The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.1.5.1      
Deleted entry:  cellobiose dehydrogenase (quinone). Now known to be proteolytic product of EC 1.1.99.18, cellobiose dehydrogenase (acceptor)
[EC 1.1.5.1 created 1983, deleted 2002]
 
 
EC 1.1.5.2     
Accepted name: glucose 1-dehydrogenase (PQQ, quinone)
Reaction: D-glucose + ubiquinone = D-glucono-1,5-lactone + ubiquinol
Other name(s): quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase; membrane-bound glucose dehydrogenase; mGDH; glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-dependent); glucose dehydrogenase (pyrroloquinoline-quinone); quinoprotein D-glucose dehydrogenase
Systematic name: D-glucose:ubiquinone oxidoreductase
Comments: Integral membrane protein containing PQQ as prosthetic group. It also contains bound ubiquinone and Mg2+ or Ca2+. Electron acceptor is membrane ubiquinone but usually assayed with phenazine methosulfate. Like in all other quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases the catalytic domain has an 8-bladed propeller structure. It occurs in a wide range of bacteria. Catalyses a direct oxidation of the pyranose form of D-glucose to the lactone and thence to D-gluconate in the periplasm. Oxidizes other monosaccharides including the pyranose forms of pentoses.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 81669-60-5
References:
1.  Yamada, M., Sumi, K., Matsushita, K., Adachi, O. and Yamada, Y. Topological analysis of quinoprotein glucose-dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli and its ubiquinone-binding site. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 12812–12817. [PMID: 8509415]
2.  Dewanti, A.R. and Duine, J.A. Reconstitution of membrane-integrated quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase apoenzyme with PQQ and the holoenzyme's mechanism of action. Biochemistry 37 (1998) 6810–6818. [DOI] [PMID: 9578566]
3.  Duine, J.A., Frank, J. and Van Zeeland, J.K. Glucose dehydrogenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus: a 'quinoprotein'. FEBS Lett. 108 (1979) 443–446. [DOI] [PMID: 520586]
4.  Ameyama, M., Matsushita, K., Ohno, Y., Shinagawa, E. and Adachi, O. Existence of a novel prosthetic group, PQQ, in membrane-bound, electron transport chain-linked, primary dehydrogenases of oxidative bacteria. FEBS Lett. 130 (1981) 179–183. [DOI] [PMID: 6793395]
5.  Cozier, G.E. and Anthony, C. Structure of the quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli modelled on that of methanol dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium extorquens. Biochem. J. 312 (1995) 679–685. [PMID: 8554505]
6.  Cozier, G.E., Salleh, R.A. and Anthony, C. Characterization of the membrane quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli and characterization of a site-directed mutant in which histidine-262 has been changed to tyrosine. Biochem. J. 340 (1999) 639–647. [PMID: 10359647]
7.  Elias, M.D., Tanaka, M., Sakai, M., Toyama, H., Matsushita, K., Adachi, O. and Yamada, M. C-terminal periplasmic domain of Escherichia coli quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase transfers electrons to ubiquinone. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 48356–48361. [DOI] [PMID: 11604400]
8.  James, P.L. and Anthony, C. The metal ion in the active site of the membrane glucose dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1647 (2003) 200–205. [DOI] [PMID: 12686133]
9.  Elias, M.D., Nakamura, S., Migita, C.T., Miyoshi, H., Toyama, H., Matsushita, K., Adachi, O. and Yamada, M. Occurrence of a bound ubiquinone and its function in Escherichia coli membrane-bound quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 3078–3083. [DOI] [PMID: 14612441]
10.  Mustafa, G., Ishikawa, Y., Kobayashi, K., Migita, C.T., Elias, M.D., Nakamura, S., Tagawa, S. and Yamada, M. Amino acid residues interacting with both the bound quinone and coenzyme, pyrroloquinoline quinone, in Escherichia coli membrane-bound glucose dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 283 (2008) 22215–22221. [DOI] [PMID: 18550551]
[EC 1.1.5.2 created 1982 as EC 1.1.99.17, transferred 2003 to EC 1.1.5.2, modified 2010]
 
