The Enzyme Database

Your query returned 9 entries.    printer_iconPrintable version

Accepted name: catechol oxidase
Reaction: 2 catechol + O2 = 2 1,2-benzoquinone + 2 H2O
Glossary: catechol = 1,2-benzenediol
Other name(s): diphenol oxidase; o-diphenolase; polyphenol oxidase; pyrocatechol oxidase; dopa oxidase; catecholase; o-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase; o-diphenol oxidoreductase
Systematic name: 1,2-benzenediol:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: A type 3 copper protein that catalyses exclusively the oxidation of catechol (i.e., o-diphenol) to the corresponding o-quinone. The enzyme also acts on a variety of substituted catechols. It is different from tyrosinase, EC, which can catalyse both the monooxygenation of monophenols and the oxidation of catechols.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9002-10-2
1.  Brown, F.C. and Ward, D.N. Preparation of a soluble mammalian tyrosinase. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79 (1957) 2647–2648.
2.  Dawson, C.R. and Tarpley, W.B. The copper oxidases. In: Sumner, J.B. and Myrbäck, K. (Ed.), The Enzymes, 1st edn, vol. 2, Academic Press, New York, 1951, pp. 454–498.
3.  Gregory, R.P.F. and Bendall, D.S. The purification and some properties of the polyphenol oxidse from tea (Camellia sinensis L.). Biochem. J. 101 (1966) 569–581. [PMID: 16742427]
4.  Mason, H.S. Structures and functions of the phenolase complex. Nature (Lond.) 177 (1956) 79–81. [PMID: 13288597]
5.  Mayer, A.M. and Harel, E. Polyphenol oxidases in plants. Phytochemistry 18 (1979) 193–215.
6.  Patil, S.S. and Zucker, M. Potato phenolases. Purification and properties. J. Biol. Chem. 240 (1965) 3938–3943. [PMID: 5842066]
7.  Pomerantz, S.H. 3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine as the tyrosinase cofactor. Occurrence in melanoma and binding constant. J. Biol. Chem. 242 (1967) 5308–5314. [PMID: 4965136]
8.  Robb, D.A. `Tyrosinase. In: Lontie, R. (Ed.), Copper Proteins and Copper Enzymes, vol. 2, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1984, pp. 207–240.
9.  Gerdemann, C., Eicken, C. and Krebs, B. The crystal structure of catechol oxidase: new insight into the function of type-3 copper proteins. Acc. Chem. Res. 35 (2002) 183–191. [DOI] [PMID: 11900522]
[EC created 1961, deleted 1972, reinstated 1978]
Transferred entry: ubiquinol oxidase (H+-transporting). Now EC, ubiquinol oxidase (H+-transporting)
[EC created 2011, modified 2014, deleted 2018]
Accepted name: ubiquinol oxidase (non-electrogenic)
Reaction: 2 ubiquinol + O2 = 2 ubiquinone + 2 H2O
Other name(s): plant alternative oxidase; cyanide-insensitive oxidase; AOX (gene name); ubiquinol oxidase; ubiquinol:O2 oxidoreductase (non-electrogenic)
Systematic name: ubiquinol:oxygen oxidoreductase (non-electrogenic)
Comments: The enzyme, described from the mitochondria of plants and some fungi and protists, is an alternative terminal oxidase that is not sensitive to cyanide inhibition and does not generate a proton motive force. Unlike the electrogenic terminal oxidases that contain hemes (cf. EC and EC, this enzyme contains a dinuclear non-heme iron complex. The function of this oxidase is believed to be dissipating excess reducing power, minimizing oxidative stress, and optimizing photosynthesis in response to changing conditions.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Bendall, D.S. and Bonner, W.D. Cyanide-insensitive respiration in plant mitochondria. Plant Physiol. 47 (1971) 236–245. [PMID: 16657603]
2.  Siedow, J.N., Umbach, A.L. and Moore, A.L. The active site of the cyanide-resistant oxidase from plant mitochondria contains a binuclear iron center. FEBS Lett. 362 (1995) 10–14. [DOI] [PMID: 7698344]
3.  Berthold, D.A., Andersson, M.E. and Nordlund, P. New insight into the structure and function of the alternative oxidase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1460 (2000) 241–254. [DOI] [PMID: 11106766]
4.  Williams, B.A., Elliot, C., Burri, L., Kido, Y., Kita, K., Moore, A.L. and Keeling, P.J. A broad distribution of the alternative oxidase in microsporidian parasites. PLoS Pathog. 6:e1000761 (2010). [DOI] [PMID: 20169184]
5.  Gandin, A., Duffes, C., Day, D.A. and Cousins, A.B. The absence of alternative oxidase AOX1A results in altered response of photosynthetic carbon assimilation to increasing CO2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 53 (2012) 1627–1637. [DOI] [PMID: 22848123]
[EC created 2011, modified 2014]
Transferred entry: menaquinol oxidase (H+-transporting). Now EC, menaquinol oxidase (H+-transporting)
[EC created 2011, deleted 2018]
