The Enzyme Database

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EC 2.5.1.17     
Accepted name: corrinoid adenosyltransferase
Reaction: (1) 2 ATP + 2 cob(II)alamin + a reduced flavoprotein = 2 triphosphate + 2 adenosylcob(III)alamin + an oxidized flavoprotein (overall reaction)
(1a) 2 cob(II)alamin + 2 [corrinoid adenosyltransferase] = 2 [corrinoid adenosyltransferase]-cob(II)alamin
(1b) a reduced flavoprotein + 2 [corrinoid adenosyltransferase]-cob(II)alamin = an oxidized flavoprotein + 2 [corrinoid adenosyltransferase]-cob(I)alamin (spontaneous)
(1c) 2 ATP + 2 [corrinoid adenosyltransferase]-cob(I)alamin = 2 triphosphate + 2 adenosylcob(III)alamin + 2 [corrinoid adenosyltransferase]
(2) 2 ATP + 2 cob(II)yrinic acid a,c-diamide + a reduced flavoprotein = 2 triphosphate + 2 adenosylcob(III)yrinic acid a,c-diamide + an oxidized flavoprotein (overall reaction)
(2a) 2 cob(II)yrinic acid a,c-diamide + 2 [corrinoid adenosyltransferase] = 2 [corrinoid adenosyltransferase]-cob(II)yrinic acid a,c-diamide
(2b) a reduced flavoprotein + 2 [corrinoid adenosyltransferase]-cob(II)yrinic acid a,c-diamide = an oxidized flavoprotein + 2 [corrinoid adenosyltransferase]-cob(I)yrinic acid a,c-diamide (spontaneous)
(2c) 2 ATP + 2 [corrinoid adenosyltransferase]-cob(I)yrinic acid a,c-diamide = 2 triphosphate + 2 adenosylcob(III)yrinic acid a,c-diamide + 2 [corrinoid adenosyltransferase]
For diagram of corrin biosynthesis (part 5), click here and for diagram of the cobinamide salvage pathways, click here
Other name(s): MMAB (gene name); cobA (gene name); cobO (gene name); pduO (gene name); ATP:corrinoid adenosyltransferase; cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase; aquacob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase; aquocob(I)alamin vitamin B12s adenosyltransferase; ATP:cob(I)alamin Coβ-adenosyltransferase; ATP:cob(I)yrinic acid-a,c-diamide Coβ-adenosyltransferase; cob(I)yrinic acid a,c-diamide adenosyltransferase
Systematic name: ATP:cob(II)alamin Coβ-adenosyltransferase
Comments: The corrinoid adenosylation pathway comprises three steps: (i) reduction of Co(III) within the corrinoid to Co(II) by a one-electron transfer. This can occur non-enzymically in the presence of dihydroflavin nucleotides or reduced flavoproteins [3]. (ii) Co(II) is bound by corrinoid adenosyltransferase, resulting in displacement of the lower axial ligand by an aromatic residue. The reduction potential of the 4-coordinate Co(II) intermediate is raised by ~250 mV compared with the free compound, bringing it to within physiological range. This is followed by a second single-electron transfer from either free dihydroflavins or the reduced flavin cofactor of flavoproteins, resulting in reduction to Co(I) [7]. (iii) the Co(I) conducts a nucleophilic attack on the adenosyl moiety of ATP, resulting in transfer of the deoxyadenosyl group and oxidation of the cobalt atom to Co(III) state. Three types of corrinoid adenosyltransferases, not related by sequence, have been described. In the anaerobic bacterium Salmonella enterica they are encoded by the cobA gene (a housekeeping enzyme involved in both the de novo biosynthesis and the salvage of adenosylcobalamin), the pduO gene (involved in (S)-propane-1,2-diol utilization), and the eutT gene (involved in ethanolamine utilization). Since EutT hydrolyses triphosphate to diphosphate and phosphate during catalysis, it is classified as a separate enzyme. The mammalian enzyme belongs to the PduO type. The enzyme can act on other corrinoids, such as cob(II)inamide.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37277-84-2
References:
1.  Vitols, E., Walker, G.A. and Huennekens, F.M. Enzymatic conversion of vitamin B12s to a cobamide coenzyme, α-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl)deoxyadenosylcobamide (adenosyl-B12). J. Biol. Chem. 241 (1966) 1455–1461. [PMID: 5946606]
2.  Bauer, C.B., Fonseca, M.V., Holden, H.M., Thoden, J.B., Thompson, T.B., Escalante-Semerena, J.C. and Rayment, I. Three-dimensional structure of ATP:corrinoid adenosyltransferase from Salmonella typhimurium in its free state, complexed with MgATP, or complexed with hydroxycobalamin and MgATP. Biochemistry 40 (2001) 361–374. [DOI] [PMID: 11148030]
3.  Fonseca, M.V. and Escalante-Semerena, J.C. Reduction of Cob(III)alamin to Cob(II)alamin in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium LT2. J. Bacteriol. 182 (2000) 4304–4309. [PMID: 10894741]
4.  Fonseca, M.V. and Escalante-Semerena, J.C. An in vitro reducing system for the enzymic conversion of cobalamin to adenosylcobalamin. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 32101–32108. [DOI] [PMID: 11408479]
5.  Suh, S. and Escalante-Semerena, J.C. Purification and initial characterization of the ATP:corrinoid adenosyltransferase encoded by the cobA gene of Salmonella typhimurium. J. Bacteriol. 177 (1995) 921–925. [DOI] [PMID: 7860601]
6.  Mera, P.E., St Maurice, M., Rayment, I. and Escalante-Semerena, J.C. Residue Phe112 of the human-type corrinoid adenosyltransferase (PduO) enzyme of Lactobacillus reuteri is critical to the formation of the four-coordinate Co(II) corrinoid substrate and to the activity of the enzyme. Biochemistry 48 (2009) 3138–3145. [PMID: 19236001]
7.  Mera, P.E. and Escalante-Semerena, J.C. Dihydroflavin-driven adenosylation of 4-coordinate Co(II) corrinoids: are cobalamin reductases enzymes or electron transfer proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 285 (2010) 2911–2917. [PMID: 19933577]
[EC 2.5.1.17 created 1972, modified 2004, modified 2018]
 
 


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