 
EC 1.1.5.3     
Accepted name: glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Reaction: sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + a quinone = glycerone phosphate + a quinol
Glossary: glycerone phosphate = dihydroxyacetone phosphate = 3-hydroxy-2-oxopropyl phosphate
Other name(s): α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase; α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (acceptor); anaerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; DL-glycerol 3-phosphate oxidase (misleading); FAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; FAD-dependent sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; FAD-GPDH; FAD-linked glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; FAD-linked L-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; flavin-linked glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; flavoprotein-linked L-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; glycerol 3-phosphate cytochrome c reductase (misleading); glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase; glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (acceptor); glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (FAD); glycerol-3-phosphate CoQ reductase; glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (flavin-linked); glycerol-3-phosphate:CoQ reductase; glycerophosphate dehydrogenase; L-3-glycerophosphate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase; L-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (ambiguous); L-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase; mGPD; mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase; NAD+-independent glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase; pyridine nucleotide-independent L-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; sn-glycerol 3-phosphate oxidase (misleading); sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; sn-glycerol-3-phosphate:(acceptor) 2-oxidoreductase; sn-glycerol-3-phosphate:acceptor 2-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: sn-glycerol 3-phosphate:quinone oxidoreductase
Comments: This flavin-dependent dehydrogenase is an essential membrane enzyme, functioning at the central junction of glycolysis, respiration and phospholipid biosynthesis. In bacteria, the enzyme is localized to the cytoplasmic membrane [6], while in eukaryotes it is tightly bound to the outer surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane [2]. In eukaryotes, this enzyme, together with the cytosolic enzyme EC 1.1.1.8, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+), forms the glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle by which NADH produced in the cytosol, primarily from glycolysis, can be reoxidized to NAD+ by the mitochondrial electron-transport chain [3]. This shuttle plays a critical role in transferring reducing equivalents from cytosolic NADH into the mitochondrial matrix [7,8]. Insect flight muscle uses only CoQ10 as the physiological quinone whereas hamster and rat mitochondria use mainly CoQ9 [4]. The enzyme is activated by calcium [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9001-49-4
References:
1.  Ringler, R.L. Studies on the mitochondrial α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. II. Extraction and partial purification of the dehydrogenase from pig brain. J. Biol. Chem. 236 (1961) 1192–1198. [PMID: 13741763]
2.  Schryvers, A., Lohmeier, E. and Weiner, J.H. Chemical and functional properties of the native and reconstituted forms of the membrane-bound, aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 253 (1978) 783–788. [PMID: 340460]
3.  MacDonald, M.J. and Brown, L.J. Calcium activation of mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase restudied. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 326 (1996) 79–84. [DOI] [PMID: 8579375]
4.  Rauchová, H., Fato, R., Drahota, Z. and Lenaz, G. Steady-state kinetics of reduction of coenzyme Q analogs by glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in brown adipose tissue mitochondria. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 344 (1997) 235–241. [DOI] [PMID: 9244403]
5.  Shen, W., Wei, Y., Dauk, M., Zheng, Z. and Zou, J. Identification of a mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Arabidopsis thaliana: evidence for a mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle in plants. FEBS Lett. 536 (2003) 92–96. [DOI] [PMID: 12586344]
6.  Walz, A.C., Demel, R.A., de Kruijff, B. and Mutzel, R. Aerobic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli binds to the cytoplasmic membrane through an amphipathic α-helix. Biochem. J. 365 (2002) 471–479. [DOI] [PMID: 11955283]
7.  Ansell, R., Granath, K., Hohmann, S., Thevelein, J.M. and Adler, L. The two isoenzymes for yeast NAD+-dependent glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoded by GPD1 and GPD2 have distinct roles in osmoadaptation and redox regulation. EMBO J. 16 (1997) 2179–2187. [DOI] [PMID: 9171333]
8.  Larsson, C., Påhlman, I.L., Ansell, R., Rigoulet, M., Adler, L. and Gustafsson, L. The importance of the glycerol 3-phosphate shuttle during aerobic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast 14 (1998) 347–357. [DOI] [PMID: 9559543]
[EC 1.1.5.3 created 1961 as EC 1.1.2.1, transferred 1965 to EC 1.1.99.5, transferred 2009 to EC 1.1.5.3]
 
