The Enzyme Database

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EC 2.4.1.29     
Accepted name: cellulose synthase (GDP-forming)
Reaction: GDP-α-D-glucose + [(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl]n = GDP + [(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl]n+1
Other name(s): cellulose synthase (guanosine diphosphate-forming); cellulose synthetase; guanosine diphosphoglucose-1,4-β-glucan glucosyltransferase; guanosine diphosphoglucose-cellulose glucosyltransferase; GDP-glucose:1,4-β-D-glucan 4-β-D-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: GDP-α-D-glucose:(1→4)-β-D-glucan 4-β-D-glucosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: Involved in the synthesis of cellulose. A similar enzyme [EC 2.4.1.12, cellulose synthase (UDP-forming)] utilizes UDP-α-D-glucose.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9027-18-3
References:
1.  Chambers, J.C. and Elbein, A.D. Biosynthesis of glucans in mung bean seedlings. Formation of β-(1,4)-glucans from GDP-glucose and β-(1,3)-glucans from UDP-glucose. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 138 (1970) 620–631. [DOI] [PMID: 4317490]
2.  Flowers, H.M., Batra, K.K., Kemp, J. and Hassid, W.Z. Biosynthesis of cellulose in vitro from guanosine diphosphate D-glucose with enzymic preparations from Phaseolus aureus and Lupinus albus. J. Biol. Chem. 244 (1969) 4969. [PMID: 5824571]
[EC 2.4.1.29 created 1965]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.290     
Accepted name: N,N′-diacetylbacillosaminyl-diphospho-undecaprenol α-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine + N,N′-diacetyl-α-D-bacillosaminyl-diphospho-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol = UDP + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-α-(1→3)-N,N′-diacetyl-α-D-bacillosaminyl-diphospho-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol
For diagram of undecaprenyldiphosphoheptasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: N,N′-diacetyl-D-bacillosamine = 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): PglA
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:N,N′-diacetyl-α-D-bacillosaminyl-diphospho-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol 3-α-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from Campylobacter jejuni. Part of a bacterial N-linked glycosylation pathway.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Glover, K.J., Weerapana, E. and Imperiali, B. In vitro assembly of the undecaprenylpyrophosphate-linked heptasaccharide for prokaryotic N-linked glycosylation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102 (2005) 14255–14259. [DOI] [PMID: 16186480]
[EC 2.4.1.290 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.291     
Accepted name: N-acetylgalactosamine-N,N′-diacetylbacillosaminyl-diphospho-undecaprenol 4-α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-α-(1→3)-N,N′-diacetyl-α-D-bacillosaminyl-diphospho-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol = UDP + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-α-(1→4)-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-α-(1→3)-N,N′-diacetyl-α-D-bacillosaminyl-diphospho-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol
For diagram of undecaprenyldiphosphoheptasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: N,N′-diacetyl-D-bacillosamine = 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): PglJ
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:N-acetylgalactosaminyl-α-(1→3)-N,N′-diacetyl-α-D-bacillosaminyl-diphospho-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol 3-α-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from Campylobacter jejuni. Part of a bacterial N-linked glycosylation pathway.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Glover, K.J., Weerapana, E. and Imperiali, B. In vitro assembly of the undecaprenylpyrophosphate-linked heptasaccharide for prokaryotic N-linked glycosylation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102 (2005) 14255–14259. [DOI] [PMID: 16186480]
2.  Chen, M.M., Weerapana, E., Ciepichal, E., Stupak, J., Reid, C.W., Swiezewska, E. and Imperiali, B. Polyisoprenol specificity in the Campylobacter jejuni N-linked glycosylation pathway. Biochemistry 46 (2007) 14342–14348. [DOI] [PMID: 18034500]
[EC 2.4.1.291 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.292     
Accepted name: GalNAc-α-(1→4)-GalNAc-α-(1→3)-diNAcBac-PP-undecaprenol α-1,4-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase
Reaction: 3 UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine + GalNAc-α-(1→4)-GalNAc-α-(1→3)-diNAcBac-PP-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol = 3 UDP + [GalNAc-α-(1→4)]4-GalNAc-α-(1→3)-diNAcBac-PP-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol
For diagram of undecaprenyldiphosphoheptasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: diNAcBac = N,N′-diacetyl-D-bacillosamine = 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): PglH
