The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: caffeine synthase
Reaction: (1) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 3,7-dimethylxanthine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine
(2) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 1,7-dimethylxanthine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine
(3) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 7-methylxanthine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 3,7-dimethylxanthine
For diagram of caffeine biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: theobromine = 3,7-dimethylxanthine
paraxanthine = 1,7-dimethylxanthine
caffeine = 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine
Other name(s): dimethylxanthine methyltransferase; 3N-methyltransferase; DXMT; CCS1; S-adenosyl-L-methionine:3,7-dimethylxanthine 1-N-methyltransferase
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:3,7-dimethylxanthine N1-methyltransferase
Comments: Paraxanthine is the best substrate for this enzyme but the paraxanthine pathway is considered to be a minor pathway for caffeine biosynthesis [2,3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Kato, M., Mizuno, K., Fujimura, T., Iwama, M., Irie, M., Crozier, A. and Ashihara, H. Purification and characterization of caffeine synthase from tea leaves. Plant Physiol. 120 (1999) 579–586. [PMID: 10364410]
2.  Mizuno, K., Okuda, A., Kato, M., Yoneyama, N., Tanaka, H., Ashihara, H. and Fujimura, T. Isolation of a new dual-functional caffeine synthase gene encoding an enzyme for the conversion of 7-methylxanthine to caffeine from coffee (Coffea arabica L.). FEBS Lett. 534 (2003) 75–81. [PMID: 12527364]
3.  Uefuji, H., Ogita, S., Yamaguchi, Y., Koizumi, N. and Sano, H. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of three distinct N-methyltransferases involved in the caffeine biosynthetic pathway in coffee plants. Plant Physiol. 132 (2003) 372–380. [PMID: 12746542]
4.  Kato, M., Mizuno, K., Crozier, A., Fujimura, T. and Ashihara, H. Caffeine synthase gene from tea leaves. Nature 406 (2000) 956–957. [PMID: 10984041]
[EC created 2007]

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