 
EC 1.1.5.4     
Accepted name: malate dehydrogenase (quinone)
Reaction: (S)-malate + a quinone = oxaloacetate + reduced quinone
Other name(s): FAD-dependent malate-vitamin K reductase; malate-vitamin K reductase; (S)-malate:(acceptor) oxidoreductase; L-malate-quinone oxidoreductase; malate:quinone oxidoreductase; malate quinone oxidoreductase; MQO; malate:quinone reductase; malate dehydrogenase (acceptor); FAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase
Systematic name: (S)-malate:quinone oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). Vitamin K and several other quinones can act as acceptors. Different from EC 1.1.1.37 (malate dehydrogenase (NAD+)), EC 1.1.1.82 (malate dehydrogenase (NADP+)) and EC 1.1.1.299 (malate dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+]).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Imai, D. and Brodie, A.F. A phospholipid-requiring enzyme, malate-vitamin K reductase. J. Biol. Chem. 248 (1973) 7487–7494.
2.  Imai, T. FAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase, a phospholipid-requiring enzyme from Mycobacterium sp. strain Takeo. Purification and some properties. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 523 (1978) 37–46. [DOI] [PMID: 629992]
3.  Reddy, T.L.P., Suryanarayana, P.M. and Venkitasubramanian, T.A. Variations in the pathways of malate oxidation and phosphorylation in different species of Mycobacteria. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 376 (1975) 210–218. [DOI] [PMID: 234747]
4.  Molenaar, D., van der Rest, M.E. and Petrovic, S. Biochemical and genetic characterization of the membrane-associated malate dehydrogenase (acceptor) from Corynebacterium glutamicum. Eur. J. Biochem. 254 (1998) 395–403. [DOI] [PMID: 9660197]
5.  Kather, B., Stingl, K., van der Rest, M.E., Altendorf, K. and Molenaar, D. Another unusual type of citric acid cycle enzyme in Helicobacter pylori: the malate:quinone oxidoreductase. J. Bacteriol. 182 (2000) 3204–3209. [DOI] [PMID: 10809701]
[EC 1.1.5.4 created 1978 as EC 1.1.99.16, transferred 2009 to EC 1.1.5.4]
 
