The Enzyme Database

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EC 2.3.1.21     
Accepted name: carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase
Reaction: palmitoyl-CoA + L-carnitine = CoA + L-palmitoylcarnitine
Other name(s): CPT; CPTo; outer malonyl-CoA inhibitable carnitine palmitoyltransferase; CPTi; CPT I (outer membrane carnitine palmitoyl transferase); carnitine palmitoyltransferase I; carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; CPT-A; CPT-B; acylcarnitine transferase; carnitine palmitoyltransferase; carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A; L-carnitine palmitoyltransferase; palmitoylcarnitine transferase
Systematic name: palmitoyl-CoA:L-carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase
Comments: Broad specificity to acyl group, over the range C8 to C18; optimal activity with palmitoyl-CoA. cf. EC 2.3.1.7 carnitine O-acetyltransferase and EC 2.3.1.137 carnitine O-octanoyltransferase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9068-41-1
References:
1.  Derrick, J.P., Tubbs, P.K. and Ramsay, R.R. Purification and properties of an easily solubilized L-carnitine palmitoyltransferase from beef-liver mitochondria. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 14 (1986) 698.
2.  Healy, M.J., Kerner, J. and Bieber, L.L. Enzymes of carnitine acylation. Is overt carnitine palmitoyltransferase of liver peroxisomal carnitine octanoyltransferase? Biochem. J. 249 (1988) 231–237. [PMID: 3342008]
3.  Miyazawa, S., Ozasa, H., Osumi, T. and Hashimoto, T. Purification and properties of carnitine octanoyltransferase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase from rat liver. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 94 (1983) 529–542. [PMID: 6630173]
[EC 2.3.1.21 created 1972]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.210     
Accepted name: dTDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-D-galactose acyltransferase
Reaction: acetyl-CoA + dTDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-α-D-galactose = CoA + dTDP-4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-α-D-galactose
For diagram of dTDP-Fuc3NAc and dTDP-Fuc4NAc biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: dTDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-α-D-galactose = dTDP-α-D-fucosamine
Other name(s): TDP-fucosamine acetyltransferase; WecD; RffC
Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:dTDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-α-D-galactose N-acetyltransferase
Comments: The product, TDP-4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-D-galactose, is utilized in the biosynthesis of enterobacterial common antigen (ECA).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Hung, M.N., Rangarajan, E., Munger, C., Nadeau, G., Sulea, T. and Matte, A. Crystal structure of TDP-fucosamine acetyltransferase (WecD) from Escherichia coli, an enzyme required for enterobacterial common antigen synthesis. J. Bacteriol. 188 (2006) 5606–5617. [DOI] [PMID: 16855251]
[EC 2.3.1.210 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.211     
Accepted name: bisdemethoxycurcumin synthase
Reaction: 2 4-coumaroyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + H2O = 3 CoA + bisdemethoxycurcumin + 2 CO2
For diagram of curcumin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: bisdemethoxycurcumin = (1E,6E)-5-hydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
Other name(s): CUS; curcuminoid synthase (ambiguous)
Systematic name: 4-coumaroyl-CoA:malonyl-CoA 4-coumaryltransferase (bisdemethoxycurcumin-forming)
Comments: A polyketide synthase characterized from the plant Oryza sativa (rice) that catalyses the formation of the C6-C7-C6 diarylheptanoid scaffold of bisdemethoxycurcumin. Unlike the process in the plant Curcuma longa (turmeric), where the conversion is carried out via a diketide intermediate by two different enzymes (EC 2.3.1.218, phenylpropanoylacetyl-CoA synthase and EC 2.3.1.217, curcumin synthase), the diketide intermediate formed by this enzyme remains within the enzyme’s cavity and is not released to the environment.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Morita, H., Wanibuchi, K., Nii, H., Kato, R., Sugio, S. and Abe, I. Structural basis for the one-pot formation of the diarylheptanoid scaffold by curcuminoid synthase from Oryza sativa. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107 (2010) 19778–19783. [DOI] [PMID: 21041675]
[EC 2.3.1.211 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.212     
Accepted name: benzalacetone synthase
Reaction: 4-coumaroyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + H2O = 2 CoA + 4-hydroxybenzalacetone + 2 CO2
For diagram of benzalacetone biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 4-hydroxybenzalacetone = 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)but-3-en-2-one
Other name(s): BAS
Systematic name: 4-coumaroyl-CoA:malonyl-CoA 4-coumaryltransferase (4-hydroxybenzalacetone-forming)
Comments: A polyketide synthase that catalyses the C6-C4 skeleton of phenylbutanoids in higher plants.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Borejsza-Wysocki, W. and Hrazdina, G. Aromatic polyketide synthases (purification, characterization, and antibody development to benzalacetone synthase from raspberry fruits). Plant Physiol. 110 (1996) 791–799. [PMID: 12226219]
