Accepted name: 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (2-methylpropanoyl-transferring)
Reaction: 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue (2-methylpropanoyl)transferase] lipoyllysine = [dihydrolipoyllysine-residue (2-methylpropanoyl)transferase] S-(2-methylpropanoyl)dihydrolipoyllysine + CO2
Glossary: dihydrolipoyl group
thiamine diphosphate = 3-[(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-5-(2-diphosphoethyl)-4-methyl-1,3-thiazolium
Other name(s): 2-oxoisocaproate dehydrogenase; 2-oxoisovalerate (lipoate) dehydrogenase; 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase (lipoamide); 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate:lipoamide oxidoreductase (decarboxylating and acceptor-2-methylpropanoylating); α-keto-α-methylvalerate dehydrogenase; α-ketoisocaproate dehydrogenase; α-ketoisocaproic dehydrogenase; α-ketoisocaproic-α-keto-α-methylvaleric dehydrogenase; α-ketoisovalerate dehydrogenase; α-oxoisocaproate dehydrogenase; BCKDH; BCOAD; branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase; branched-chain (-2-oxoacid) dehydrogenase (BCD); branched-chain 2-keto acid dehydrogenase; branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase; branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase; branched-chain α-oxo acid dehydrogenase; branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase; branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase; dehydrogenase, 2-oxoisovalerate (lipoate); dehydrogenase, branched chain α-keto acid
Systematic name: 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate:[dihydrolipoyllysine-residue (2-methylpropanoyl)transferase]-lipoyllysine 2-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating, acceptor-2-methylpropanoylating)
Comments: Contains thiamine diphosphate. It acts not only on 3-methyl-2-oxobutanaoate, but also on 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate and (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate, so that it acts on the 2-oxo acids that derive from the action of transaminases on valine, leucine and isoleucine. It is a component of the multienzyme 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate dehydrogenase complex in which multiple copies of it are bound to a core of molecules of EC, dihydrolipoyllysine-residue (2-methylpropanoyl)transferase, which also binds multiple copies of EC, dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase. It does not act on free lipoamide or lipoyllysine, but only on the lipoyllysine residue in EC
1.  Bowden, J.A. and Connelly, J.L. Branched chain α-keto acid metabolism. II. Evidence for the common identity of α-ketoisocaproic acid and α-keto-β-methyl-valeric acid dehydrogenases. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (1968) 3526–3531. [PMID: 5656388]
2.  Connelly, J.L., Danner, D.J. and Bowden, J.A. Branched chain α-keto acid metabolism. I. Isolation, purification, and partial characterization of bovine liver α-ketoisocaproic:α-keto-β-methylvaleric acid dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (1968) 1198–1203. [PMID: 5689906]
3.  Danner, D.J., Lemmon, S.K., Beharse, J.C. and Elsas, L.J., II Purification and characterization of branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase from bovine liver mitochondria. J. Biol. Chem. 254 (1979) 5522–5526. [PMID: 447664]
4.  Pettit, F.H., Yeaman, S.J. and Reed, L.J. Purification and characterization of branched chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex of bovine kidney. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 75 (1978) 4881–4885. [PMID: 283398]
5.  Perham, R.N. Swinging arms and swinging domains in multifunctional enzymes: catalytic machines for multistep reactions. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 69 (2000) 961–1004. [PMID: 10966480]
[EC created 1972 (EC created 1972, incorporated 1978), modified 2003]

Data © 2001–2019 IUBMB
Web site © 2005–2019 Andrew McDonald