 
EC 1.1.5.5     
Accepted name: alcohol dehydrogenase (quinone)
Reaction: ethanol + ubiquinone = acetaldehyde + ubiquinol
Other name(s): type III ADH; membrane associated quinohaemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase
Systematic name: alcohol:quinone oxidoreductase
Comments: Only described in acetic acid bacteria where it is involved in acetic acid production. Associated with membrane. Electron acceptor is membrane ubiquinone. A model structure suggests that, like all other quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases, the catalytic subunit has an 8-bladed ‘propeller’ structure, a calcium ion bound to the PQQ in the active site and an unusual disulfide ring structure in close proximity to the PQQ; the catalytic subunit also has a heme c in the C-terminal domain. The enzyme has two additional subunits, one of which contains three molecules of heme c. It does not require amines for activation. It has a restricted substrate specificity, oxidizing a few primary alcohols (C2 to C6), but not methanol, secondary alcohols and some aldehydes. It is assayed with phenazine methosulfate or with ferricyanide.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Gomez-Manzo, S., Contreras-Zentella, M., Gonzalez-Valdez, A., Sosa-Torres, M., Arreguin-Espinoza, R. and Escamilla-Marvan, E. The PQQ-alcohol dehydrogenase of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 125 (2008) 71–78. [DOI] [PMID: 18321602]
2.  Shinagawa, E., Toyama, H., Matsushita, K., Tuitemwong, P., Theeragool, G. and Adachi, O. A novel type of formaldehyde-oxidizing enzyme from the membrane of Acetobacter sp. SKU 14. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 70 (2006) 850–857. [DOI] [PMID: 16636451]
3.  Chinnawirotpisan, P., Theeragool, G., Limtong, S., Toyama, H., Adachi, O.O. and Matsushita, K. Quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase is involved in catabolic acetate production, while NAD-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase in ethanol assimilation in Acetobacter pasteurianus SKU1108. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 96 (2003) 564–571. [DOI] [PMID: 16233574]
4.  Frebortova, J., Matsushita, K., Arata, H. and Adachi, O. Intramolecular electron transport in quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase of Acetobacter methanolicus: a redox-titration stud. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1363 (1998) 24–34. [DOI] [PMID: 9526036]
5.  Matsushita, K., Kobayashi, Y., Mizuguchi, M., Toyama, H., Adachi, O., Sakamoto, K. and Miyoshi, H. A tightly bound quinone functions in the ubiquinone reaction sites of quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase of an acetic acid bacterium, Gluconobacter suboxydans. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 72 (2008) 2723–2731. [DOI] [PMID: 18838797]
6.  Matsushita, K., Yakushi, T., Toyama, H., Shinagawa, E. and Adachi, O. Function of multiple heme c moieties in intramolecular electron transport and ubiquinone reduction in the quinohemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase-cytochrome c complex of Gluconobacter suboxydans. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 4850–4857. [DOI] [PMID: 8617755]
7.  Matsushita, K., Takaki, Y., Shinagawa, E., Ameyama, M. and Adachi, O. Ethanol oxidase respiratory chain of acetic acid bacteria. Reactivity with ubiquinone of pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases purified from Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter suboxydans. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 56 (1992) 304–310.
8.  Matsushita, K., Toyama, H. and Adachi, O. Respiratory chains and bioenergetics of acetic acid bacteria. Adv. Microb. Physiol. 36 (1994) 247–301. [PMID: 7942316]
9.  Cozier, G.E., Giles, I.G. and Anthony, C. The structure of the quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase of Acetobacter aceti modelled on that of methanol dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium extorquens. Biochem. J. 308 (1995) 375–379. [PMID: 7772016]
[EC 1.1.5.5 created 2009, modified 2010]
 
 
EC 1.1.5.6      
Transferred entry: formate dehydrogenase-N. Now EC 1.17.5.3, formate dehydrogenase-N
[EC 1.1.5.6 created 2010, deleted 2017]
 
 
EC 1.1.5.7     
Accepted name: cyclic alcohol dehydrogenase (quinone)
Reaction: a cyclic alcohol + a quinone = a cyclic ketone + a quinol
Other name(s): cyclic alcohol dehydrogenase; MCAD
Systematic name: cyclic alcohol:quinone oxidoreductase
Comments: This enzyme oxidizes a wide variety of cyclic alcohols. Some minor enzyme activity is found with aliphatic secondary alcohols and sugar alcohols, but not primary alcohols. The enzyme is unable to catalyse the reverse reaction of cyclic ketones or aldehydes to cyclic alcohols. This enzyme differs from EC 1.1.5.5, alcohol dehydrogenase (quinone), which shows activity with ethanol [1].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Moonmangmee, D., Fujii, Y., Toyama, H., Theeragool, G., Lotong, N., Matsushita, K. and Adachi, O. Purification and characterization of membrane-bound quinoprotein cyclic alcohol dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter frateurii CHM 9. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 65 (2001) 2763–2772. [PMID: 11826975]
[EC 1.1.5.7 created 2010]
 
