The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.2.7.1     
Accepted name: pyruvate synthase
Reaction: pyruvate + CoA + 2 oxidized ferredoxin = acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 reduced ferredoxin + 2 H+
For diagram of the 3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanoate cycle and dicarboxylate/4-hydroxybutanoate cycle in archaea, click here
Other name(s): pyruvate oxidoreductase; pyruvate synthetase; pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase; pyruvic-ferredoxin oxidoreductase; 2-oxobutyrate synthase; α-ketobutyrate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase; 2-ketobutyrate synthase; α-ketobutyrate synthase; 2-oxobutyrate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase; 2-oxobutanoate:ferredoxin 2-oxidoreductase (CoA-propionylating); 2-oxobutanoate:ferredoxin 2-oxidoreductase (CoA-propanoylating)
Systematic name: pyruvate:ferredoxin 2-oxidoreductase (CoA-acetylating)
Comments: Contains thiamine diphosphate and [4Fe-4S] clusters. The enzyme also decarboxylates 2-oxobutyrate with lower efficiency, but shows no activity with 2-oxoglutarate. This enzyme is a member of the 2-oxoacid oxidoreductases, a family of enzymes that oxidatively decarboxylate different 2-oxoacids to form their CoA derivatives, and are differentiated based on their substrate specificity. For examples of other members of this family, see EC 1.2.7.3, 2-oxoglutarate synthase and EC 1.2.7.7, 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (ferredoxin).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9082-51-3
References:
1.  Evans, M.C.W. and Buchanan, B.B. Photoreduction of ferredoxin and its use in carbon dioxide fixation by a subcellular system from a photosynthetic bacterium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 53 (1965) 1420–1425. [DOI] [PMID: 5217644]
2.  Gehring, U. and Arnon, D.I. Purification and properties of α-ketoglutarate synthase from a photosynthetic bacterium. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 6963–6969. [PMID: 4628267]
3.  Uyeda, K. and Rabinowitz, J.C. Pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase. 3. Purification and properties of the enzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 246 (1971) 3111–3119. [PMID: 5574389]
4.  Uyeda, K. and Rabinowitz, J.C. Pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase. IV. Studies on the reaction mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. 246 (1971) 3120–3125. [PMID: 4324891]
5.  Charon, M.-H., Volbeda, A., Chabriere, E., Pieulle, L. and Fontecilla-Camps, J.C. Structure and electron transfer mechanism of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 9 (1999) 663–669. [DOI] [PMID: 10607667]
[EC 1.2.7.1 created 1972, modified 2003, modified 2013]
 
 
EC 1.2.7.10     
Accepted name: oxalate oxidoreductase
Reaction: oxalate + oxidized ferredoxin = 2 CO2 + reduced ferredoxin
Systematic name: oxalate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains thiamine diphosphate and [4Fe-4S] clusters. Acceptors include ferredoxin and the nickel-dependent carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.7.4)
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Daniel, S.L., Pilsl, C. and Drake, H.L. Oxalate metabolism by the acetogenic bacterium Moorella thermoacetica. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 231 (2004) 39–43. [DOI] [PMID: 14769464]
2.  Pierce, E., Becker, D.F. and Ragsdale, S.W. Identification and characterization of oxalate oxidoreductase, a novel thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent 2-oxoacid oxidoreductase that enables anaerobic growth on oxalate. J. Biol. Chem. 285 (2010) 40515–40524. [DOI] [PMID: 20956531]
[EC 1.2.7.10 created 2011]
 
