The Enzyme Database

Your query returned 42 entries.    printer_iconPrintable version

Accepted name: choline dehydrogenase
Reaction: choline + acceptor = betaine aldehyde + reduced acceptor
Glossary: betaine aldehyde = N,N,N-trimethyl-2-oxoethylammonium
choline = (2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium
Other name(s): choline oxidase; choline-cytochrome c reductase; choline:(acceptor) oxidoreductase; choline:(acceptor) 1-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: choline:acceptor 1-oxidoreductase
Comments: A quinoprotein. In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized using different enzymes to catalyse the conversion of (1) choline into betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde into betaine. In plants, the first reaction is catalysed by EC, choline monooxygenase, whereas in animals and many bacteria, it is catalysed by either membrane-bound choline dehydrogenase (EC or soluble choline oxidase (EC [4]. The enzyme involved in the second step, EC, betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, appears to be the same in plants, animals and bacteria.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9028-67-5
1.  Ameyama, M., Shinagawa, E., Matsuchita, K., Takimoto, K., Nakashima, K. and Adachi, O. Mammalian choline dehydrogenase is a quinoprotein. Agric. Biol. Chem. 49 (1985) 3623–3626.
2.  Ebisuzaki, K. and Williams, J.N. Preparation and partial purification of soluble choline dehydrogenase from liver mitochondria. Biochem. J. 60 (1955) 644–646. [PMID: 13249959]
3.  Gadda, G. and McAllister-Wilkins, E.E. Cloning, expression, and purification of choline dehydrogenase from the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69 (2003) 2126–2132. [DOI] [PMID: 12676692]
4.  Waditee, R., Tanaka, Y., Aoki, K., Hibino, T., Jikuya, H., Takano, J., Takabe, T. and Takabe, T. Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 4932–4942. [DOI] [PMID: 12466265]
[EC created 1961, modified 1989, modified 2005]
Accepted name: L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase
Reaction: (S)-2-hydroxyglutarate + acceptor = 2-oxoglutarate + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): α-ketoglutarate reductase; α-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase; L-α-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase; hydroxyglutaric dehydrogenase; α-hydroxyglutarate oxidoreductase; L-α-hydroxyglutarate:NAD+ 2-oxidoreductase; α-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (NAD+ specific); (S)-2-hydroxyglutarate:(acceptor) 2-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: (S)-2-hydroxyglutarate:acceptor 2-oxidoreductase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9028-80-2
1.  Weil-Malherbe, H. The oxidation of l(–)α-hydroxyglutaric acid in animal tissues. Biochem. J. 31 (1937) 2080–2094. [PMID: 16746551]
[EC created 1961, modified 2013]
Accepted name: gluconate 2-dehydrogenase (acceptor)
Reaction: D-gluconate + acceptor = 2-dehydro-D-gluconate + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): gluconate oxidase; gluconate dehydrogenase; gluconic dehydrogenase; D-gluconate dehydrogenase; gluconic acid dehydrogenase; 2-ketogluconate reductase; D-gluconate dehydrogenase, 2-keto-D-gluconate-yielding; D-gluconate:(acceptor) 2-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: D-gluconate:acceptor 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9028-81-3
1.  Matsushita, K., Shinagawa, E. and Ameyama, M. D-Gluconate dehydrogenases from bacteria, 2-keto-D-gluconate-yielding membrane-bound. Methods Enzymol. 89 (1982) 187–193. [PMID: 6815420]
2.  Ramakrishnan, T. and Campbell, J.J.R. Gluconic dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 17 (1955) 122–127. [DOI] [PMID: 13239635]
[EC created 1961, modified 1976, modified 1989]
Accepted name: dehydrogluconate dehydrogenase
Reaction: 2-dehydro-D-gluconate + acceptor = 2,5-didehydro-D-gluconate + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): ketogluconate dehydrogenase; α-ketogluconate dehydrogenase; 2-keto-D-gluconate dehydrogenase; 2-oxogluconate dehydrogenase
Systematic name: 2-dehydro-D-gluconate:acceptor 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9028-82-4
1.  Datta, A.G. and Katznelson, H. The oxidation of 2-ketogluconate by a partially purified enzyme from Acetobacter melanogenum. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 65 (1956) 576–578. [DOI] [PMID: 13395514]
2.  Shinagawa, E. and Ameyama, M. 2-Keto-D-gluconate dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter melanogenus, membrane-bound. Methods Enzymol. 89 (1982) 194–198.
[EC created 1961, modified 1989]
Transferred entry: glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. As the acceptor is now known, the enzyme has been transferred to EC, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.
