Accepted name: enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADPH, Si-specific)
Reaction: an acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + NADP+ = a trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + NADPH + H+
Other name(s): acyl-ACP dehydrogenase (ambiguous); enoyl-[acyl carrier protein] (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) reductase; NADPH 2-enoyl Co A reductase; enoyl acyl-carrier-protein reductase (ambiguous); enoyl-ACP reductase (ambiguous); acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]:NADP+ oxidoreductase (B-specific); acyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:NADP+ oxidoreductase (B-specific); enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADPH, B-specific)
Systematic name: acyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:NADP+ oxidoreductase (Si-specific)
Comments: One of the activities of EC, fatty-acyl-CoA synthase system, an enzyme found in yeasts (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota). Catalyses the reduction of enoyl-acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] derivatives of carbon chain length from 4 to 16. The yeast enzyme is Si-specific with respect to NADP+. cf. EC, enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADPH, Re-specific) and EC, enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADPH), which describes enzymes whose stereo-specificity towards NADPH is not known. See also EC, enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADH).
1.  Seyama, T., Kasama, T., Yamakawa, T., Kawaguchi, A., Saito, K. and Okuda, S. Origin of hydrogen atoms in the fatty acids synthesized with yeast fatty acid synthetase. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 82 (1977) 1325–1329. [PMID: 338601]
[EC created 1972, modified 1986, modified 2013, modified 2014, modified 2018]
Accepted name: chanoclavine-I aldehyde reductase
Reaction: dihydrochanoclavine-I aldehyde + NADP+ = chanoclavine-I aldehyde + NADPH + H+
Glossary: chanoclavine-I aldehyde = (1E)-2-methyl-3-[(4R,5R)-4-(methylamino)-1,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenz[cd]indol-5-yl]prop-2-enal
Other name(s): FgaOx3; easA (gene name)
Systematic name: chanoclavine-I aldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains FMN. The enzyme participates in the biosynthesis of fumigaclavine C, an ergot alkaloid produced by some fungi of the Trichocomaceae family. The enzyme catalyses the reduction of chanoclavine-I aldehyde to dihydrochanoclavine-I aldehyde. This hydrolyses spontaneously to form 6,8-dimethyl-6,7-didehydroergoline, which is converted to festuclavine by EC, festuclavine dehydrogenase.
1.  Coyle, C.M., Cheng, J.Z., O'Connor, S.E. and Panaccione, D.G. An old yellow enzyme gene controls the branch point between Aspergillus fumigatus and Claviceps purpurea ergot alkaloid pathways. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76 (2010) 3898–3903. [PMID: 20435769]
2.  Cheng, J.Z., Coyle, C.M., Panaccione, D.G. and O'Connor, S.E. A role for Old Yellow Enzyme in ergot alkaloid biosynthesis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (2010) 1776–1777. [PMID: 20102147]
3.  Wallwey, C., Matuschek, M., Xie, X.L. and Li, S.M. Ergot alkaloid biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus: Conversion of chanoclavine-I aldehyde to festuclavine by the festuclavine synthase FgaFS in the presence of the old yellow enzyme FgaOx3. Org. Biomol. Chem. 8 (2010) 3500–3508. [PMID: 20526482]
4.  Xie, X., Wallwey, C., Matuschek, M., Steinbach, K. and Li, S.M. Formyl migration product of chanoclavine-I aldehyde in the presence of the old yellow enzyme FgaOx3 from Aspergillus fumigatus: a NMR structure elucidation. Magn. Reson. Chem. 49 (2011) 678–681. [PMID: 21898587]
[EC created 2013]
Accepted name: 2,3-bis-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate reductase [NAD(P)H]
Reaction: 2,3-bis-(O-phytanyl)-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate + 8 NAD(P)+ = 2,3-bis-(O-geranylgeranyl)-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate + 8 NAD(P)H + 8 H+
Glossary: phytanol = (7R,11R,15R)-3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecan-1-ol
Other name(s): digeranylgeranylglycerophospholipid reductase; Ta0516m (gene name); DGGGPL reductase; 2,3-digeranylgeranylglycerophospholipid reductase
Systematic name: 2,3-bis-(O-phytany)l-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). The enzyme from the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum is involved in the biosynthesis of membrane lipids. In vivo the reaction occurs in the reverse direction with the formation of 2,3-bis-O-phytanyl-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate. cf. EC, 2,3-bis-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycero-phospholipid reductase.