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:GalNAc-α-(1→4)-GalNAc-α-(1→3)-diNAcBac-PP-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol 4-α-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from Campylobacter jejuni. Part of a bacterial N-linked glycosylation pathway.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Glover, K.J., Weerapana, E. and Imperiali, B. In vitro assembly of the undecaprenylpyrophosphate-linked heptasaccharide for prokaryotic N-linked glycosylation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102 (2005) 14255–14259. [DOI] [PMID: 16186480]
2.  Troutman, J.M. and Imperiali, B. Campylobacter jejuni PglH is a single active site processive polymerase that utilizes product inhibition to limit sequential glycosyl transfer reactions. Biochemistry 48 (2009) 2807–2816. [DOI] [PMID: 19159314]
3.  Borud, B., Viburiene, R., Hartley, M.D., Paulsen, B.S., Egge-Jacobsen, W., Imperiali, B. and Koomey, M. Genetic and molecular analyses reveal an evolutionary trajectory for glycan synthesis in a bacterial protein glycosylation system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108 (2011) 9643–9648. [DOI] [PMID: 21606362]
[EC 2.4.1.292 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.293     
Accepted name: GalNAc5-diNAcBac-PP-undecaprenol β-1,3-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + [GalNAc-α-(1→4)]4-GalNAc-α-(1→3)-diNAcBac-diphospho-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol = UDP + [GalNAc-α-(1→4)]2-[Glc-β-(1→3)]-[GalNAc-α-(1→4)]2-GalNAc-α-(1→3)-diNAcBac-diphospho-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol
For diagram of undecaprenyldiphosphoheptasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: diNAcBac = N,N′-diacetyl-D-bacillosamine = 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): PglI
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:[GalNAc-α-(1→4)]4-GalNAc-α-(1→3)-diNAcBac-diphospho-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol 3-β-D-glucosyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. Part of a bacterial N-linked glycosylation pathway.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Glover, K.J., Weerapana, E. and Imperiali, B. In vitro assembly of the undecaprenylpyrophosphate-linked heptasaccharide for prokaryotic N-linked glycosylation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102 (2005) 14255–14259. [DOI] [PMID: 16186480]
2.  Kelly, J., Jarrell, H., Millar, L., Tessier, L., Fiori, L.M., Lau, P.C., Allan, B. and Szymanski, C.M. Biosynthesis of the N-linked glycan in Campylobacter jejuni and addition onto protein through block transfer. J. Bacteriol. 188 (2006) 2427–2434. [DOI] [PMID: 16547029]
[EC 2.4.1.293 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.294     
Accepted name: cyanidin 3-O-galactosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-galactose + cyanidin = UDP + cyanidin 3-O-β-D-galactoside
For diagram of cyanidin galactoside biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: cyanidin = 3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavylium
Other name(s): UDP-galactose:cyanidin galactosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-galactose:cyanidin 3-O-galactosyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from the plant Daucus carota (Afghan cultivar carrot).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Rose, A., Glassgen, W.E., Hopp, W. and Seitz, H.U. Purification and characterization of glycosyltransferases involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in cell-suspension cultures of Daucus carota L. Planta 198 (1996) 397–403. [PMID: 8717136]
[EC 2.4.1.294 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.295     
Accepted name: anthocyanin 3-O-sambubioside 5-O-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + an anthocyanidin 3-O-β-D-sambubioside = UDP + an anthocyanidin 5-O-β-D-glucoside 3-O-β-D-sambubioside
For diagram of anthocyanidin sambubioside biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: anthocyanidin 3-O-β-D-sambubioside = anthocyanidin 3-O-(β-D-xylosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucoside)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:anthocyanidin-3-O-β-D-sambubioside 5-O-glucosyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from the plant Matthiola incana (stock). No activity with anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosides.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Teusch, M., Forkmann, G. and Seyffert, W. Genetic control of UDP-glucose: anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase from flowers of Matthiola incana R.Br. Planta 168 (1986) 586–591. [PMID: 24232337]
[EC 2.4.1.295 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.296     
Accepted name: anthocyanidin 3-O-coumaroylrutinoside 5-O-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + an anthocyanidin 3-O-[2-O-(4-coumaroyl)-α-L-rhamnosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucoside] = UDP + an anthocyanidin 3-O-[2-O-(4-coumaroyl)-α-L-rhamnosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucoside] 5-O-β-D-glucoside
For diagram of anthocyanidin rutoside biosynthesis, click here