[EC created 1961 as EC, transferred 1965 to EC, deleted 2009]
Accepted name: D-lactate dehydrogenase (acceptor)
Reaction: (R)-lactate + acceptor = pyruvate + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): D-2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase; D-2-hydroxy-acid dehydrogenase; (R)-2-hydroxy-acid:acceptor 2-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: (R)-lactate:acceptor 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: The zinc flavoprotein (FAD) from the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus cannot utilize NAD+, cytochrome c, methylene blue or dimethylnaphthoquinone as acceptors. In vitro it is active with artificial electron acceptors such as 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, but the physiological acceptor is not yet known.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9028-83-5
1.  Reed, D.W. and Hartzell, P.L. The Archaeoglobus fulgidus D-lactate dehydrogenase is a Zn2+ flavoprotein. J. Bacteriol. 181 (1999) 7580–7587. [PMID: 10601217]
[EC created 1965, modified 2013]
Accepted name: lactate—malate transhydrogenase
Reaction: (S)-lactate + oxaloacetate = pyruvate + malate
Other name(s): malate-lactate transhydrogenase
Systematic name: (S)-lactate:oxaloacetate oxidoreductase
Comments: Catalyses hydrogen transfer from C3 or C4 (S)-2-hydroxy acids to 2-oxo acids. It contains tightly bound nicotinamide nucleotide in its active centre. This cofactor cannot be removed without denaturation of the protein.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9077-15-0
1.  Allen, S.H.G. The isolation and characterization of malate-lactate transhydrogenase from Micrococcus lactilyticus. J. Biol. Chem. 241 (1966) 5266–5275. [DOI] [PMID: 4289051]
2.  Allen, S.H.G. and Patil, J.R. Studies on the structure and mechanism of action of the malate-lactate transhydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 909–916. [DOI] [PMID: 4333516]
[EC created 1972]
Transferred entry: alcohol dehydrogenase (acceptor). Now EC, methanol dehydrogenase (cytochrome c) and EC, alcohol dehydrogenase (cytochrome c).
[EC created 1972, modified 1982, deleted 2010]
Accepted name: pyridoxine 5-dehydrogenase
Reaction: pyridoxine + acceptor = isopyridoxal + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): pyridoxal-5-dehydrogenase; pyridoxol 5-dehydrogenase; pyridoxin 5-dehydrogenase; pyridoxine dehydrogenase; pyridoxine 5′-dehydrogenase; pyridoxine:(acceptor) 5-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: pyridoxine:acceptor 5-oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EAWAG-BBD, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9023-39-6
1.  Sundaram, T.K. and Snell, E.E. The bacterial oxidation of vitamin B6. V. The enzymatic formation of pyridoxal and isopyridoxal from pyridoxine. J. Biol. Chem. 244 (1969) 2577–2584. [PMID: 5769992]
[EC created 1972, modified 1976]
Transferred entry: glucose dehydrogenase (acceptor). Now EC, glucose 1-dehydrogenase (FAD, quinone)
[EC created 1972, modified 1976, deleted 2013]
Transferred entry: fructose 5-dehydrogenase, now classified as EC, fructose 5-dehydrogenase.
[EC created 1972, deleted 2021.]
Accepted name: sorbose dehydrogenase
Reaction: L-sorbose + acceptor = 5-dehydro-D-fructose + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): L-sorbose:(acceptor) 5-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: L-sorbose:acceptor 5-oxidoreductase
Comments: 2,6-Dichloroindophenol can act as acceptor.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37250-86-5
1.  Sato, K., Yamada, Y., Aida, K. and Uemara, T. Enzymatic studies on the oxidation of sugar and sugar alcohol. 8. Particle-bound L-sorbose dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter suboxydans. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 66 (1969) 521–527. [PMID: 5354025]
[EC created 1972]
Accepted name: glucoside 3-dehydrogenase (acceptor)
Reaction: sucrose + acceptor = 3-dehydro-α-D-glucosyl-β-D-fructofuranoside + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): D-glucoside 3-dehydrogenase (ambiguous); D-aldohexopyranoside dehydrogenase (ambiguous); D-aldohexoside:(acceptor) 3-oxidoreductase; thuA (gene name); thuB (gene name); glucoside 3-dehydrogenase
Systematic name: D-aldohexoside:acceptor 3-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzymes from members of the Rhizobiaceae family (such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens) act on disaccharides that contain a glucose moiety at the non-reducing end, such as sucrose, trehalose, leucrose, palatinose, trehalulose, and maltitol, forming the respective 3′-keto derivatives. cf. EC, glucoside 3-dehydrogenase (cytochrome c).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9031-74-7
1.  Jensen, J.B., Ampomah, O.Y., Darrah, R., Peters, N.K. and Bhuvaneswari, T.V. Role of trehalose transport and utilization in Sinorhizobium meliloti-alfalfa interactions. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 18 (2005) 694–702. [DOI] [PMID: 16042015]
2.  Ampomah, O.Y., Avetisyan, A., Hansen, E., Svenson, J., Huser, T., Jensen, J.B. and Bhuvaneswari, T.V. The thuEFGKAB operon of Rhizobia and Agrobacterium tumefaciens codes for transport of trehalose, maltitol, and isomers of sucrose and their assimilation through the formation of their 3-keto derivatives. J. Bacteriol. 195 (2013) 3797–3807. [DOI] [PMID: 23772075]
3.  Ampomah, O.Y. and Jensen, J.B. The trehalose utilization gene thuA ortholog in Mesorhizobium loti does not influence competitiveness for nodulation on Lotus spp. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 30 (2014) 1129–1134. [DOI] [PMID: 24142427]
[EC created 1972, modified 2022]
Accepted name: glycolate dehydrogenase
Reaction: glycolate + acceptor = glyoxylate + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): glycolate oxidoreductase; glycolic acid dehydrogenase; glycolate:(acceptor) 2-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: glycolate:acceptor 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: Also acts on (R)-lactate. 2,6-Dichloroindophenol and phenazine methosulfate can act as acceptors.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37368-32-4
1.  Lord, J.M. Glycolate oxidoreductase in Escherichia coli. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 267 (1972) 227–237. [DOI] [PMID: 4557653]
[EC created 1978]
Transferred entry: 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (FADH2). Now EC, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase [NAD(P)H]
[EC created 1978, deleted 1980]
Transferred entry: malate dehydrogenase (acceptor). As the acceptor is now known, the enzyme has been transferred to EC, malate dehydrogenase (quinone).
