The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: protoporphyrinogen oxidase
Reaction: protoporphyrinogen IX + 3 O2 = protoporphyrin IX + 3 H2O2
For diagram of the later stages of porphyrin biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase; protoporphyrinogenase; PPO; Protox; HemG; HemY
Systematic name: protoporphyrinogen-IX:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: This is the last common enzyme in the biosynthesis of chlorophylls and heme [8]. Two isoenzymes exist in plants: one in plastids and the other in mitochondria. This is the target enzyme of phthalimide-type and diphenylether-type herbicides [8]. The enzyme from oxygen-dependent species contains FAD [9]. Also slowly oxidizes mesoporphyrinogen IX.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 53986-32-6
1.  Poulson, R. The enzymic conversion of protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX in mammalian mitochondria. J. Biol. Chem. 251 (1976) 3730–3733. [PMID: 6461]
2.  Poulson, R. and Polglase, W.J. The enzymic conversion of protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX. Protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity in mitochondrial extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 250 (1975) 1269–1274. [PMID: 234450]
3.  Dailey, H.A. and Dailey, T.A. Protoporphyrinogen oxidase of Myxococcus xanthus. Expression, purification, and characterization of the cloned enzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 8714–8718. [DOI] [PMID: 8621504]
4.  Wang, K.F., Dailey, T.A. and Dailey, H.A. Expression and characterization of the terminal heme synthetic enzymes from the hyperthermophile Aquifex aeolicus. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 202 (2001) 115–119. [DOI] [PMID: 11506917]
5.  Corrigall, A.V., Siziba, K.B., Maneli, M.H., Shephard, E.G., Ziman, M., Dailey, T.A., Dailey, H.A., Kirsch, R.E. and Meissner, P.N. Purification of and kinetic studies on a cloned protoporphyrinogen oxidase from the aerobic bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 358 (1998) 251–256. [DOI] [PMID: 9784236]
6.  Ferreira, G.C. and Dailey, H.A. Mouse protoporphyrinogen oxidase. Kinetic parameters and demonstration of inhibition by bilirubin. Biochem. J. 250 (1988) 597–603. [PMID: 2451512]
7.  Dailey, T.A. and Dailey, H.A. Human protoporphyrinogen oxidase: expression, purification, and characterization of the cloned enzyme. Protein Sci. 5 (1996) 98–105. [DOI] [PMID: 8771201]
8.  Che, F.S., Watanabe, N., Iwano, M., Inokuchi, H., Takayama, S., Yoshida, S. and Isogai, A. Molecular characterization and subcellular localization of protoporphyrinogen oxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant Physiol. 124 (2000) 59–70. [PMID: 10982422]
9.  Dailey, T.A. and Dailey, H.A. Identification of an FAD superfamily containing protoporphyrinogen oxidases, monoamine oxidases, and phytoene desaturase. Expression and characterization of phytoene desaturase of Myxococcus xanthus. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 13658–13662. [DOI] [PMID: 9593705]
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