 
EC 1.1.5.8     
Accepted name: quinate/shikimate dehydrogenase (quinone)
Reaction: quinate + quinone = 3-dehydroquinate + quinol
For diagram of shikimate and chorismate biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: quinate = (1R,3R,4R,5R)-1,3,4,5-tetrahydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid and is a cyclitol carboxylate
The numbering system used for the 3-dehydroquinate is that of the recommendations on cyclitols, sections I-8 and I-9: and is shown in the reaction diagram. The use of the term '5-dehydroquinate' for this compound is based on an earlier system of numbering.
Other name(s): NAD(P)+-independent quinate dehydrogenase; quinate:pyrroloquinoline-quinone 5-oxidoreductase; quinate dehydrogenase (quinone)
Systematic name: quinate:quinol 3-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme is membrane-bound. Does not use NAD(P)+ as acceptor. Contains pyrroloquinoline-quinone. cf. EC 1.1.1.24, quinate/shikimate dehydrogenase (NAD+), EC 1.1.1.282, quinate/shikimate dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+], and EC 1.1.1.25, shikimate dehydrogenase (NADP+).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 115299-99-5
References:
1.  van Kleef, M.A.G. and Duine, J.A. Bacterial NAD(P)-independent quinate dehydrogenase is a quinoprotein. Arch. Microbiol. 150 (1988) 32–36. [PMID: 3044290]
2.  Adachi, O., Tanasupawat, S., Yoshihara, N., Toyama, H. and Matsushita, K. 3-Dehydroquinate production by oxidative fermentation and further conversion of 3-dehydroquinate to the intermediates in the shikimate pathway. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 67 (2003) 2124–2131. [DOI] [PMID: 14586099]
3.  Vangnai, A.S., Toyama, H., De-Eknamkul, W., Yoshihara, N., Adachi, O. and Matsushita, K. Quinate oxidation in Gluconobacter oxydans IFO3244: purification and characterization of quinoprotein quinate dehydrogenase. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 241 (2004) 157–162. [DOI] [PMID: 15598527]
[EC 1.1.5.8 created 1992 as EC 1.1.99.25, modified 2004, transferred 2010 to EC 1.1.5.8, modified 2021]
 
 
EC 1.1.5.9     
Accepted name: glucose 1-dehydrogenase (FAD, quinone)
Reaction: D-glucose + a quinone = D-glucono-1,5-lactone + a quinol
Other name(s): glucose dehydrogenase (Aspergillus); FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase; D-glucose:(acceptor) 1-oxidoreductase; glucose dehydrogenase (acceptor); gdh (gene name)
Systematic name: D-glucose:quinone 1-oxidoreductase
Comments: A glycoprotein containing one mole of FAD per mole of enzyme. 2,6-Dichloroindophenol can act as acceptor. cf. EC 1.1.5.2, glucose 1-dehydrogenase (PQQ, quinone).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37250-84-3
References:
1.  Bak, T.-G. Studies on glucose dehydrogenase of Aspergillus oryzae. II. Purification and physical and chemical properties. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 139 (1967) 277–293. [DOI] [PMID: 6034674]
2.  Cavener, D.R. and MacIntyre, R.J. Biphasic expression and function of glucose dehydrogenase in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80 (1983) 6286–6288. [DOI] [PMID: 6413974]
3.  Lovallo, N. and Cox-Foster, D.L. Alteration in FAD-glucose dehydrogenase activity and hemocyte behavior contribute to initial disruption of Manduca sexta immune response to Cotesia congregata parasitoids. J. Insect Physiol. 45 (1999) 1037–1048. [DOI] [PMID: 12770264]
4.  Inose, K., Fujikawa, M., Yamazaki, T., Kojima, K. and Sode, K. Cloning and expression of the gene encoding catalytic subunit of thermostable glucose dehydrogenase from Burkholderia cepacia in Escherichia coli. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1645 (2003) 133–138. [DOI] [PMID: 12573242]
5.  Sygmund, C., Klausberger, M., Felice, A.K. and Ludwig, R. Reduction of quinones and phenoxy radicals by extracellular glucose dehydrogenase from Glomerella cingulata suggests a role in plant pathogenicity. Microbiology 157 (2011) 3203–3212. [DOI] [PMID: 21903757]
6.  Sygmund, C., Staudigl, P., Klausberger, M., Pinotsis, N., Djinovic-Carugo, K., Gorton, L., Haltrich, D. and Ludwig, R. Heterologous overexpression of Glomerella cingulata FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris. Microb. Cell Fact. 10:106 (2011). [DOI] [PMID: 22151971]
[EC 1.1.5.9 created 1972 as EC 1.1.99.10, modified 1976, transferred 2013 to EC 1.1.5.9]
 