[EC created 1978, deleted 2009]
Transferred entry: glucose dehydrogenase (pyrroloquinoline-quinone). Now EC, quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase
[EC created 1982, deleted 2003]
Accepted name: cellobiose dehydrogenase (acceptor)
Reaction: cellobiose + acceptor = cellobiono-1,5-lactone + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): cellobiose dehydrogenase; cellobiose oxidoreductase; Phanerochaete chrysosporium cellobiose oxidoreductase; CBOR; cellobiose oxidase; cellobiose:oxygen 1-oxidoreductase; CDH; cellobiose:(acceptor) 1-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: cellobiose:acceptor 1-oxidoreductase
Comments: Also acts, more slowly, on cello-oligosaccharides, lactose and D-glucosyl-1,4-β-D-mannose. The enzyme from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is unusual in having two redoxin domains, one containing a flavin and the other a protoheme group. It transfers reducing equivalents from cellobiose to two types of redox acceptor: two-electron oxidants, including redox dyes, benzoquinones, and molecular oxygen, and one-electron oxidants, including semiquinone species, iron(II) complexes, and the model acceptor cytochrome c [9]. 2,6-Dichloroindophenol can act as acceptor in vitro.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 54576-85-1
1.  Coudray, M.-R., Canebascini, G. and Meier, H. Characterization of a cellobiose dehydrogenase in the cellulolytic fungus porotrichum (Chrysosporium) thermophile. Biochem. J. 203 (1982) 277–284. [PMID: 7103940]
2.  Dekker, R.F.H. Induction and characterization of a cellobiose dehydrogenase produced by a species of Monilia. J. Gen. Microbiol. 120 (1980) 309–316.
3.  Dekker, R.F.H. Cellobiose dehydrogenase produced by Monilia sp. Methods Enzymol. 160 (1988) 454–463.
4.  Habu, N., Samejima, M., Dean, J.F. and Eriksson, K.E. Release of the FAD domain from cellobiose oxidase by proteases from cellulolytic cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. FEBS Lett. 327 (1993) 161–164. [DOI] [PMID: 8392950]
5.  Baminger, U., Subramaniam, S.S., Renganathan, V. and Haltrich, D. Purification and characterization of cellobiose dehydrogenase from the plant pathogen Sclerotium (Athelia) rolfsii. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67 (2001) 1766–1774. [DOI] [PMID: 11282631]
6.  Hallberg, B.M., Henriksson, G., Pettersson, G. and Divne, C. Crystal structure of the flavoprotein domain of the extracellular flavocytochrome cellobiose dehydrogenase. J. Mol. Biol. 315 (2002) 421–434. [DOI] [PMID: 11786022]
7.  Ayers, A.R., Ayers, S.B. and Eriksson, K.-E. Cellobiose oxidase, purification and partial characterization of a hemoprotein from Sporotrichum pulverulentum. Eur. J. Biochem. 90 (1978) 171–181. [DOI] [PMID: 710416]
8.  Ayers, A.R. and Eriksson, K.-E. Cellobiose oxidase from Sporotrichum pulverulentum. Methods Enzymol. 89 (1982) 129–135. [PMID: 7144569]
9.  Mason, M.G., Nicholls, P., Divne, C., Hallberg, B.M., Henriksson, G. and Wilson, M.T. The heme domain of cellobiose oxidoreductase: a one-electron reducing system. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1604 (2003) 47–54. [DOI] [PMID: 12686420]
[EC created 1983, modified 2002 (EC created 1983, incorporated 2002, EC created 1986, incorporated 2005)]
Transferred entry: uracil dehydrogenase. Now EC, uracil/thymine dehydrogenase
[EC created 1961 as EC, transferred 1984 to EC, deleted 2006]
Accepted name: alkan-1-ol dehydrogenase (acceptor)
Reaction: primary alcohol + acceptor = aldehyde + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): polyethylene glycol dehydrogenase; alkan-1-ol:(acceptor) oxidoreductase
Systematic name: alkan-1-ol:acceptor oxidoreductase
Comments: A quinoprotein. Acts on C3-C16 linear-chain saturated primary alcohols, C4-C7 aldehydes and on non-ionic surfactants containing polyethylene glycol residues, such as Tween 40 and 60, but not on methanol and only very slowly on ethanol. 2,6-Dichloroindophenol can act as acceptor. cf. EC alcohol dehydrogenase (acceptor).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 75496-55-8
1.  Kawai, F., Kimura, T., Tani, Y., Yamada, H., Ueno, T. and Fukami, H. Identification of reaction-products of polyethylene-glycol dehydrogenase. Agric. Biol. Chem. 47 (1983) 1669–1671.
2.  Kawai, F., Yamanaka, H., Ameyama, M., Shinagawa, E., Matsushita, K. and Adachi, O. Identification of the prosthetic group and further characterization of a novel enzyme, polyethylene-glycol dehydrogenase. Agric. Biol. Chem. 49 (1985) 1071–1076.
