A.E., Westh, P., Meyer, A.S., Agger, J.W. and Larsen, S. The structural basis of fungal glucuronoyl esterase activity on natural substrates. Nat. Commun. 11:1026 (2020). [PMID: 32094331]
[EC created 2021]
Accepted name: phospholipid sn-1 acylhydrolase
Reaction: (1) a 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol + H2O = a 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1D-myo-inositol + a fatty acid
(2) a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + H2O = a 2-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + a fatty acid
Glossary: a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = a phosphatidate
Other name(s): phospholipase DDHD1; phosphatidic acid-preferring phospholipase A1; PA-PLA1; DDHD1 (gene name)
Systematic name: phospholipid sn-1 acylhydrolase
Comments: The human enzyme shows broad specificity, and has a preference for phosphatidate over other phospholipids. Unlike EC, phospholipase A1, it is also active against phosphatidylinositol. It is not active towards acyl groups linked at the sn-2 position.
1.  Yamashita, A., Kumazawa, T., Koga, H., Suzuki, N., Oka, S. and Sugiura, T. Generation of lysophosphatidylinositol by DDHD domain containing 1 (DDHD1): Possible involvement of phospholipase D/phosphatidic acid in the activation of DDHD1. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1801 (2010) 711–720. [PMID: 20359546]
2.  Baba, T., Kashiwagi, Y., Arimitsu, N., Kogure, T., Edo, A., Maruyama, T., Nakao, K., Nakanishi, H., Kinoshita, M., Frohman, M.A., Yamamoto, A. and Tani, K. Phosphatidic acid (PA)-preferring phospholipase A1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics. J. Biol. Chem. 289 (2014) 11497–11511. [PMID: 24599962]
[EC created 2021]