1.  Nishimura, Y. and Eguchi, T. Biosynthesis of archaeal membrane lipids: digeranylgeranylglycerophospholipid reductase of the thermoacidophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum. J. Biochem. 139 (2006) 1073–1081. [PMID: 16788058]
2.  Nishimura, Y. and Eguchi, T. Stereochemistry of reduction in digeranylgeranylglycerophospholipid reductase involved in the biosynthesis of archaeal membrane lipids from Thermoplasma acidophilum. Bioorg. Chem. 35 (2007) 276–283. [PMID: 17275067]
3.  Xu, Q., Eguchi, T., Mathews, I.I., Rife, C.L., Chiu, H.J., Farr, C.L., Feuerhelm, J., Jaroszewski, L., Klock, H.E., Knuth, M.W., Miller, M.D., Weekes, D., Elsliger, M.A., Deacon, A.M., Godzik, A., Lesley, S.A. and Wilson, I.A. Insights into substrate specificity of geranylgeranyl reductases revealed by the structure of digeranylgeranylglycerophospholipid reductase, an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of archaeal membrane lipids. J. Mol. Biol. 404 (2010) 403–417. [PMID: 20869368]
[EC created 2013]
Accepted name: 2-alkenal reductase (NADP+)
Reaction: an n-alkanal + NADP+ = an alk-2-enal + NADPH + H+
Other name(s): NADPH-dependent alkenal/one oxidoreductase; NADPH:2-alkenal α,β-hydrogenase
Systematic name: n-alkanal:NADP+ 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: Shows highest activity with 1-nitrocyclohexene but also has significant activity with 2-methylpentenal and trans-cinnamaldehyde [3]. Involved in the detoxication of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones. Has very low activity with NAD as reductant (cf. EC, 2-alkenal reductase [NAD(P)+]).
1.  Hirata, T., Tamura, Y., Yokobatake, N., Shimoda, K. and Ashida, Y. A 38 kDa allylic alcohol dehydrogenase from the cultured cells of Nicotiana tabacum. Phytochemistry 55 (2000) 297–303. [PMID: 11117876]
2.  Matsushima, A., Sato, Y., Otsuka, M., Watanabe, T., Yamamoto, H. and Hirata, T. An enone reductase from Nicotiana tabacum: cDNA cloning, expression in Escherichia coli, and reduction of enones with the recombinant proteins. Bioorg. Chem. 36 (2008) 23–28. [PMID: 17945329]
3.  Mansell, D.J., Toogood, H.S., Waller, J., Hughes, J.M.X., Levy, C.W., Gardiner, J.M., and Scrutton, N.S. Biocatalytic asymmetric alkene reduction: crystal structure and characterization of a double bond reductase from Nicotiana tabacum. ACS Catal. 3 (2013) 370–379. [PMID: 27547488]
[EC created 2013]
Accepted name: 2-haloacrylate reductase
Reaction: (S)-2-chloropropanoate + NADP+ = 2-chloroacrylate + NADPH + H+
Other name(s): CAA43 (gene name)
Systematic name: (S)-2-chloropropanoate:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme acts in the degradation pathway of unsaturated organohalogen compounds by the bacterium Burkholderia sp. WS.
1.  Kurata, A., Kurihara, T., Kamachi, H. and Esaki, N. 2-Haloacrylate reductase, a novel enzyme of the medium chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily that catalyzes the reduction of a carbon-carbon double bond of unsaturated organohalogen compounds. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 20286–20291. [PMID: 15781461]
[EC created 2013]
Accepted name: enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADPH)
Reaction: an acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + NADP+ = a trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + NADPH + H+
Other name(s): acyl-ACP dehydrogenase (ambiguous); enoyl-[acyl carrier protein] (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) reductase; NADPH 2-enoyl Co A reductase; enoyl-ACP reductase (ambiguous); fabL (gene name)
Systematic name: acyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme completes each cycle of fatty acid elongation by catalysing the stereospecific reduction of the double bond at position 2 of a growing fatty acid chain, while linked to the acyl-carrier protein, in an NADPH-dependent manner. This entry stands for enzymes whose stereo-specificity with respect to NADP+ is not known. [cf. EC enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADPH, Re-specific), EC, enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADPH, Si-specific) and EC, enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADH)].