[EC created 1989]
Accepted name: D-sorbitol dehydrogenase (acceptor)
Reaction: D-sorbitol + acceptor = L-sorbose + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): D-sorbitol:(acceptor) 1-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: D-sorbitol:acceptor 1-oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 86178-94-1
1.  Shinagawa, E. and Ameyama, M. Purification and characterization of D-sorbitol dehydrogenase from membrane of Gluconobacter suboxydans var-alpha. Agric. Biol. Chem. 46 (1982) 135–141.
[EC created 1989]
Accepted name: glycerol dehydrogenase (acceptor)
Reaction: glycerol + acceptor = glycerone + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): glycerol:(acceptor) 1-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: glycerol:acceptor 1-oxidoreductase
Comments: A quinoprotein. Also acts, more slowly, on a number of other polyols including D-sorbitol, D-arabinitol, meso-erythritol, ribitol and propane-1,2-diol.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 249285-11-8
1.  Ameyama, M., Shinagawa, E., Matsushita, K. and Adachi, O. Solubilization, purification and properties of membrane-bound glycerol dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter industrius. Agric. Biol. Chem. 49 (1985) 1001–1010.
[EC created 1989]
Transferred entry: polyvinyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (acceptor). Now EC, polyvinyl alcohol dehydrogenase (cytochrome)
[EC created 1989, deleted 2010]
Accepted name: hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase
Reaction: (S)-3-hydroxybutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = acetoacetate + (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate
Other name(s): transhydrogenase, hydroxy acid-oxo acid
Systematic name: (S)-3-hydroxybutanoate:2-oxoglutarate oxidoreductase
Comments: 4-Hydroxybutanoate and (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate can also act as donors; 4-oxobutanoate can also act as acceptor.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 117698-31-4
1.  Kaufman, E.E., Nelson, T., Fales, H.M. and Levin, D.M. Isolation and characterization of a hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase from rat kidney mitochondria. J. Biol. Chem. 263 (1988) 16872–16879. [PMID: 3182820]
[EC created 1992]
Transferred entry: quinate dehydrogenase (pyrroloquinoline-quinone). Now EC, quinate dehydrogenase (quinone)
[EC created 1992, modified 2004, deleted 2010]
Accepted name: 3-hydroxycyclohexanone dehydrogenase
Reaction: 3-hydroxycyclohexanone + acceptor = cyclohexane-1,3-dione + reduced acceptor
Systematic name: 3-hydroxycyclohexanone:acceptor 1-oxidoreductase
Comments: 2,6-Dichloroindophenol and methylene blue can act as acceptors.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 123516-44-9
1.  Dangel, W., Tschech, A. and Fuchs, G. Enzyme-reactions involved in anaerobic cyclohexanol metabolism by a denitrifying Pseudomonas species. Arch. Microbiol. 152 (1989) 273–279. [PMID: 2505723]
[EC created 1992]
Accepted name: (R)-pantolactone dehydrogenase (flavin)
Reaction: (R)-pantolactone + acceptor = 2-dehydropantolactone + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): 2-dehydropantolactone reductase (flavin); 2-dehydropantoyl-lactone reductase (flavin); (R)-pantoyllactone dehydrogenase (flavin)
Systematic name: (R)-pantolactone:acceptor oxidoreductase (flavin-containing)
Comments: High specificity for (R)-pantolactone. Phenazine methosulfate (PMS) can act as acceptor. The enzyme has been studied in the bacterium Nocardia asteroides and shown to be membrane-bound and induced by 1,2-propanediol. The FMN cofactor is non-covalently bound.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 140879-14-7
1.  Kataoka, M., Shimizu, S. and Yamada, H. Purification and characterization of a novel FMN-dependent enzyme. Membrane-bound L-(+)-pantoyl lactone dehydrogenase from Nocardia asteroides. Eur. J. Biochem. 204 (1992) 799–806. [DOI] [PMID: 1541293]
[EC created 1999]
Accepted name: glucose-fructose oxidoreductase
Reaction: D-glucose + D-fructose = D-gluconolactone + D-glucitol
Systematic name: D-glucose:D-fructose oxidoreductase
Comments: D-mannose, D-xylose, D-galactose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose and L-arabinose will function as aldose substrates, but with low affinities. The ketose substrate must be in the open-chain form. The apparent affinity for fructose is low, because little of the fructose substrate is in the open-chain form. Xylulose and glycerone (dihydroxyacetone) will replace fructose, but they are poor substrates. The enzyme from Zymomonas mobilis contains tightly bound NADP+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 94949-35-6