 
EC 1.1.5.10     
Accepted name: D-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase (quinone)
Reaction: (R)-2-hydroxyacid + a quinone = 2-oxoacid + a quinol
Other name(s): (R)-2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase; (R)-2-hydroxy-acid:(acceptor) 2-oxidoreductase; D-lactate dehydrogenase (ambiguous)
Systematic name: (R)-2-hydroxyacid:quinone oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme from mammalian kidney contains one mole of FAD per mole of enzyme.(R)-lactate, (R)-malate and meso-tartrate are good substrates. Ubiquinone-1 and the dye 2,6-dichloroindophenol can act as acceptors; NAD+ and NADP+ are not acceptors.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Tubbs, P.K. and Greville, G.D. Dehydrogenation of D-lactate by a soluble enzyme from kidney mitochondria. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 34 (1959) 290–291. [DOI] [PMID: 13839714]
2.  Tubbs, P.K. and Greville, G.D. The oxidation of D-α-hydroxy acids in animal tissues. Biochem. J. 81 (1961) 104–114. [PMID: 13922962]
3.  Cammack, R. Assay, purification and properties of mammalian D-2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase. Biochem. J. 115 (1969) 55–64. [PMID: 5359443]
4.  Cammack, R. D-2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase from animal tissue. Methods Enzymol. 41 (1975) 323–329. [DOI] [PMID: 236454]
[EC 1.1.5.10 created 2014]
 
 
EC 1.1.5.11     
Accepted name: 1-butanol dehydrogenase (quinone)
Reaction: butan-1-ol + a quinone = butanal + a quinol
Other name(s): BOH
Systematic name: butan-1-ol:quinone oxidoreductase
Comments: This periplasmic quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase, characterized from the bacterium Thauera butanivorans, is involved in butane degradation. It contains a pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) prosthetic group. cf. EC 1.1.2.9, 1-butanol dehydrogenase (cytochrome c).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Vangnai, A.S., Arp, D.J. and Sayavedra-Soto, L.A. Two distinct alcohol dehydrogenases participate in butane metabolism by Pseudomonas butanovora. J. Bacteriol. 184 (2002) 1916–1924. [DOI] [PMID: 11889098]
2.  Vangnai, A.S., Sayavedra-Soto, L.A. and Arp, D.J. Roles for the two 1-butanol dehydrogenases of Pseudomonas butanovora in butane and 1-butanol metabolism. J. Bacteriol. 184 (2002) 4343–4350. [DOI] [PMID: 12142403]
[EC 1.1.5.11 created 2016]
 
