The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: acyl-CoA 11-(Z)-desaturase
Reaction: an acyl-CoA + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = an (11Z)-enoyl-CoA + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
Other name(s): Δ11 desaturase; fatty acid Δ11-desaturase; TpDESN; Cro-PG; Δ11 fatty acid desaturase; Z/E11-desaturase; Δ11-palmitoyl-CoA desaturase; acyl-CoA,hydrogen donor:oxygen Δ11-oxidoreductase; Δ11-fatty-acid desaturase
Systematic name: acyl-CoA,ferrocytochrome b5:oxygen oxidoreductase (11,12 cis-dehydrogenating)
Comments: The enzyme introduces a cis double bond at position C-11 of saturated fatty acyl-CoAs. In moths the enzyme participates in the biosynthesis of their sex pheromones. The enzyme from the marine microalga Thalassiosira pseudonana is specific for palmitoyl-CoA (16:0) [4], that from the leafroller moth Choristoneura rosaceana desaturates myristoyl-CoA (14:0) [5], while that from the moth Spodoptera littoralis accepts both substrates [1]. The enzyme contains three histidine boxes that are conserved in all desaturases [2]. It is membrane-bound, and contains a cytochrome b5-like domain at the N-terminus that serves as the electron donor for the active site of the desaturase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Martinez, T., Fabrias, G. and Camps, F. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathway in Spodoptera littoralis and its activation by a neurohormone. J. Biol. Chem. 265 (1990) 1381–1387. [PMID: 2295634]
2.  Rodriguez, F., Hallahan, D.L., Pickett, J.A. and Camps, F. Characterization of the Δ11-palmitoyl-CoA-desaturase from Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae). Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 22 (1992) 143–148.
3.  Navarro, I., Font, I., Fabrias, G. and Camps, F. Stereospecificity of the (E)- and (Z)-11 myristoyl desaturases in the biosynthesis of Spodoptera littoralis sex pheromone. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119 (1997) 11335–11336.
4.  Tonon, T., Harvey, D., Qing, R., Li, Y., Larson, T.R. and Graham, I.A. Identification of a fatty acid Δ11-desaturase from the microalga Thalassiosira pseudonana. FEBS Lett. 563 (2004) 28–34. [DOI] [PMID: 15063718]
5.  Hao, G., O'Connor, M., Liu, W. and Roelofs, W.L. Characterization of Z/E11- and Z9-desaturases from the obliquebanded leafroller moth, Choristoneura rosaceana. J. Insect Sci. 2:26 (2002) 1–7. [PMID: 15455060]
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