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:anthocyanidin-3-O-[3-O-(4-coumaroyl)-α-L-rhamnosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucoside] 5-O-β-D-glucosyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from the plant Petunia hybrida. It does not act on an anthocyanidin 3-O-rutinoside
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Jonsson, L.M.V., Aarsman, M.E.G., van Diepen, J., de Vlaming, P., Smit, N. and Schram, A.W. Properties and genetic control of anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase in flowers of Petunia hybrida. Planta 160 (1984) 341–347. [PMID: 24258583]
[EC 2.4.1.296 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.297     
Accepted name: anthocyanidin 3-O-glucoside 2′′-O-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + an anthocyanidin 3-O-β-D-glucoside = UDP + an anthocyanidin 3-O-sophoroside
For diagram of anthocyanidin glycoside biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: anthocyanidin 3-O-sophoroside = anthocyanidin 3-O-(β-D-glucosyl(1→2)-β-D-glucoside)
Other name(s): 3GGT
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:anthocyanidin-3-O-glucoside 2′′-O-glucosyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from Ipomoea nil (Japanese morning glory).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Morita, Y., Hoshino, A., Kikuchi, Y., Okuhara, H., Ono, E., Tanaka, Y., Fukui, Y., Saito, N., Nitasaka, E., Noguchi, H. and Iida, S. Japanese morning glory dusky mutants displaying reddish-brown or purplish-gray flowers are deficient in a novel glycosylation enzyme for anthocyanin biosynthesis, UDP-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-O-glucoside-2′′-O-glucosyltransferase, due to 4-bp insertions in the gene. Plant J. 42 (2005) 353–363. [DOI] [PMID: 15842621]
[EC 2.4.1.297 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.298     
Accepted name: anthocyanidin 3-O-glucoside 5-O-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + an anthocyanidin 3-O-β-D-glucoside = UDP + an anthocyanidin 3,5-di-O-β-D-glucoside
For diagram of anthocyanidin glucoside biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): UDP-glucose:anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:anthocyanidin-3-O-β-D-glucoside 5-O-glucosyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from the plants Perilla frutescens var. crispa, Verbena hybrida [1], Dahlia variabilis [2] and Gentiana triflora (clustered gentian) [3]. It will also act on anthocyanidin 3-O-(6-O-malonylglucoside) [2] and is much less active with hydroxycinnamoylglucose derivatives [3]. There is no activity in the absence of the 3-O-glucoside group.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Yamazaki, M., Gong, Z., Fukuchi-Mizutani, M., Fukui, Y., Tanaka, Y., Kusumi, T. and Saito, K. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of a novel anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase by mRNA differential display for plant forms regarding anthocyanin. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 7405–7411. [DOI] [PMID: 10066805]
2.  Ogata, J., Sakamoto, T., Yamaguchi, M., Kawanobu, S., Yoshitama, K. Isolation and characterization of anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase from flowers of Dahlia variabilis. J. Plant Physiol. 158 (2001) 709–714.
3.  Nakatsuka, T., Sato, K., Takahashi, H., Yamamura, S. and Nishihara, M. Cloning and characterization of the UDP-glucose:anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase gene from blue-flowered gentian. J. Exp. Bot. 59 (2008) 1241–1252. [DOI] [PMID: 18375606]
[EC 2.4.1.298 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.299     
Accepted name: cyanidin 3-O-glucoside 5-O-glucosyltransferase (acyl-glucose)
Reaction: 1-O-sinapoyl-β-D-glucose + cyanidin 3-O-β-D-glucoside = sinapate + cyanidin 3,5-di-O-β-D-glucoside
For diagram of anthocyanidin glucoside biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: sinapate = 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamate
cyanidin = 3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavylium
Other name(s): AA5GT
Systematic name: 1-O-sinapoyl-β-D-glucose:cyanidin-3-O-β-D-glucoside 5-O-β-D-glucosyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from the plant Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation). Also acts on other anthocyanidins and with other acyl-glucose donors. cf. EC 2.4.1.298, anthocyanidin 3-O-glucoside 5-O-glucosyltransferase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Matsuba, Y., Sasaki, N., Tera, M., Okamura, M., Abe, Y., Okamoto, E., Nakamura, H., Funabashi, H., Takatsu, M., Saito, M., Matsuoka, H., Nagasawa, K. and Ozeki, Y. A novel glucosylation reaction on anthocyanins catalyzed by acyl-glucose-dependent glucosyltransferase in the petals of carnation and delphinium. Plant Cell 22 (2010) 3374–3389. [DOI] [PMID: 20971893]
2.  Nishizaki, Y., Matsuba, Y., Okamoto, E., Okamura, M., Ozeki, Y. and Sasaki, N. Structure of the acyl-glucose-dependent anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase gene in carnations and its disruption by transposable elements in some varieties. Mol. Genet. Genomics 286 (2011) 383–394. [DOI] [PMID: 22048706]
[EC 2.4.1.299 created 2013]
 
 


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