The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: anthocyanidin reductase [(2R,3R)-flavan-3-ol-forming]
Reaction: a (2R,3R)-flavan-3-ol + 2 NAD(P)+ = an anthocyanidin with a 3-hydroxy group + 2 NAD(P)H + H+
For diagram of anthocyanin biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): ANR (gene name) (ambiguous); flavan-3-ol:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase; anthocyanidin reductase (ambiguous)
Systematic name: (2R,3R)-flavan-3-ol:NAD(P)+ 3,4-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme participates in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway found in plants. It catalyses the double reduction of anthocyanidins, producing (2R,3R)-flavan-3-ol monomers required for the formation of proanthocyanidins. While the enzyme from the legume Medicago truncatula (MtANR) can use both NADPH and NADH as reductant, that from the crucifer Arabidopsis thaliana (AtANR) uses only NADPH. Also, while the substrate preference of MtANR is cyanidin>pelargonidin>delphinidin, the reverse preference is found with AtANR. cf. EC, anthocyanidin reductase [(2S)-flavan-3-ol-forming].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, Gene, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 93389-48-1
1.  Xie, D.Y., Sharma, S.B., Paiva, N.L., Ferreira, D. and Dixon, R.A. Role of anthocyanidin reductase, encoded by BANYULS in plant flavonoid biosynthesis. Science 299 (2003) 396–399. [DOI] [PMID: 12532018]
2.  Xie, D.Y., Sharma, S.B. and Dixon, R.A. Anthocyanidin reductases from Medicago truncatula and Arabidopsis thaliana. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 422 (2004) 91–102. [DOI] [PMID: 14725861]
3.  Pang, Y., Abeysinghe, I.S., He, J., He, X., Huhman, D., Mewan, K.M., Sumner, L.W., Yun, J. and Dixon, R.A. Functional characterization of proanthocyanidin pathway enzymes from tea and their application for metabolic engineering. Plant Physiol. 161 (2013) 1103–1116. [DOI] [PMID: 23288883]
[EC created 2004, modified 2016]

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