2.  Abe, I., Takahashi, Y., Morita, H. and Noguchi, H. Benzalacetone synthase. A novel polyketide synthase that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of phenylbutanones in Rheum palmatum. Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (2001) 3354–3359. [DOI] [PMID: 11389739]
3.  Zheng, D. and Hrazdina, G. Molecular and biochemical characterization of benzalacetone synthase and chalcone synthase genes and their proteins from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.). Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 470 (2008) 139–145. [DOI] [PMID: 18068110]
4.  Morita, H., Shimokawa, Y., Tanio, M., Kato, R., Noguchi, H., Sugio, S., Kohno, T. and Abe, I. A structure-based mechanism for benzalacetone synthase from Rheum palmatum. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107 (2010) 669–673. [DOI] [PMID: 20080733]
[EC 2.3.1.212 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.213     
Accepted name: cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-glucosyl-2-O-xylosylgalactoside) 6′′′-O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase
Reaction: 1-O-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-β-D-glucose + cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-β-D-glucosyl-2-O-β-D-xylosyl-β-D-galactoside) = β-D-glucose + cyanidin 3-O-[6-O-(6-O-4-hydroxycinnamoyl-β-D-glucosyl)-2-O-β-D-xylosyl-β-D-galactoside]
For diagram of cyanidin galactoside biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 1-O-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-β-D-glucose = 1-O-(4-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucose
cyanidin = 3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavylium
Other name(s): 1-O-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-β-D-glucose:cyanidin 3-O-(2"-O-xylosyl-6"-O-glucosylgalactoside) 6′′′-O-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase
Systematic name: 1-O-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-β-D-glucose:cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-β-D-glucosyl-2-O-β-D-xylosyl-β-D-galactoside) 6′′′-O-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase
Comments: Isolated from the plant Daucus carota (Afghan cultivar carrot). In addition to 1-O-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-β-D-glucose, the enzyme can use the 1-O-sinapoyl- and 1-O-feruloyl- derivatives of β-D-glucose.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Gläßgen, W.E. and Seitz, H.U. Acylation of anthocyanins with hydroxycinnamic acids via 1-O-acylglucosides by protein preparations from cell cultures of Daucus carota L. Planta 186 (1992) 582–585. [PMID: 24186789]
[EC 2.3.1.213 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.214     
Accepted name: pelargonidin 3-O-(6-caffeoylglucoside) 5-O-(6-O-malonylglucoside) 4′′′-malonyltransferase
Reaction: malonyl-CoA + 4′′′-demalonylsalvianin = CoA + salvianin
For diagram of salvianin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: salvianin = pelargonidin 3-O-(6-caffeoyl-β-D-glucoside) 5-O-(4,6-di-O-malonyl-β-D-glucoside)
4′′′-demalonylsalvianin = pelargonidin 3-O-(6-caffeoyl-β-D-glucoside) 5-O-(6-O-malonyl-β-D-glucoside)
Other name(s): malonyl-CoA:anthocyanin 5-glucoside 4′′′-O-malonyltransferase; Ss5MaT2
Systematic name: malonyl-CoA:4′′′-demalonylsalvianin 4′′′-O-malonyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from the plant Salvia splendens (scarlet sage).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Suzuki, H., Sawada, S., Watanabe, K., Nagae, S., Yamaguchi, M.A., Nakayama, T. and Nishino, T. Identification and characterization of a novel anthocyanin malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers: an enzyme that is phylogenetically separated from other anthocyanin acyltransferases. Plant J. 38 (2004) 994–1003. [DOI] [PMID: 15165190]
[EC 2.3.1.214 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.215     
Accepted name: anthocyanidin 3-O-glucoside 6′′-O-acyltransferase
Reaction: 4-hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA + an anthocyanidin 3-O-β-D-glucoside = CoA + an anthocyanidin 3-O-[6-O-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-β-D-glucoside]
For diagram of anthocyanidin acylglucoside biosynthesis, click here and for diagram of salvianin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 4-hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA = 4-coumaroyl-CoA
3,4-dihydroxycinnamoyl-CoA = caffeoyl-CoA
cyanidin = 3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavylium
delphinidin = 3,3′,4′,5,5′,7-hexahydroxyflavylium
Systematic name: 4-hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:anthocyanin-3-O-glucoside 6′′-O-acyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from the plants Perilla frutescens and Gentiana triflora (clustered gentian). Acts on a range of anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosides, 3,5-di-O-glucosides and cyanidin 3-rutinoside. It did not act on delphinidin 3,3′,7-tri-O-glucoside. Recombinant Perilla frutescens enzyme could utilize caffeoyl-CoA but not malonyl-CoA as alternative acyl donor.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Fujiwara, H., Tanaka, Y., Fukui, Y., Ashikari, T., Yamaguchi, M. and Kusumi, T. Purification and characterization of anthocyanin 3-aromatic acyltransferase from Perilla frutescens. Plant Sci. 137 (1998) 87–94.
