The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase
Reaction: betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O = betaine + NADH + 2 H+
Glossary: betaine = glycine betaine = N,N,N-trimethylglycine = N,N,N-trimethylammonioacetate
betaine aldehyde = N,N,N-trimethyl-2-oxoethylammonium
Other name(s): betaine aldehyde oxidase; BADH; betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase; BetB
Systematic name: betaine-aldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized in two steps: (1) choline to betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde to betaine. This enzyme is involved in the second step and appears to be the same in plants, animals and bacteria. In contrast, different enzymes are involved in the first reaction. In plants, this reaction is catalysed by EC (choline monooxygenase), whereas in animals and many bacteria it is catalysed by either membrane-bound EC (choline dehydrogenase) or soluble EC (choline oxidase) [5]. In some bacteria, betaine is synthesized from glycine through the actions of EC (glycine/sarcosine N-methyltransferase) and EC (sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9028-90-4
1.  Rothschild, H.A. and Barron, E.S.G. The oxidation of betaine aldehyde by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 209 (1954) 511–523. [PMID: 13192104]
2.  Livingstone, J.R., Maruo, T., Yoshida, I., Tarui, Y., Hirooka, K., Yamamoto, Y., Tsutui, N. and Hirasawa, E. Purification and properties of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Avena sativa. J. Plant Res. 116 (2003) 133–140. [DOI] [PMID: 12736784]
3.  Muñoz-Clares, R.A., González-Segura, L., Mújica-Jiménez, C. and Contreras-Diaz, L. Ligand-induced conformational changes of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. leaves affecting the reactivity of the catalytic thiol. Chem. Biol. Interact. (2003) 129–137. [DOI] [PMID: 12604197]
4.  Johansson, K., El-Ahmad, M., Ramaswamy, S., Hjelmqvist, L., Jornvall, H. and Eklund, H. Structure of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase at 2.1 Å resolution. Protein Sci. 7 (1998) 2106–2117. [DOI] [PMID: 9792097]
5.  Waditee, R., Tanaka, Y., Aoki, K., Hibino, T., Jikuya, H., Takano, J., Takabe, T. and Takabe, T. Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 4932–4942. [DOI] [PMID: 12466265]
[EC created 1961, modified 2005, modified 2011]
Accepted name: long-chain acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase
Reaction: a long-chain aldehyde + an [acyl-carrier protein] + NAD(P)+ = a long-chain acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + NAD(P)H + H+
Glossary: a long-chain aldehyde = an aldehyde derived from a fatty acid with an aliphatic chain of 13-22 carbons.
an [acyl-carrier protein] = ACP = [acp]
Other name(s): long-chain acyl-[acp] reductase; fatty acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase; acyl-[acp] reductase
Systematic name: long-chain-aldehyde:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase (acyl-[acyl-carrier protein]-forming)
Comments: Catalyses the reaction in the opposite direction. This enzyme, purified from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, catalyses the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of an activated fatty acid (acyl-[acp]) to the corresponding aldehyde. Together with EC, octadecanal decarbonylase, it is involved in alkane biosynthesis. The natural substrates of the enzyme are C16 and C18 activated fatty acids. Requires Mg2+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Schirmer, A., Rude, M.A., Li, X., Popova, E. and del Cardayre, S.B. Microbial biosynthesis of alkanes. Science 329 (2010) 559–562. [DOI] [PMID: 20671186]
[EC created 2011]
Accepted name: sulfoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase (acylating)
Reaction: 2-sulfoacetaldehyde + CoA + NADP+ = sulfoacetyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
Glossary: 2-sulfoacetaldehyde = 2-oxoethanesulfonate
Other name(s): SauS
Systematic name: 2-sulfoacetaldehyde:NADP+ oxidoreductase (CoA-acetylating)
Comments: The enzyme is involved in degradation of sulfoacetate. In this pathway the reaction is catalysed in the reverse direction. The enzyme is specific for sulfoacetaldehyde and NADP+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Weinitschke, S., Hollemeyer, K., Kusian, B., Bowien, B., Smits, T.H. and Cook, A.M. Sulfoacetate is degraded via a novel pathway involving sulfoacetyl-CoA and sulfoacetaldehyde in Cupriavidus necator H16. J. Biol. Chem. 285 (2010) 35249–35254. [DOI] [PMID: 20693281]
[EC created 2011]
Accepted name: β-apo-4′-carotenal oxygenase
Reaction: 4′-apo-β,ψ-caroten-4′-al + NAD+ + H2O = neurosporaxanthin + NADH + 2 H+
Glossary: neurosporaxanthin = 4′-apo-β,ψ-caroten-4′-oic acid
Other name(s): β-apo-4′-carotenal dehydrogenase; YLO-1; carD (gene name)
Systematic name: 4′-apo-β,ψ-carotenal:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Neurosporaxanthin is responsible for the orange color of of Neurospora.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Estrada, A.F., Youssar, L., Scherzinger, D., Al-Babili, S. and Avalos, J. The ylo-1 gene encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase responsible for the last reaction in the Neurospora carotenoid pathway. Mol. Microbiol. 69 (2008) 1207–1220. [DOI] [PMID: 18627463]