1.  Zachariou, M. and Scopes, R.K. Glucose-fructose oxidoreductase: a new enzyme isolated from Zymomonas mobilis that is responsible for sorbitol production. J. Bacteriol. 167 (1986) 863–869. [DOI] [PMID: 3745122]
2.  Hardman, M.J. and Scopes, R.K. The kinetics of glucose-fructose oxidoreductase from Zymomonas mobilis. Eur. J. Biochem. 173 (1988) 203–209. [DOI] [PMID: 3356190]
3.  Kanagasundaram, V. and Scopes, R.K. Cloning, sequence analysis and expression of the structural gene encoding glucose-fructose oxidoreductase. J. Bacteriol. 174 (1992) 1439–1447. [DOI] [PMID: 1537789]
[EC created 1999]
Accepted name: pyranose dehydrogenase (acceptor)
Reaction: (1) a pyranose + acceptor = a pyranos-2-ulose (or a pyranos-3-ulose or a pyranos-2,3-diulose) + reduced acceptor
(2) a pyranoside + acceptor = a pyranosid-3-ulose (or a pyranosid-3,4-diulose) + reduced acceptor
Glossary: ferricenium ion = bis(η5-cyclopentadienyl)iron(1+)
Other name(s): pyranose dehydrogenase; pyranose-quinone oxidoreductase; quinone-dependent pyranose dehydrogenase; PDH
Systematic name: pyranose:acceptor oxidoreductase
Comments: Requires FAD. A number of aldoses and ketoses in pyranose form, as well as glycosides, gluco-oligosaccharides, sucrose and lactose can act as a donor. 1,4-Benzoquinone or ferricenium ion (ferrocene oxidized by removal of one electron) can serve as acceptor. Unlike EC, pyranose oxidase, this fungal enzyme does not interact with O2 and exhibits extremely broad substrate tolerance with variable regioselectivity (C-3, C-2 or C-3 + C-2 or C-3 + C-4) for (di)oxidation of different sugars. D-Glucose is exclusively or preferentially oxidized at C-3 (depending on the enzyme source), but can also be oxidized at C-2 + C-3. The enzyme also acts on 1→4-α- and 1→4-β-gluco-oligosaccharides, non-reducing gluco-oligosaccharides and L-arabinose, which are not substrates of EC Sugars are oxidized in their pyranose but not in their furanose form.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 190606-21-4
1.  Volc, J., Kubátová, E., Wood, D. and Daniel, G. Pyranose 2-dehydrogenase, a novel sugar oxidoreductase from the basidiomycete fungus Agaricus bisporus. Arch. Microbiol. 167 (1997) 119–125. [PMID: 9042751]
2.  Volc, J., Sedmera, P., Halada, P., Přikyrlová, V. and Daniel, G. C-2 and C-3 oxidation of D-Glc, and C-2 oxidation of D-Gal by pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus bisporus. Carbohydr. Res. 310 (1998) 151–156.
3.  Volc, J., Sedmera, P., Halada, P., Přikyrlová, V. and Haltrich, D. Double oxidation of D-xylose to D-glycero-pentos-2,3-diulose (2,3-diketo-D-xylose) by pyranose dehydrogenase from the mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Carbohydr. Res. 329 (2000) 219–225. [DOI] [PMID: 11086703]
4.  Volc, J., Kubátová, E., Daniel, G., Sedmera, P. and Haltrich, D. Screening of basidiomycete fungi for the quinone-dependent sugar C-2/C-3 oxidoreductase, pyranose dehydrogenase, and properties of the enzyme from Macrolepiota rhacodes. Arch. Microbiol. 176 (2001) 178–186. [PMID: 11511865]
5.  Volc, J., Sedmera, P., Halada, P., Daniel, G., Přikyrlová, V. and Haltrich, D. C-3 oxidation of non-reducing sugars by a fungal pyranose dehydrogenase: spectral characterization. J. Mol. Catal., B Enzym. 17 (2002) 91–100.
[EC created 2004]
Accepted name: 2-oxo-acid reductase
Reaction: a (2R)-hydroxy-carboxylate + acceptor = a 2-oxocarboxylate + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): (2R)-hydroxycarboxylate-viologen-oxidoreductase; HVOR; 2-oxoacid reductase
Systematic name: (2R)-hydroxy-carboxylate:acceptor oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains [4Fe-4S] and a mononucleotide molybdenum (pyranopterin) cofactor. Has broad substrate specificity, with 2-oxo-monocarboxylates and 2-oxo-dicarboxylates acting as substrates. Branching in a substrate at the C-3 position results in loss of activity. The enzyme from Proteus sp. is inactivated by oxygen.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 115299-99-5
1.  Trautwein, T., Krauss, F., Lottspeich, F. and Simon, H. The (2R)-hydroxycarboxylate-viologen-oxidoreductase from Proteus vulgaris is a molybdenum-containing iron-sulphur protein. Eur. J. Biochem. 222 (1994) 1025–1032. [DOI] [PMID: 8026480]
2.  Neumann, S. and Simon, H. On a non-pyridine nucleotide-dependent 2-oxoacid reductase of broad specificity from two Proteus species. FEBS Lett. 167 (1985) 29–32.
