||This enzyme, along with protein geranylgeranyltransferase types I (EC 184.108.40.206) and II (EC 220.127.116.11), constitutes the protein prenyltransferase family of enzymes. Catalyses the formation of a thioether linkage between the C-1 of an isoprenyl group and a cysteine residue fourth from the C-terminus of the protein. These protein acceptors have the C-terminal sequence CA1A2X, where the terminal residue, X, is preferably serine, methionine, alanine or glutamine; leucine makes the protein a substrate for EC 18.104.22.168. The enzymes are relaxed in specificity for A1, but cannot act if A2 is aromatic. Substrates of the prenyltransferases include Ras, Rho, Rab, other Ras-related small GTP-binding proteins, γ-subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins, nuclear lamins, centromeric proteins and many proteins involved in visual signal transduction. A zinc metalloenzyme that requires Mg2+ for activity.
||Furfine, E.S., Leban, J.J., Landavazo, A., Moomaw, J.F. and Casey, P.J. Protein farnesyltransferase: kinetics of farnesyl pyrophosphate binding and product release. Biochemistry 34 (1995) 6857–6862. [PMID: 7756316]
||Casey, P.J. and Seabra, M.C. Protein prenyltransferases. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 5289–5292. [DOI] [PMID: 8621375]
||Long, S.B., Casey, P.J. and Beese, L.S. Cocrystal structure of protein farnesyltransferase complexed with a farnesyl diphosphate substrate. Biochemistry 37 (1998) 9612–9618. [DOI] [PMID: 9657673]
||Micali, E., Chehade, K.A., Isaacs, R.J., Andres, D.A. and Spielmann, H.P. Protein farnesyltransferase isoprenoid substrate discrimination is dependent on isoprene double bonds and branched methyl groups. Biochemistry 40 (2001) 12254–12265. [DOI] [PMID: 11591144]
||Long, S.B., Casey, P.J. and Beese, L.S. Reaction path of protein farnesyltransferase at atomic resolution. Nature 419 (2002) 645–650. [DOI] [PMID: 12374986]
||Gibbs, R.A. Prenyl transfer and the enzymes of terpenoid and steroid biosynthesis. In: Sinnott, M. (Ed.), Comprehensive Biological Catalysis. A Mechanistic Reference, vol. 1, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1998, pp. 31–118.