Accepted name: methylglyoxal reductase (NADPH)
Reaction: (S)-lactaldehyde + NADP+ = 2-oxopropanal + NADPH + H+
Glossary: 2-oxopropanal = methylglyoxal
Other name(s): lactaldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+); GRE2 (gene name); methylglyoxal reductase (NADPH-dependent); lactaldehyde:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Systematic name: (S)-lactaldehyde:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalyses the reduction of a keto group in a number of compounds, forming enantiopure products. Among the substrates are methylglyoxal (which is reduced to (S)-lactaldehyde) [1,2], 3-methylbutanal [3], hexane-2,5-dione [4] and 3-chloro-1-phenylpropan-1-one [5]. The enzyme differs from EC, methylglyoxal reductase (NADH), which is found in mammals, by its coenzyme requirement, reaction direction, and enantiomeric preference.
1.  Murata, K., Fukuda, Y., Simosaka, M., Watanabe, K., Saikusa, T. and Kimura, A. Metabolism of 2-oxoaldehyde in yeasts. Purification and characterization of NADPH-dependent methylglyoxal-reducing enzyme from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eur. J. Biochem. 151 (1985) 631–636. [PMID: 3896793]
2.  Chen, C.N., Porubleva, L., Shearer, G., Svrakic, M., Holden, L.G., Dover, J.L., Johnston, M., Chitnis, P.R. and Kohl, D.H. Associating protein activities with their genes: rapid identification of a gene encoding a methylglyoxal reductase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast 20 (2003) 545–554. [PMID: 12722185]
3.  Hauser, M., Horn, P., Tournu, H., Hauser, N.C., Hoheisel, J.D., Brown, A.J. and Dickinson, J.R. A transcriptome analysis of isoamyl alcohol-induced filamentation in yeast reveals a novel role for Gre2p as isovaleraldehyde reductase. FEMS Yeast Res. 7 (2007) 84–92. [PMID: 16999827]
4.  Muller, M., Katzberg, M., Bertau, M. and Hummel, W. Highly efficient and stereoselective biosynthesis of (2S,5S)-hexanediol with a dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Org. Biomol. Chem. 8 (2010) 1540–1550. [PMID: 20237665]
5.  Choi, Y.H., Choi, H.J., Kim, D., Uhm, K.N. and Kim, H.K. Asymmetric synthesis of (S)-3-chloro-1-phenyl-1-propanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae reductase with high enantioselectivity. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 87 (2010) 185–193. [PMID: 20111861]
6.  Breicha, K., Muller, M., Hummel, W. and Niefind, K. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Gre2p, an NADP+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 66 (2010) 838–841. [PMID: 20606287]
[EC created 2005, modified 2013]

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