1.  Heath, R.J., Su, N., Murphy, C.K. and Rock, C.O. The enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductases FabI and FabL from Bacillus subtilis. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 40128–40133. [PMID: 11007778]
2.  Kim, K.H., Park, J.K., Ha, B.H., Moon, J.H. and Kim, E.E. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of enoyl-ACP reductase III (FabL) from Bacillus subtilis. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 63 (2007) 246–248. [PMID: 17329825]
3.  Kim, K.H., Ha, B.H., Kim, S.J., Hong, S.K., Hwang, K.Y. and Kim, E.E. Crystal structures of Enoyl-ACP reductases I (FabI) and III (FabL) from B. subtilis. J. Mol. Biol. 406 (2011) 403–415. [PMID: 21185310]
[EC created 2013]
Accepted name: 2-methylene-furan-3-one reductase
Reaction: 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one + NADP+ = 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-methylenefuran-3(2H)-one + NADPH + H+
Glossary: furaneol = 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one
homofuraneol = 2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methylfuran-3(2H)-one
Other name(s): FaEO; SIEO; enone oxidoreductase; 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase
Systematic name: 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme was dicovered in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa), where it produces furaneol, one of the major aroma compounds in the fruits. It has also been detected in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and pineapple (Ananas comosus). The enzyme can also act on derivatives substituted at the methylene functional group. The enzyme from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae acts on (2E)-2-ethylidene-4-hydroxy-5-methylfuran-3(2H)-one and produces homofuraneol, an important aroma compound in soy sauce and miso. NADPH is the preferred cofactor.
1.  Raab, T., Lopez-Raez, J.A., Klein, D., Caballero, J.L., Moyano, E., Schwab, W. and Munoz-Blanco, J. FaQR, required for the biosynthesis of the strawberry flavor compound 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, encodes an enone oxidoreductase. Plant Cell 18 (2006) 1023–1037. [PMID: 16517758]
2.  Klein, D., Fink, B., Arold, B., Eisenreich, W. and Schwab, W. Functional characterization of enone oxidoreductases from strawberry and tomato fruit. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55 (2007) 6705–6711. [PMID: 17636940]
3.  Schiefner, A., Sinz, Q., Neumaier, I., Schwab, W. and Skerra, A. Structural basis for the enzymatic formation of the key strawberry flavor compound 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone. J. Biol. Chem. 288 (2013) 16815–16826. [PMID: 23589283]
4.  Uehara, K., Watanabe, J., Mogi, Y. and Tsukioka, Y. Identification and characterization of an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the 4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone in yeast. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 123 (2017) 333–341. [PMID: 27865643]
[EC created 2013]
Accepted name: cobalt-precorrin-6A reductase
Reaction: cobalt-precorrin-6B + NAD+ = cobalt-precorrin-6A + NADH + H+
Other name(s): cbiJ (gene name)
Systematic name: cobalt-precorrin-6B:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme catalyses a step in the anaerobic (early cobalt insertion) pathway of adenosylcobalamin biosynthesis. The enzyme from the bacterium Bacillus megaterium has no activity with NADPH. The equivalent enzyme in the aerobic pathway is EC, precorrin-6A reductase.
1.  Kim, W., Major, T.A. and Whitman, W.B. Role of the precorrin 6-X reductase gene in cobamide biosynthesis in Methanococcus maripaludis. Archaea 1 (2005) 375–384. [PMID: 16243778]
2.  Moore, S.J., Lawrence, A.D., Biedendieck, R., Deery, E., Frank, S., Howard, M.J., Rigby, S.E. and Warren, M.J. Elucidation of the anaerobic pathway for the corrin component of cobalamin (vitamin B12). Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110 (2013) 14906–14911. [PMID: 23922391]
[EC created 2014]
Accepted name: sanguinarine reductase
Reaction: (1) dihydrosanguinarine + NAD(P)+ = sanguinarine + NAD(P)H + H+
(2) dihydrochelirubine + NAD(P)+ = chelirubine + NAD(P)H + H+
Glossary: sanguinarine = 13-methyl-2H,10H-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-i][1,3]dioxolo[4′,5′:4,5]benzo[1,2-c]phenanthridinium
dihydrosanguinarine = 13-methyl-13,14-dihydro-2H,10H-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-i][1,3]dioxolo[4′,5′:4,5]benzo[1,2-c]phenanthridine
chelirubine = 5-methoxy-13-methyl-2H,10H-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-i][1,3]dioxolo[4′,5′:4,5]benzo[1,2-c]phenanthridinium
dihydrochelirubine = 5-methoxy-13-methyl-13,14-dihydro-2H,10H-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-i][1,3]dioxolo[4′,5′:4,5]benzo[1,2-c]phenanthridinium
Systematic name: dihydrosanguinarine:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme, purified from the California poppy (Eschscholzia californica), is involved in detoxifying the phytoalexin sanguinarine produced by poppy itself (cf. EC, dihydrobenzophenanthridine oxidase), when it binds to the cell wall of the poppy cell. The reaction with NADPH is up to three times faster than that with NADH at low concentrations (<10 uM) of the dinucleotide. At higher concentrations the reaction with NADPH is inhibited but not that with NADH [1].