[EC created 2004]
Accepted name: (S)-mandelate dehydrogenase
Reaction: (S)-mandelate + acceptor = phenylglyoxylate + reduced acceptor
For diagram of reaction, click here
Glossary: (S)-mandelate = (S)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate
phenylglyoxylate = benzoylformate = 2-oxo-2-phenylacetate
Other name(s): MDH (ambiguous)
Systematic name: (S)-mandelate:acceptor 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: This enzyme is a member of the FMN-dependent α-hydroxy-acid oxidase/dehydrogenase family [1]. While all enzymes of this family oxidize the (S)-enantiomer of an α-hydroxy acid to an α-oxo acid, the ultimate oxidant (oxygen, intramolecular heme or some other acceptor) depends on the particular enzyme. This enzyme transfers the electron pair from FMNH2 to a component of the electron transport chain, most probably ubiquinone [1,2]. It is part of a metabolic pathway in Pseudomonads that allows these organisms to utilize mandelic acid, derivatized from the common soil metabolite amygdalin, as the sole source of carbon and energy [2]. The enzyme has a large active-site pocket and preferentially binds substrates with longer sidechains, e.g. 2-hydroxyoctanoate rather than 2-hydroxybutyrate [1]. It also prefers substrates that, like (S)-mandelate, have β unsaturation, e.g. (indol-3-yl)glycolate compared with (indol-3-yl)lactate [1]. Esters of mandelate, such as methyl (S)-mandelate, are also substrates [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EAWAG-BBD, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9067-95-2
1.  Lehoux, I.E. and Mitra, B. (S)-Mandelate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida: mechanistic studies with alternate substrates and pH and kinetic isotope effects. Biochemistry 38 (1999) 5836–5848. [DOI] [PMID: 10231535]
2.  Dewanti, A.R., Xu, Y. and Mitra, B. Role of glycine 81 in (S)-mandelate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida in substrate specificity and oxidase activity. Biochemistry 43 (2004) 10692–10700. [DOI] [PMID: 15311930]
3.  Dewanti, A.R., Xu, Y. and Mitra, B. Esters of mandelic acid as substrates for (S)-mandelate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida: implications for the reaction mechanism. Biochemistry 43 (2004) 1883–1890. [DOI] [PMID: 14967029]
[EC created 2006]
Accepted name: L-sorbose 1-dehydrogenase
Reaction: L-sorbose + acceptor = 1-dehydro-L-sorbose + reduced acceptor
Glossary: 1-dehydro-L-sorbose = L-sorbosone = 2-dehydro-L-gulose
Other name(s): SDH (ambiguous)
Systematic name: L-sorbose:acceptor 1-oxidoreductase
Comments: The product, L-sorbosone, is an intermediate in bacterial 2-keto-L-gulonic-acid formation. The activity of this membrane-bound enzyme is stimulated by Fe(III) or Co2+ but is inhibited by Cu2+. The enzyme is highly specific for L-sorbose as other sugars, such as glucose, mannitol and sorbitol, are not substrates. Phenazine methosulfate and DCIP can act as artificial acceptors.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Sugisawa, T., Hoshino, T., Nomura, S. and Fujiwara, A. Isolation and characterization of membrane-bound L-sorbose dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter melanogenus UV10. Agric. Biol. Chem. 55 (1991) 363–370.
[EC created 2008]
Transferred entry: formate dehydrogenase (acceptor). Now EC, formate dehydrogenase (acceptor)
[EC created 2010, deleted 2017]
Transferred entry: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (coenzyme-F420). As the acceptor is now known, the enzyme has been transferred to EC, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (coenzyme-F420)
[EC created 2010, deleted 2011]
Accepted name: soluble quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase
Reaction: D-glucose + acceptor = D-glucono-1,5-lactone + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): soluble glucose dehydrogenase; sGDH; glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-dependent)
Systematic name: D-glucose:acceptor oxidoreductase
Comments: Soluble periplasmic enzyme containing a tightly-bound PQQ cofactor that is bound to a calcium ion. As the electron acceptor is not known, the enzyme has been assayed with Wurster's Blue or phenazine methosulfate. It has negligible sequence or structure similarity to other quinoproteins. It catalyses an exceptionally high rate of oxidation of a wide range of aldose sugars, including D-glucose, galactose, arabinose and xylose, and also the disaccharides lactose, cellobiose and maltose. It has been described only in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Geiger, O. and Gorisch, H. Crystalline quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. Biochemistry 25 (1986) 6043–6048.
2.  Dokter, P., Frank, J. and Duine, J.A. Purification and characterization of quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus L.M.D. 79.41. Biochem. J. 239 (1986) 163–167. [PMID: 3800975]
3.  Cleton-Jansen, A.M., Goosen, N., Wenzel, T.J. and van de Putte, P. Cloning of the gene encoding quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus: evidence for the presence of a second enzyme. J. Bacteriol. 170 (1988) 2121–2125. [DOI] [PMID: 2834325]
4.  Matsushita, K., Shinagawa, E., Adachi, O. and Ameyama, M. Quinoprotein D-glucose dehydrogenase of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus respiratory chain: membrane-bound and soluble forms are different molecular species. Biochemistry 28 (1989) 6276–6280. [PMID: 2551369]
5.  Oubrie, A. and Dijkstra, B.W. Structural requirements of pyrroloquinoline quinone dependent enzymatic reactions. Protein Sci. 9 (2000) 1265–1273. [DOI] [PMID: 10933491]
6.  Matsushita, K., Toyama, H., Ameyama, M., Adachi, O., Dewanti, A. and Duine, J.A. Soluble and membrane-bound quinoprotein D-glucose dehydrogenases of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus : the binding process of PQQ to the apoenzymes. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 59 (1995) 1548–1555.