2.  Diaz-Sanchez, V., Estrada, A.F., Trautmann, D., Al-Babili, S. and Avalos, J. The gene carD encodes the aldehyde dehydrogenase responsible for neurosporaxanthin biosynthesis in Fusarium fujikuroi. FEBS J. 278 (2011) 3164–3176. [DOI] [PMID: 21749649]
[EC created 2011]
Accepted name: 3-succinoylsemialdehyde-pyridine dehydrogenase
Reaction: 4-oxo-4-(pyridin-3-yl)butanal + NADP+ + H2O = 4-oxo-4-(pyridin-3-yl)butanoate + NADPH + H+
Glossary: 4-oxo-4-(pyridin-3-yl)butanal = 3-succinoylsemialdehyde-pyridine
4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)-butanoate = 3-succinoyl-pyridine
Systematic name: 4-oxo-4-(pyridin-3-yl)butanal:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme has been characterized from the soil bacterium Pseudomonas sp. HZN6. It participates in the nicotine degradation pathway.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Qiu, J., Ma, Y., Wen, Y., Chen, L., Wu, L. and Liu, W. Functional identification of two novel genes from Pseudomonas sp. strain HZN6 involved in the catabolism of nicotine. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78 (2012) 2154–2160. [DOI] [PMID: 22267672]
[EC created 2012]
Accepted name: alcohol-forming fatty acyl-CoA reductase
Reaction: a long-chain acyl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+ = a long-chain alcohol + 2 NADP+ + CoA
Glossary: a long-chain acyl-CoA = an acyl-CoA thioester where the acyl chain contains 13 to 22 carbon atoms.
Other name(s): FAR (gene name); long-chain acyl-CoA:NADPH reductase
Systematic name: NADPH:long-chain acyl-CoA reductase
Comments: The enzyme has been characterized from the plant Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba). The alcohol is formed by a four-electron reduction of fatty acyl-CoA. Although the reaction proceeds through an aldehyde intermediate, a free aldehyde is not released. The recombinant enzyme was shown to accept saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acyl-CoAs of 16 to 22 carbons.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Metz, J.G., Pollard, M.R., Anderson, L., Hayes, T.R. and Lassner, M.W. Purification of a jojoba embryo fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase and expression of its cDNA in high erucic acid rapeseed. Plant Physiol. 122 (2000) 635–644. [PMID: 10712526]
[EC created 2012]
Accepted name: 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase
Reaction: 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde + NAD+ + H2O = (2Z,4E)-2-hydroxyhexa-2,4-dienedioate + NADH + 2 H+
For diagram of catechol catabolism (meta ring cleavage), click here
Glossary: 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde = (2Z,4E)-2-hydroxy-6-oxohexa-2,4-dienoate
Other name(s): xylG (gene name); praB (gene name)
Systematic name: 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: This substrate for this enzyme is formed by meta ring cleavage of catechol (EC, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase), and is an intermediate in the bacterial degradation of several aromatic compounds. Has lower activity with benzaldehyde [1]. Activity with NAD+ is more than 10-fold higher than with NADP+ [3]. cf. EC, aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Inoue, J., Shaw, J.P., Rekik, M. and Harayama, S. Overlapping substrate specificities of benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (the xylC gene product) and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (the xylG gene product) encoded by TOL plasmid pWW0 of Pseudomonas putida. J. Bacteriol. 177 (1995) 1196–1201. [DOI] [PMID: 7868591]
2.  Orii, C., Takenaka, S., Murakami, S. and Aoki, K. Metabolism of 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzoic acid by Bordetella sp. strain 10d: A different modified meta-cleavage pathway for 2-aminophenols. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 70 (2006) 2653–2661. [DOI] [PMID: 17090920]
3.  Kasai, D., Fujinami, T., Abe, T., Mase, K., Katayama, Y., Fukuda, M. and Masai, E. Uncovering the protocatechuate 2,3-cleavage pathway genes. J. Bacteriol. 191 (2009) 6758–6768. [DOI] [PMID: 19717587]
[EC created 2012]
Accepted name: geranial dehydrogenase
Reaction: geranial + H2O + NAD+ = geranate + NADH + H+
For diagram of acyclic monoterpenoid biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): GaDH; geoB (gene name)
Systematic name: geranial:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Does not act on neral.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, UM-BBD
1.  Wolken, W.A. and van der Werf, M.J. Geraniol biotransformation-pathway in spores of Penicillium digitatum. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 57 (2001) 731–737. [PMID: 11778886]
2.  Lüddeke, F., Wülfing, A., Timke, M., Germer, F., Weber, J., Dikfidan, A., Rahnfeld, T., Linder, D., Meyerdierks, A. and Harder, J. Geraniol and geranial dehydrogenases induced in anaerobic monoterpene degradation by Castellaniella defragrans. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78 (2012) 2128–2136. [DOI] [PMID: 22286981]
[EC created 2012]
Accepted name: propanal dehydrogenase (CoA-propanoylating)
Reaction: propanal + CoA + NAD+ = propanoyl-CoA + NADH + H+
Other name(s): BphJ
Systematic name: propanal:NAD+ oxidoreductase (CoA-propanoylating)