 
EC 1.2.7.11     
Accepted name: 2-oxoacid oxidoreductase (ferredoxin)
Reaction: a 2-oxocarboxylate + CoA + 2 oxidized ferredoxin = an acyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 reduced ferredoxin + 2 H+
Other name(s): OFOR
Systematic name: 2-oxocarboxylate:ferredoxin 2-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating, CoA-acylating)
Comments: Contains thiamine diphosphate and [4Fe-4S] clusters [2]. This enzyme is a member of the 2-oxoacid oxidoreductases, a family of enzymes that oxidatively decarboxylate different 2-oxoacids to form their CoA derivatives, and are differentiated based on their substrate specificity. For example, see EC 1.2.7.3, 2-oxoglutarate synthase and EC 1.2.7.7, 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (ferredoxin).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Kerscher, L. and Oesterhelt, D. Purification and properties of two 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases from Halobacterium halobium. Eur. J. Biochem. 116 (1981) 587–594. [DOI] [PMID: 6266826]
2.  Zhang, Q., Iwasaki, T., Wakagi, T. and Oshima, T. 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase from the thermoacidophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus sp. strain 7. J. Biochem. 120 (1996) 587–599. [PMID: 8902625]
3.  Fukuda, E., Kino, H., Matsuzawa, H. and Wakagi, T. Role of a highly conserved YPITP motif in 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase: heterologous expression of the gene from Sulfolobus sp.strain 7, and characterization of the recombinant and variant enzymes. Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (2001) 5639–5646. [DOI] [PMID: 11683888]
4.  Fukuda, E. and Wakagi, T. Substrate recognition by 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Sulfolobus sp. strain 7. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1597 (2002) 74–80. [DOI] [PMID: 12009405]
5.  Nishizawa, Y., Yabuki, T., Fukuda, E. and Wakagi, T. Gene expression and characterization of two 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases from Aeropyrum pernix K1. FEBS Lett. 579 (2005) 2319–2322. [DOI] [PMID: 15848165]
6.  Park, Y.J., Yoo, C.B., Choi, S.Y. and Lee, H.B. Purifications and characterizations of a ferredoxin and its related 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus solfataricus P1. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 39 (2006) 46–54. [PMID: 16466637]
[EC 1.2.7.11 created 2013]
 
 
EC 1.2.7.12     
Accepted name: formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase
Reaction: a formylmethanofuran + H2O + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster = CO2 + a methanofuran + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+
For diagram of methane biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: methanofuran a = 4-[4-(2-{[(4R*,5S*)-4,5,7-tricarboxyheptanoyl]-γ-L-glutamyl-γ-L-glutamylamino}ethyl)phenoxymethyl]furan-2-ylmethanamine
Other name(s): formylmethanofuran:acceptor oxidoreductase
Systematic name: formylmethanofuran:ferredoxin oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains a molybdopterin cofactor. In some organisms an additional subunit enables the incorporation of tungsten when molybdenum availability is low. The enzyme catalyses a reversible reaction in methanogenic archaea, and is involved in methanogenesis from CO2 as well as the oxidation of coenzyme M to CO2. The reaction is endergonic, and is driven by coupling with the soluble CoB-CoM heterodisulfide reductase via electron bifurcation.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 119940-12-4
References:
1.  Karrasch, M., Börner, G., Enssle, M. and Thauer, R.K. The molybdoenzyme formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase from Methanosarcina barkeri contains a pterin cofactor. Eur. J. Biochem. 194 (1990) 367–372. [DOI] [PMID: 2125267]
2.  Bertram, P.A., Schmitz, R.A., Linder, D. and Thauer, R.K. Tungstate can substitute for molybdate in sustaining growth of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Identification and characterization of a tungsten isoenzyme of formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase. Arch. Microbiol. 161 (1994) 220–228. [PMID: 8161283]
3.  Bertram, P.A., Karrasch, M., Schmitz, R.A., Bocher, R., Albracht, S.P. and Thauer, R.K. Formylmethanofuran dehydrogenases from methanogenic Archaea. Substrate specificity, EPR properties and reversible inactivation by cyanide of the molybdenum or tungsten iron-sulfur proteins. Eur. J. Biochem. 220 (1994) 477–484. [DOI] [PMID: 8125106]
4.  Vorholt, J.A. and Thauer, R.K. The active species of ’CO2’ utilized by formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase from methanogenic Archaea. Eur. J. Biochem. 248 (1997) 919–924. [DOI] [PMID: 9342247]
5.  Meuer, J., Kuettner, H.C., Zhang, J.K., Hedderich, R. and Metcalf, W.W. Genetic analysis of the archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro reveals a central role for Ech hydrogenase and ferredoxin in methanogenesis and carbon fixation. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99 (2002) 5632–5637. [DOI] [PMID: 11929975]
6.  Kaster, A.K., Moll, J., Parey, K. and Thauer, R.K. Coupling of ferredoxin and heterodisulfide reduction via electron bifurcation in hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108 (2011) 2981–2986. [DOI] [PMID: 21262829]
[EC 1.2.7.12 created 1992 as EC 1.2.99.5, transferred 2017 to EC 1.2.7.12]
 
 


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