Transferred entry: caldariellaquinol oxidase (H+-transporting). Now EC, caldariellaquinol oxidase (H+-transporting)
[EC created 2013, deleted 2018]
Transferred entry: ubiquinol oxidase (electrogenic, non H+-transporting). Now EC, ubiquinol oxidase (electrogenic, proton-motive force generating)
[EC created 2014, modified 2017, deleted 2018]
Accepted name: grixazone synthase
Reaction: 2 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzoate + N-acetyl-L-cysteine + 2 O2 = grixazone B + 4 H2O + CO2
For diagram of grixazone biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: grixazone B = 8-amino-9-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-7-oxo-7H-phenoxazine-2-carboxylic acid
Other name(s): GriF
Systematic name: 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzoate:N-acetyl-L-cysteine:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: A type 3 multi copper protein. The enzyme, isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces griseus, catalyses an 8 electron oxidation. Activation of the enzyme requires a copper chaperone (GriE). It also acts on 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, giving grixazone A. The second aldehyde group is presumably lost as formate. The enzyme also catalyses the reaction of EC o-aminophenol oxidase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Suzuki, H., Ohnishi, Y., Furusho, Y., Sakuda, S. and Horinouchi, S. Novel benzene ring biosynthesis from C3 and C4 primary metabolites by two enzymes. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 36944–36951. [DOI] [PMID: 17003031]
2.  Le Roes-Hill, M., Goodwin, C. and Burton, S. Phenoxazinone synthase: what’s in a name. Trends Biotechnol. 27 (2009) 248–258. [DOI] [PMID: 19268377]
[EC created 2014]
Accepted name: dihydrophenazinedicarboxylate synthase
Reaction: (1) (1R,6R)-1,4,5,5a,6,9-hexahydrophenazine-1,6-dicarboxylate + O2 = (1R,10aS)-1,4,10,10a-tetrahydrophenazine-1,6-dicarboxylate + H2O2
(2) (1R,10aS)-1,4,10,10a-tetrahydrophenazine-1,6-dicarboxylate + O2 = (5aS)-5,5a-dihydrophenazine-1,6-dicarboxylate + H2O2
(3) (1R,10aS)-1,4,10,10a-tetrahydrophenazine-1-carboxylate + O2 = (10aS)-10,10a-dihydrophenazine-1-carboxylate + H2O2
(4) (1R)-1,4,5,10-tetrahydrophenazine-1-carboxylate + O2 = (10aS)-5,10-dihydrophenazine-1-carboxylate + H2O2
For diagram of enediyne antitumour antibiotic biosynthesis and pyocyanin biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): phzG (gene name)
Systematic name: 1,4,5a,6,9,10a-hexahydrophenazine-1,6-dicarboxylate:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: Requires FMN. The enzyme, isolated from the bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79 and Burkholderia lata 383, is involved in biosynthesis of the reduced forms of phenazine, phenazine-1-carboxylate, and phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylate, where it catalyses multiple reactions.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Xu, N., Ahuja, E.G., Janning, P., Mavrodi, D.V., Thomashow, L.S. and Blankenfeldt, W. Trapped intermediates in crystals of the FMN-dependent oxidase PhzG provide insight into the final steps of phenazine biosynthesis. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 69 (2013) 1403–1413. [DOI] [PMID: 23897464]
[EC created 2016]
Accepted name: superoxide oxidase
Reaction: 2 O2 + ubiquinol = 2 superoxide + ubiquinone + 2 H+
Other name(s): SOO; CybB; cytochrome b561; superoxide:ubiquinone oxidoreductase
Systematic name: ubiquinol:oxygen oxidoreductase (superoxide-forming)
Comments: This membrane-bound, di-heme containing enzyme, identified in the bacterium Escherichia coli, is responsible for the detoxification of superoxide in the periplasm. In vivo the reaction proceeds in the opposite direction of that shown and produces oxygen. Superoxide production was only observed when the enzyme was incubated in vitro with an excess of ubiquinol.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Murakami, H., Kita, K. and Anraku, Y. Cloning of cybB, the gene for cytochrome b561 of Escherichia coli K12. Mol. Gen. Genet. 198 (1984) 1–6. [PMID: 6097799]
2.  Murakami, H., Kita, K. and Anraku, Y. Purification and properties of a diheme cytochrome b561 of the Escherichia coli respiratory chain. J. Biol. Chem. 261 (1986) 548–551. [PMID: 3510204]
3.  Lundgren, C.AK., Sjostrand, D., Biner, O., Bennett, M., Rudling, A., Johansson, A.L., Brzezinski, P., Carlsson, J., von Ballmoos, C. and Hogbom, M. Scavenging of superoxide by a membrane-bound superoxide oxidase. Nat. Chem. Biol. 14 (2018) 788–793. [PMID: 29915379]
[EC created 2019]

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