Comments: The enzyme forms a bifunctional complex with EC, 4-hydroxy-2-oxohexanoate aldolase, with a tight channel connecting the two subunits [1,2,3]. Also acts, more slowly, on glycolaldehyde and butanal. In Pseudomonas species the enzyme forms a bifunctional complex with EC, 4-hydroxy-2-oxovalerate aldolase. The enzymes from the bacteria Burkholderia xenovorans and Thermus thermophilus also perform the reaction of EC, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (acetylating). NADP+ can replace NAD+ with a much slower rate [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Baker, P., Pan, D., Carere, J., Rossi, A., Wang, W. and Seah, S.Y.K. Characterization of an aldolase-dehydrogenase complex that exhibits substrate channeling in the polychlorinated biphenyls degradation pathway. Biochemistry 48 (2009) 6551–6558. [DOI] [PMID: 19476337]
2.  Carere, J., Baker, P. and Seah, S.Y.K. Investigating the molecular determinants for substrate channeling in BphI-BphJ, an aldolase-dehydrogenase complex from the polychlorinated biphenyls degradation pathway. Biochemistry 50 (2011) 8407–8416. [DOI] [PMID: 21838275]
3.  Baker, P., Hillis, C., Carere, J. and Seah, S.Y.K. Protein-protein interactions and substrate channeling in orthologous and chimeric aldolase-dehydrogenase complexes. Biochemistry 51 (2012) 1942–1952. [DOI] [PMID: 22316175]
[EC created 2013]
Accepted name: L-glutamate γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase
Reaction: L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + NAD+ + H2O = L-glutamate + NADH + H+
For diagram of reaction, click here
Glossary: L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde = L-glutamate γ-semialdehyde = (S)-2-amino-5-oxopentanoate
Other name(s): 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase; Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase; 1-pyrroline dehydrogenase; pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase; pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase; L-pyrroline-5-carboxylate-NAD+ oxidoreductase; 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate:NAD+ oxidoreductase; Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase
Systematic name: L-glutamate γ-semialdehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: This enzyme catalyses the irreversible oxidation of glutamate-γ-semialdehyde to glutamate as part of the proline degradation pathway. (S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, the product of the first enzyme of the pathway (EC, proline dehydrogenase) is in spontaneous equilibrium with its tautomer L-glutamate γ-semialdehyde. In many bacterial species, both activities are carried out by a single bifunctional enzyme [3,4].The enzyme can also oxidize other 1-pyrrolines, e.g. 3-hydroxy-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate is converted into 4-hydroxyglutamate and (R)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate is converted into D-glutamate. NADP+ can also act as acceptor, but with lower activity [5].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9054-82-4
1.  Adams, E. and Goldstone, A. Hydroxyproline metabolism. IV. Enzymatic synthesis of γ-hydroxyglutamate from Δ1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylate. J. Biol. Chem. 235 (1960) 3504–3512. [PMID: 13681370]
2.  Strecker, H.J. The interconversion of glutamic acid and proline. III. Δ1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 235 (1960) 3218–3223.
3.  Forlani, G., Scainelli, D. and Nielsen, E. Δ1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase from cultured cells of potato (purification and properties). Plant Physiol. 113 (1997) 1413–1418. [PMID: 12223682]
4.  Brown, E.D. and Wood, J.M. Redesigned purification yields a fully functional PutA protein dimer from Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 13086–13092. [PMID: 1618807]
5.  Inagaki, E., Ohshima, N., Sakamoto, K., Babayeva, N.D., Kato, H., Yokoyama, S. and Tahirov, T.H. New insights into the binding mode of coenzymes: structure of Thermus thermophilus Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase complexed with NADP+. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 63 (2007) 462–465. [DOI] [PMID: 17554163]
[EC created 1972 as EC, modified 2008, transferred 2013 to EC]
Accepted name: D-glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+)
Reaction: D-glyceraldehyde + NADP+ + H2O = D-glycerate + NADPH + H+
Other name(s): glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase; GADH
Systematic name: D-glyceraldehyde:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme from the archaea Thermoplasma acidophilum and Picrophilus torridus is involved in the non-phosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff pathway. cf. EC, glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase (FAD-containing).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Jung, J.H. and Lee, S.B. Identification and characterization of Thermoplasma acidophilum glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase: a new class of NADP+-specific aldehyde dehydrogenase. Biochem. J. 397 (2006) 131–138. [DOI] [PMID: 16566751]
2.  Reher, M. and Schonheit, P. Glyceraldehyde dehydrogenases from the thermoacidophilic euryarchaeota Picrophilus torridus and Thermoplasma acidophilum, key enzymes of the non-phosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff pathway, constitute a novel enzyme family within the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily. FEBS Lett. 580 (2006) 1198–1204. [DOI] [PMID: 16458304]
[EC created 2014]

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