The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: factor-independent urate hydroxylase
Reaction: urate + O2 + H2O = 5-hydroxyisourate + H2O2
For diagram of AMP catabolism, click here
Other name(s): uric acid oxidase; uricase; uricase II; urate oxidase
Systematic name: urate:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: This enzyme was previously thought to be a copper protein, but it is now known that the enzymes from soy bean (Glycine max), the mould Aspergillus flavus and Bacillus subtilis contains no copper nor any other transition-metal ion. The 5-hydroxyisourate formed decomposes spontaneously to form allantoin and CO2, although there is an enzyme-catalysed pathway in which EC, hydroxyisourate hydrolase, catalyses the first step. The enzyme is different from EC (FAD-dependent urate hydroxylase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EAWAG-BBD, EXPASY, Gene, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9002-12-4
1.  London, M. and Hudson, P.B. Purification and properties of solubilized uricase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 21 (1956) 290–298. [DOI] [PMID: 13363909]
2.  Mahler, H.R., Hübscher, G. and Baum, H. Studies on uricase. I. Preparation, purification, and properties of a cuproprotein. J. Biol. Chem. 216 (1955) 625–641. [PMID: 13271340]
3.  Robbins, K.C., Barnett, E.L. and Grant, N.H. Partial purification of porcine liver uricase. J. Biol. Chem. 216 (1955) 27–35. [PMID: 13252004]
4.  Kahn, K. and Tipton, P.A. Spectroscopic characterization of intermediates in the urate oxidase reaction. Biochemistry 37 (1998) 11651–11659. [DOI] [PMID: 9709003]
5.  Colloc'h, N., el Hajji, M., Bachet, B., L'Hermite, G., Schiltz, M., Prange, T., Castro, B. and Mornon, J.-P. Crystal structure of the protein drug urate oxidase-inhibitor complex at 2.05 Å resolution. Nat. Struct. Biol. 4 (1997) 947–952. [PMID: 9360612]
6.  Imhoff, R.D., Power, N.P., Borrok, M.J. and Tipton, P.A. General base catalysis in the urate oxidase reaction: evidence for a novel Thr-Lys catalytic diad. Biochemistry 42 (2003) 4094–4100. [DOI] [PMID: 12680763]
[EC created 1961, modified 2002, modified 2005, modified 2010]

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