2.  Yonekura-Sakakibara, K., Tanaka, Y., Fukuchi-Mizutani, M., Fujiwara, H., Fukui, Y., Ashikari, T., Murakami, Y., Yamaguchi, M. and Kusumi, T. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a novel hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: anthocyanin 3-O-glucoside-6"-O-acyltransferase from Perilla frutescens. Plant Cell Physiol 41 (2000) 495–502. [DOI] [PMID: 10845463]
[EC 2.3.1.215 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.216     
Accepted name: 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchromone synthase
Reaction: 5 malonyl-CoA = 5 CoA + 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one + 5 CO2 + H2O
For diagram of polyketides biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): pentaketide chromone synthase
Systematic name: malonyl-CoA:malonyl-CoA malonyltransferase (5,7-dihydroxy-2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one-forming)
Comments: A polyketide synthase from the plant Aloe arborescens (aloe).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Abe, I., Utsumi, Y., Oguro, S., Morita, H., Sano, Y. and Noguchi, H. A plant type III polyketide synthase that produces pentaketide chromone. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 (2005) 1362–1363. [DOI] [PMID: 15686354]
[EC 2.3.1.216 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.217     
Accepted name: curcumin synthase
Reaction: feruloyl-CoA + feruloylacetyl-CoA + H2O = 2 CoA + curcumin + CO2
For diagram of curcumin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: curcumin = (1E,6E)-5-hydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
feruloylacetyl-CoA = feruloyl-diketide-CoA
Other name(s): CURS; CURS1 (gene name); CURS2 (gene name); CURS3 (gene name)
Systematic name: feruloyl-CoA:feruloylacetyl-CoA feruloyltransferase (curcumin-forming)
Comments: A polyketide synthase from the plant Curcuma longa (turmeric). Three isoforms exist, CURS1, CURS2 and CURS3. While CURS1 and CURS2 prefer feruloyl-CoA as a starter substrate, CURS3 can accept 4-coumaroyl-CoA equally well [2] (see EC 2.3.1.219, demethoxycurcumin synthase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Katsuyama, Y., Kita, T., Funa, N. and Horinouchi, S. Curcuminoid biosynthesis by two type III polyketide synthases in the herb Curcuma longa. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 11160–11170. [DOI] [PMID: 19258320]
2.  Katsuyama, Y., Kita, T. and Horinouchi, S. Identification and characterization of multiple curcumin synthases from the herb Curcuma longa. FEBS Lett. 583 (2009) 2799–2803. [DOI] [PMID: 19622354]
3.  Katsuyama, Y., Miyazono, K., Tanokura, M., Ohnishi, Y. and Horinouchi, S. Structural and biochemical elucidation of mechanism for decarboxylative condensation of β-keto acid by curcumin synthase. J. Biol. Chem. 286 (2011) 6659–6668. [DOI] [PMID: 21148316]
[EC 2.3.1.217 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.218     
Accepted name: phenylpropanoylacetyl-CoA synthase
Reaction: (1) feruloyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA = feruloylacetyl-CoA + CO2 + CoA
(2) 4-coumaroyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA = (4-coumaroyl)acetyl-CoA + CO2 + CoA
For diagram of curcumin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: feruloylacetyl-CoA = feruloyl-diketide-CoA
(4-coumaroyl)acetyl-CoA = 4-coumaroyl-diketide-CoA
phenylpropanoylacetyl-CoA = phenylpropanoyl-diketide-CoA
Other name(s): phenylpropanoyl-diketide-CoA synthase; DCS
Systematic name: phenylpropanoyl-CoA:malonyl-CoA phenylpropanoyl-transferase (decarboxylating)
Comments: The enzyme has been characterized from the plant Curcuma longa (turmeric). It prefers feruloyl-CoA, and has no activity with cinnamoyl-CoA.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Katsuyama, Y., Kita, T., Funa, N. and Horinouchi, S. Curcuminoid biosynthesis by two type III polyketide synthases in the herb Curcuma longa. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 11160–11170. [DOI] [PMID: 19258320]
[EC 2.3.1.218 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.219     
Accepted name: demethoxycurcumin synthase
Reaction: (1) 4-coumaroyl-CoA + feruloylacetyl-CoA + H2O = 2 CoA + demethoxycurcumin + CO2
(2) 4-coumaroyl-CoA + (4-coumaroyl)acetyl-CoA + H2O = 2 CoA + bisdemethoxycurcumin + CO2
For diagram of curcumin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: demethoxycurcumin = (1E,6E)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
bisdemethoxycurcumin = (1E,6E)-5-hydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
feruloylacetyl-CoA = feruloyl-diketide-CoA
(4-coumaroyl)acetyl-CoA = 4-coumaroyl-diketide-CoA
Other name(s): CURS3
Systematic name: 4-coumaroyl-CoA:feruloylacetyl-CoA feruloyltransferase (demethoxycurcumin-forming)
Comments: A polyketide synthase from the plant Curcuma longa (turmeric). Three isoforms exist, CURS1, CURS2 and CURS3. While CURS1 and CURS2 prefer feruloyl-CoA as a starter substrate (cf. EC 2.3.1.217, curcumin synthase), CURS3 can accept 4-coumaroyl-CoA equally well [1].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Katsuyama, Y., Kita, T. and Horinouchi, S. Identification and characterization of multiple curcumin synthases from the herb Curcuma longa. FEBS Lett. 583 (2009) 2799–2803. [DOI] [PMID: 19622354]
[EC 2.3.1.219 created 2013]
 
 


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