The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: thymidylate synthase (FAD)
Reaction: 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate + dUMP + NADPH + H+ = dTMP + tetrahydrofolate + NADP+
For diagram of C1 metabolism, click here
Other name(s): Thy1; ThyX
Systematic name: 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate,FADH2:dUMP C-methyltransferase
Comments: Contains FAD. All thymidylate synthases catalyse a reductive methylation involving the transfer of the methylene group of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to the C5 position of dUMP and a two electron reduction of the methylene group to a methyl group. Unlike the classical thymidylate synthase, ThyA (EC, which uses folate as both a 1-carbon donor and a source of reducing equivalents, this enzyme uses a flavin coenzyme as a source of reducing equivalents, which are derived from NADPH.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 850167-13-4
1.  Myllykallio, H., Lipowski, G., Leduc, D., Filee, J., Forterre, P. and Liebl, U. An alternative flavin-dependent mechanism for thymidylate synthesis. Science 297 (2002) 105–107. [PMID: 12029065]
2.  Griffin, J., Roshick, C., Iliffe-Lee, E. and McClarty, G. Catalytic mechanism of Chlamydia trachomatis flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 5456–5467. [PMID: 15591067]
3.  Graziani, S., Bernauer, J., Skouloubris, S., Graille, M., Zhou, C.Z., Marchand, C., Decottignies, P., van Tilbeurgh, H., Myllykallio, H. and Liebl, U. Catalytic mechanism and structure of viral flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase ThyX. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 24048–24057. [PMID: 16707489]
4.  Koehn, E.M., Fleischmann, T., Conrad, J.A., Palfey, B.A., Lesley, S.A., Mathews, I.I. and Kohen, A. An unusual mechanism of thymidylate biosynthesis in organisms containing the thyX gene. Nature 458 (2009) 919–923. [PMID: 19370033]
5.  Koehn, E.M. and Kohen, A. Flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase: a novel pathway towards thymine. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 493 (2010) 96–102. [PMID: 19643076]
6.  Mishanina, T.V., Yu, L., Karunaratne, K., Mondal, D., Corcoran, J.M., Choi, M.A. and Kohen, A. An unprecedented mechanism of nucleotide methylation in organisms containing thyX. Science 351 (2016) 507–510. [PMID: 26823429]
[EC created 2003, modified 2010]

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