The Enzyme Database

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EC 4.1.2.47     
Accepted name: (S)-hydroxynitrile lyase
Reaction: (1) an aliphatic (S)-hydroxynitrile = cyanide + an aliphatic aldehyde or ketone
(2) an aromatic (S)-hydroxynitrile = cyanide + an aromatic aldehyde
Other name(s): (S)-cyanohydrin producing hydroxynitrile lyase; (S)-oxynitrilase; (S)-HbHNL; (S)-MeHNL; hydroxynitrile lyase; oxynitrilase; HbHNL; MeHNL; (S)-selective hydroxynitrile lyase; (S)-cyanohydrin carbonyl-lyase (cyanide forming)
Systematic name: (S)-cyanohydrin lyase (cyanide forming)
Comments: Hydroxynitrile lyases catalyses the the cleavage of hydroxynitriles into cyanide and the corresponding aldehyde or ketone. In nature the liberation of cyanide serves as a defense mechanism against herbivores and microbial attack in plants. In vitro the enzymes from Manihot esculenta and Hevea brasiliensis accept a broad range of aliphatic and aromatic carbonyl compounds as substrates and catalyse the formation of (S)-hydroxynitriles [1,10].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Förster, S., Roos, J., Effenberger, F., Wajant, H. and Sprauer, A. The first recombinant hydroxynitrile lyase and its application in the synthesis of (S)-cyanohydrins. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 35 (1996) 437–439.
2.  Bühler, H., Effenberger, F., Förster, S., Roos, J. and Wajant, H. Substrate specificity of mutants of the hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta. Chembiochem. 4 (2003) 211–216. [PMID: 12616635]
3.  Semba, H., Dobashi, Y. and Matsui, T. Expression of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta in yeast and its application in (S)-mandelonitrile production using an immobilized enzyme reactor. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 72 (2008) 1457–1463. [PMID: 18540112]
4.  Avi, M., Wiedner, R.M., Griengl, H. and Schwab, H. Improvement of a stereoselective biocatalytic synthesis by substrate and enzyme engineering: 2-hydroxy-(4′-oxocyclohexyl)acetonitrile as the model. Chemistry 14 (2008) 11415–11422. [PMID: 19006143]
5.  von Langermann, J., Guterl, J.K., Pohl, M., Wajant, H. and Kragl, U. Hydroxynitrile lyase catalyzed cyanohydrin synthesis at high pH-values. Bioprocess Biosyst. Eng. 31 (2008) 155–161. [PMID: 18204865]
6.  Schmidt, A., Gruber, K., Kratky, C. and Lamzin, V.S. Atomic resolution crystal structures and quantum chemistry meet to reveal subtleties of hydroxynitrile lyase catalysis. J. Biol. Chem. 283 (2008) 21827–21836. [PMID: 18524775]
7.  Gartler, G., Kratky, C. and Gruber, K. Structural determinants of the enantioselectivity of the hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis. J. Biotechnol. 129 (2007) 87–97. [PMID: 17250917]
8.  Wagner, U.G., Schall, M., Hasslacher, M., Hayn, M., Griengl, H., Schwab, H. and Kratky, C. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 52 (1996) 591–593. [PMID: 15299689]
9.  Schmidt, M., Herve, S., Klempier, N. and Griengl, H. Preparation of optically active cyanohydrins using the (S)-hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis. Tetrahedron 52 (1996) 7833–7840.
10.  Klempier, N. and Griengl, H. Aliphatic (S)-cyanohydrins by enzyme catalyzed synthesis. Tetrahedron Lett. 34 (1993) 4769–4772.
[EC 4.1.2.47 created 2011]
 
 


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