[EC created 2010]
Accepted name: alcohol dehydrogenase (nicotinoprotein)
Reaction: ethanol + acceptor = acetaldehyde + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): NDMA-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase; nicotinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase; np-ADH; ethanol:N,N-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline oxidoreductase
Systematic name: ethanol:acceptor oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains Zn2+. Nicotinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases are unique medium-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (MDR) alcohol dehydrogenases that have a tightly bound NAD+/NADH cofactor that does not dissociate during the catalytic process. Instead, the cofactor is regenerated by a second substrate or electron carrier. While the in vivo electron acceptor is not known, N,N-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline (NDMA), which is reduced to 4-(hydroxylamino)-N,N-dimethylaniline, can serve this function in vitro. The enzyme from the Gram-positive bacterium Amycolatopsis methanolica can accept many primary alcohols as substrates, including benzylalcohol [1].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Van Ophem, P.W., Van Beeumen, J. and Duine, J.A. Nicotinoprotein [NAD(P)-containing] alcohol/aldehyde oxidoreductases. Purification and characterization of a novel type from Amycolatopsis methanolica. Eur. J. Biochem. 212 (1993) 819–826. [DOI] [PMID: 8385013]
2.  Piersma, S.R., Visser, A.J., de Vries, S. and Duine, J.A. Optical spectroscopy of nicotinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase from Amycolatopsis methanolica: a comparison with horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase and UDP-galactose epimerase. Biochemistry 37 (1998) 3068–3077. [DOI] [PMID: 9485460]
3.  Schenkels, P. and Duine, J.A. Nicotinoprotein (NADH-containing) alcohol dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis DSM 1069: an efficient catalyst for coenzyme-independent oxidation of a broad spectrum of alcohols and the interconversion of alcohols and aldehydes. Microbiology 146 (2000) 775–785. [DOI] [PMID: 10784035]
4.  Piersma, S.R., Norin, A., de Vries, S., Jornvall, H. and Duine, J.A. Inhibition of nicotinoprotein (NAD+-containing) alcohol dehydrogenase by trans-4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-cinnamaldehyde binding to the active site. J. Protein Chem. 22 (2003) 457–461. [PMID: 14690248]
5.  Norin, A., Piersma, S.R., Duine, J.A. and Jornvall, H. Nicotinoprotein (NAD+ -containing) alcohol dehydrogenase: structural relationships and functional interpretations. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 60 (2003) 999–1006. [DOI] [PMID: 12827287]
[EC created 2010]
Accepted name: methanol dehydrogenase (nicotinoprotein)
Reaction: methanol + acceptor = formaldehyde + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): NDMA-dependent methanol dehydrogenase; nicotinoprotein methanol dehydrogenase; methanol:N,N-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline oxidoreductase
Systematic name: methanol:acceptor oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains Zn2+ and Mg2+. Nicotinoprotein methanol dehydrogenases have a tightly bound NADP+/NADPH cofactor that does not dissociate during the catalytic process. Instead, the cofactor is regenerated by a second substrate or electron carrier. While the in vivo electron acceptor is not known, N,N-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline (NDMA), which is reduced to 4-(hydroxylamino)-N,N-dimethylaniline, can serve this function in vitro. The enzyme has been detected in several Gram-positive methylotrophic bacteria, including Amycolatopsis methanolica, Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Rhodococcus erythropolis [1-3]. These enzymes are decameric, and possess a 5-fold symmetry [4]. Some of the enzymes can also dismutate formaldehyde to methanol and formate [5].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Vonck, J., Arfman, N., De Vries, G.E., Van Beeumen, J., Van Bruggen, E.F. and Dijkhuizen, L. Electron microscopic analysis and biochemical characterization of a novel methanol dehydrogenase from the thermotolerant Bacillus sp. C1. J. Biol. Chem. 266 (1991) 3949–3954. [PMID: 1995642]
2.  Van Ophem, P.W., Van Beeumen, J. and Duine, J.A. Nicotinoprotein [NAD(P)-containing] alcohol/aldehyde oxidoreductases. Purification and characterization of a novel type from Amycolatopsis methanolica. Eur. J. Biochem. 212 (1993) 819–826. [DOI] [PMID: 8385013]
3.  Bystrykh, L.V., Vonck, J., van Bruggen, E.F., van Beeumen, J., Samyn, B., Govorukhina, N.I., Arfman, N., Duine, J.A. and Dijkhuizen, L. Electron microscopic analysis and structural characterization of novel NADP(H)-containing methanol: N,N′-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline oxidoreductases from the gram-positive methylotrophic bacteria Amycolatopsis methanolica and Mycobacterium gastri MB19. J. Bacteriol. 175 (1993) 1814–1822. [DOI] [PMID: 8449887]
4.  Hektor, H.J., Kloosterman, H. and Dijkhuizen, L. Identification of a magnesium-dependent NAD(P)(H)-binding domain in the nicotinoprotein methanol dehydrogenase from Bacillus methanolicus. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 46966–46973. [DOI] [PMID: 12351635]
5.  Park, H., Lee, H., Ro, Y.T. and Kim, Y.M. Identification and functional characterization of a gene for the methanol : N,N′-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline oxidoreductase from Mycobacterium sp. strain JC1 (DSM 3803). Microbiology 156 (2010) 463–471. [DOI] [PMID: 19875438]
[EC created 2010]
Accepted name: 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosamine dehydrogenase (AdoMet-dependent)
Reaction: 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosamine + S-adenosyl-L-methionine = 3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-scyllo-inosose + 5′-deoxyadenosine + L-methionine
For diagram of paromamine biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): btrN (gene name); 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosamine dehydrogenase (SAM-dependent)