1.  Weiss, D., Baumert, A., Vogel, M. and Roos, W. Sanguinarine reductase, a key enzyme of benzophenanthridine detoxification. Plant Cell Environ 29 (2006) 291–302. [PMID: 17080644]
2.  Vogel, M., Lawson, M., Sippl, W., Conrad, U. and Roos, W. Structure and mechanism of sanguinarine reductase, an enzyme of alkaloid detoxification. J. Biol. Chem. 285 (2010) 18397–18406. [PMID: 20378534]
[EC created 2014]
Accepted name: caffeoyl-CoA reductase
Reaction: 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoyl-CoA + 2 NAD+ + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster = (2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyl-CoA + 2 NADH + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster
Glossary: (2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyl-CoA = (2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acryloyl-CoA = trans-caffeoyl-CoA
3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoyl-CoA = hydrocaffeoyl-CoA
Other name(s): electron-bifurcating caffeoyl-CoA reductase; caffeoyl-CoA reductase-Etf complex; hydrocaffeoyl-CoA:NAD+,ferredoxin oxidoreductase
Systematic name: 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoyl-CoA:NAD+,ferredoxin oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Acetobacterium woodii, contains two [4Fe-4S] clusters and FAD. The enzyme couples the endergonic ferredoxin reduction with NADH as reductant to the exergonic reduction of caffeoyl-CoA with the same reductant. It uses the mechanism of electron bifurcation to overcome the steep energy barrier in ferredoxin reduction. It also reduces 4-coumaroyl-CoA and feruloyl-CoA.
1.  Bertsch, J., Parthasarathy, A., Buckel, W. and Muller, V. An electron-bifurcating caffeyl-CoA reductase. J. Biol. Chem. 288 (2013) 11304–11311. [PMID: 23479729]
[EC created 2015]
Accepted name: butanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase (NAD+, ferredoxin)
Reaction: butanoyl-CoA + 2 NAD+ + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster = (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA + 2 NADH + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster
Glossary: (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA = crotonyl-CoA
Other name(s): bifurcating butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase; butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex; Etf-Bcd complex; bifurcating butanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase; butanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex
Systematic name: butanoyl-CoA:NAD+, ferredoxin oxidoreductase
Comments: This flavin containg enzyme, isolated from the bacteria Acidaminococcus fermentans and butanoate-producing Clostridia species, couples the exergonic reduction of (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA to butanoyl-CoA with NADH to the endergonic reduction of ferredoxin by NADH, using electron bifurcation to overcome the steep energy barrier in ferredoxin reduction.
1.  Li, F., Hinderberger, J., Seedorf, H., Zhang, J., Buckel, W. and Thauer, R.K. Coupled ferredoxin and crotonyl coenzyme A (CoA) reduction with NADH catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex from Clostridium kluyveri. J. Bacteriol. 190 (2008) 843–850. [PMID: 17993531]
2.  Aboulnaga el,-H., Pinkenburg, O., Schiffels, J., El-Refai, A., Buckel, W. and Selmer, T. Effect of an oxygen-tolerant bifurcating butyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase/electron-transferring flavoprotein complex from Clostridium difficile on butyrate production in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 195 (2013) 3704–3713. [PMID: 23772070]
3.  Chowdhury, N.P., Mowafy, A.M., Demmer, J.K., Upadhyay, V., Koelzer, S., Jayamani, E., Kahnt, J., Hornung, M., Demmer, U., Ermler, U. and Buckel, W. Studies on the mechanism of electron bifurcation catalyzed by electron transferring flavoprotein (Etf) and butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (Bcd) of Acidaminococcus fermentans. J. Biol. Chem. 289 (2014) 5145–5157. [PMID: 24379410]
[EC created 2015]

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