 
EC 1.1.5.12     
Accepted name: D-lactate dehydrogenase (quinone)
Reaction: (R)-lactate + a quinone = pyruvate + a quinol
Other name(s): dld (gene name)
Systematic name: (R)-lactate:quinone 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme is an FAD-dependent peripheral membrane dehydrogenase that participates in respiration. Electrons derived from D-lactate oxidation are transferred to the membrane soluble quinone pool.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Kohn, L.D. and Kaback, H.R. Mechanisms of active transport in isolated bacterial membrane vesicles. XV. Purification and properties of the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 248 (1973) 7012–7017. [PMID: 4582730]
2.  Futai, M. Membrane D-lactate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Purification and properties. Biochemistry 12 (1973) 2468–2474. [PMID: 4575624]
3.  Matsushita, K. and Kaback, H.R. D-Lactate oxidation and generation of the proton electrochemical gradient in membrane vesicles from Escherichia coli GR19N and in proteoliposomes reconstituted with purified D-lactate dehydrogenase and cytochrome o oxidase. Biochemistry 25 (1986) 2321–2327. [PMID: 3013300]
4.  Peersen, O.B., Pratt, E.A., Truong, H.T., Ho, C. and Rule, G.S. Site-specific incorporation of 5-fluorotryptophan as a probe of the structure and function of the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli: a 19F nuclear magnetic resonance study. Biochemistry 29 (1990) 3256–3262. [PMID: 2185834]
5.  Dym, O., Pratt, E.A., Ho, C. and Eisenberg, D. The crystal structure of D-lactate dehydrogenase, a peripheral membrane respiratory enzyme. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97 (2000) 9413–9418. [DOI] [PMID: 10944213]
[EC 1.1.5.12 created 2017]
 
 
EC 1.1.5.13     
Accepted name: (S)-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase
Reaction: (S)-2-hydroxyglutarate + a quinone = 2-oxoglutarate + a quinol
Other name(s): L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase; lhgO (gene name); ygaF (gene name)
Systematic name: (S)-2-hydroxyglutarate:quinone oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Escherichia coli, contains an FAD cofactor that is not covalently attached. It is bound to the cytoplasmic membrane and is coupled to the membrane quinone pool.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Kalliri, E., Mulrooney, S.B. and Hausinger, R.P. Identification of Escherichia coli YgaF as an L-2-hydroxyglutarate oxidase. J. Bacteriol. 190 (2008) 3793–3798. [PMID: 18390652]
2.  Knorr, S., Sinn, M., Galetskiy, D., Williams, R.M., Wang, C., Muller, N., Mayans, O., Schleheck, D. and Hartig, J.S. Widespread bacterial lysine degradation proceeding via glutarate and L-2-hydroxyglutarate. Nat. Commun. 9:5071 (2018). [PMID: 30498244]
[EC 1.1.5.13 created 2019]
 
 
EC 1.1.5.14     
Accepted name: fructose 5-dehydrogenase
Reaction: D-fructose + a ubiquinone = 5-dehydro-D-fructose + a ubiquinol
Other name(s): fructose 5-dehydrogenase (acceptor); D-fructose dehydrogenase; D-fructose:(acceptor) 5-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: D-fructose:ubiquinone 5-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Gluconobacter japonicus, is a heterotrimer composed of an FAD-containing large subunit, a small subunit, and a heme c-containing subunit, which is responsible for anchoring the complex to the cytoplasmic membrane and for transferring the electrons to ubiquinone.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37250-85-4
References:
1.  Yamada, Y., Aida, K. and Uemura, T. Enzymatic studies on the oxidation of sugar and sugar alcohol. I. Purification and properties of particle-bound fructose dehydrogenase. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 61 (1967) 636–646. [PMID: 6059959]
2.  Ameyama, M. and Adachi, O. D-Fructose dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter industrius, membrane-bound. Methods Enzymol. 89 (1982) 154–159.
3.  Nakashima, K., Takei, H., Adachi, O., Shinagawa, E. and Ameyama, M. Determination of seminal fructose using D-fructose dehydrogenase. Clin. Chim. Acta 151 (1985) 307–310. [DOI] [PMID: 4053391]
4.  Kawai, S., Goda-Tsutsumi, M., Yakushi, T., Kano, K. and Matsushita, K. Heterologous overexpression and characterization of a flavoprotein-cytochrome c complex fructose dehydrogenase of Gluconobacter japonicus NBRC3260. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79 (2013) 1654–1660. [DOI] [PMID: 23275508]
[EC 1.1.5.14 created 1972 as EC 1.1.99.11, transferred 2021 to EC 1.1.5.14]
 
 


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