Systematic name: 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosamine:S-adenosyl-L-methionine 1-oxidoreductase
Comments: Involved in the biosynthetic pathway of the aminoglycoside antibiotics of the butirosin family. The enzyme from Bacillus circulans was shown to be a radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) enzyme. cf. EC, 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosamine dehydrogenase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB
1.  Yokoyama, K., Numakura, M., Kudo, F., Ohmori, D. and Eguchi, T. Characterization and mechanistic study of a radical SAM dehydrogenase in the biosynthesis of butirosin. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 (2007) 15147–15155. [DOI] [PMID: 18001019]
2.  Yokoyama, K., Ohmori, D., Kudo, F. and Eguchi, T. Mechanistic study on the reaction of a radical SAM dehydrogenase BtrN by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Biochemistry 47 (2008) 8950–8960. [DOI] [PMID: 18672902]
[EC created 2012, modified 2013]
Accepted name: D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase
Reaction: (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate + acceptor = 2-oxoglutarate + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): D2HGDH (gene name)
Systematic name: (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate:acceptor 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains FAD. The enzyme has no activity with NAD+ or NADP+, and was assayed in vitro using artificial electron acceptors. It has lower activity with (R)-lactate, (R)-2-hydroxybutyrate and meso-tartrate, and no activity with the (S) isomers. The mammalian enzyme is stimulated by Zn2+, Co2+ and Mn2+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB
1.  Engqvist, M., Drincovich, M.F., Flugge, U.I. and Maurino, V.G. Two D-2-hydroxy-acid dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis thaliana with catalytic capacities to participate in the last reactions of the methylglyoxal and β-oxidation pathways. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 25026–25037. [DOI] [PMID: 19586914]
2.  Achouri, Y., Noel, G., Vertommen, D., Rider, M.H., Veiga-Da-Cunha, M. and Van Schaftingen, E. Identification of a dehydrogenase acting on D-2-hydroxyglutarate. Biochem. J. 381 (2004) 35–42. [DOI] [PMID: 15070399]
[EC created 2013]
Accepted name: (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate—pyruvate transhydrogenase
Reaction: (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate + pyruvate = 2-oxoglutarate + (R)-lactate
Other name(s): DLD3 (gene name)
Systematic name: (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate:pyruvate oxidoreductase [(R)-lactate-forming]
Comments: The enzyme, characterized in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also functions as EC, D-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome), and is active with oxaloacetate as electron acceptor forming (R)-malate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Becker-Kettern, J., Paczia, N., Conrotte, J.F., Kay, D.P., Guignard, C., Jung, P.P. and Linster, C.L. Saccharomyces cerevisiae forms D-2-hydroxyglutarate and couples its degradation to D-lactate formation via a cytosolic transhydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 291 (2016) 6036–6058. [DOI] [PMID: 26774271]
[EC created 2017]
Accepted name: 3-hydroxy-1,2-didehydro-2,3-dihydrotabersonine reductase
Reaction: (1) (3R)-3-hydroxy-16-methoxy-2,3-dihydrotabersonine + acceptor = (3R)-3-hydroxy-16-methoxy-1,2-didehydro-2,3-dihydrotabersonine + reduced acceptor
(2) (3R)-3-hydroxy-2,3-dihydrotabersonine + acceptor = (3R)-3-hydroxy-1,2-didehydro-2,3-dihydrotabersonine + reduced acceptor
For diagram of vindoline biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): T3R; tabersonine 3-reductase
Systematic name: (3R)-3-hydroxy-16-methoxy-2,3-dihydrotabersonine:acceptor oxidoreductase
Comments: This enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of vindoline and vindorosine in the plant Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle). In vivo, it functions in the direction of reduction. It has no activity with 3-epoxylated compounds, which can form spontaneously from its unstable substrates.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Qu, Y., Easson, M.L., Froese, J., Simionescu, R., Hudlicky, T. and De Luca, V. Completion of the seven-step pathway from tabersonine to the anticancer drug precursor vindoline and its assembly in yeast. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112 (2015) 6224–6229. [DOI] [PMID: 25918424]
[EC created 2017]
Accepted name: 4-pyridoxic acid dehydrogenase
Reaction: 4-pyridoxate + acceptor = 5-formyl-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridine-4-carboxylate + reduced acceptor
For diagram of pyridoxal catabolism, click here
Glossary: 4-pyridoxate = 3-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyridine-4-carboxylate
dichloroindophenol = DCPIP = 2,6-dichloro-4-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)imino]cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one
Other name(s): mlr6792 (locus name)
Systematic name: 4-pyridoxate:acceptor 5-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacteria Pseudomonas sp. MA-1 and Mesorhizobium loti, participates in the degradation of pyridoxine (vitamin B6). It is membrane bound and contains FAD. The enzyme has been assayed in vitro in the presence of the artificial electron acceptor dichloroindophenol (DCPIP).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Yagi, T., Kishore, G.M. and Snell, E.E. The bacterial oxidation of vitamin B6. 4-Pyridoxic acid dehydrogenase: a membrane-bound enzyme from Pseudomonas MA-1. J. Biol. Chem. 258 (1983) 9419–9425. [PMID: 6348042]
2.  Ge, F., Yokochi, N., Yoshikane, Y., Ohnishi, K. and Yagi, T. Gene identification and characterization of the pyridoxine degradative enzyme 4-pyridoxic acid dehydrogenase from the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacterium Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099. J. Biochem. 143 (2008) 603–609. [DOI] [PMID: 18216065]
[EC created 2018]

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