The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: 4,4′-diapophytoene synthase
Reaction: 2 (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate = 15-cis-4,4′-diapophytoene + 2 diphosphate (overall reaction)
(1a) 2 (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate = diphosphate + presqualene diphosphate
(1b) presqualene diphosphate = 15-cis-4,4′-diapophytoene + diphosphate
For diagram of squalene, phytoene and 4,4′-diapophytoene biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): dehydrosqualene synthase; DAP synthase; C30 carotene synthase; CrtM
Systematic name: farnesyl-diphosphate:farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase (15-cis-4,4′-diapophytoene-forming)
Comments: Requires Mn2+. Typical of Staphylococcus aureus and some other bacteria such as Heliobacillus sp.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB
1.  Umeno, D., Tobias, A.V. and Arnold, F.H. Evolution of the C30 carotenoid synthase CrtM for function in a C40 pathway. J. Bacteriol. 184 (2002) 6690–6699. [DOI] [PMID: 12426357]
2.  Pelz, A., Wieland, K.P., Putzbach, K., Hentschel, P., Albert, K. and Gotz, F. Structure and biosynthesis of staphyloxanthin from Staphylococcus aureus. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 32493–32498. [DOI] [PMID: 16020541]
3.  Ku, B., Jeong, J.C., Mijts, B.N., Schmidt-Dannert, C. and Dordick, J.S. Preparation, characterization, and optimization of an in vitro C30 carotenoid pathway. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71 (2005) 6578–6583. [DOI] [PMID: 16269684]
4.  Liu, C.I., Liu, G.Y., Song, Y., Yin, F., Hensler, M.E., Jeng, W.Y., Nizet, V., Wang, A.H. and Oldfield, E. A cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor blocks Staphylococcus aureus virulence. Science 319 (2008) 1391–1394. [DOI] [PMID: 18276850]
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