EC 1.14.20.1     
Accepted name: deacetoxycephalosporin-C synthase
Reaction: penicillin N + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = deacetoxycephalosporin C + succinate + CO2 + H2O
Other name(s): DAOCS; penicillin N expandase; DAOC synthase
Systematic name: penicillin-N,2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (ring-expanding)
Comments: Forms part of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway (for pathway, click here).
References:
1.  Cantwell, C., Beckmann, R., Whiteman, P., Queener, S.W. and Abraham, E.P. Isolation of deacetoxycephalosporin-c from fermentation broths of Penicillium chrysogenum transformants - construction of a new fungal biosynthetic-pathway. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 248 (1992) 283–289. [PMID: 1354366]
2.  Lee, H.J., Lloyd, M.D., Harlos, K., Clifton, I.J., Baldwin, J.E. and Schofield, C.J. Kinetic and crystallographic studies on deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase (DAOCS). J. Mol. Biol. 308 (2001) 937–948. [PMID: 11352583]
3.  Yeh, W.K., Ghag, S.K. and Queener, S.W. Enzymes for epimerization of isopenicillin N, ring expansion of penicillin N, and 3′-hydroxylation of deacetoxycephalosporin C. Function, evolution, refolding, and enzyme engineering. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 672 (1992) 396–408.
4.  Valegaard, K., van Scheltinga, A.C.T., Lloyd, M.D., Hara, T., Ramaswamy, S., Perrakis, A., Thompson, A., Lee, H.-J., Baldwin, J.E., Schofield, C.J., Hajdu, J. and Andersson, I. Structure of a cephalosporin synthase. Nature 394 (1998) 805–809. [PMID: 9723623]
5.  Dotzlaf, J.E. and Yeh, W.K. Purification and properties of deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase from recombinant Escherichia coli and its comparison with the native enzyme purified from Streptomyces clavuligerus. J. Biol. Chem. 264 (1989) 10219–10227. [PMID: 2656705]
[EC 1.14.20.1 created 2002]
 
 
EC 1.14.20.10     
Accepted name: L-tyrosine isonitrile desaturase/decarboxylase
Reaction: (2S)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-isocyanopropanoate + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = 4-[(E)-2-isocyanoethenyl]phenol + succinate + 2 CO2 + H2O
Glossary: (2S)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-isocyanopropanoic acid = L-tyrosine isonitrile
rhabduscin = N-[(2S,3S,4R,5S,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-{4-[(E)-2-isocyanoethenyl]phenoxy}-2-methyloxan-3-yl]acetamide
Other name(s): pvcB (gene name)
Systematic name: (2S)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-isocyanopropanoate,2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (decarboxylating)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila, is involved in rhabduscin biosynthesis. The enzyme is a member of the Fe2+, 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases. It is similar to EC 1.14.20.9, L-tyrosine isonitrile desaturase. However, the latter does not catalyse a decarboxylation of the substrate.
References:
1.  Crawford, J.M., Portmann, C., Zhang, X., Roeffaers, M.B. and Clardy, J. Small molecule perimeter defense in entomopathogenic bacteria. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109 (2012) 10821–10826. [PMID: 22711807]
2.  Zhu, J., Lippa, G.M., Gulick, A.M. and Tipton, P.A. Examining reaction specificity in PvcB, a source of diversity in isonitrile-containing natural products. Biochemistry 54 (2015) 2659–2669. [PMID: 25866990]
[EC 1.14.20.10 created 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.20.11     
Accepted name: 3-[(Z)-2-isocyanoethenyl]-1H-indole synthase
Reaction: (2S)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-isocyanopropanoate + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = 3-[(Z)-2-isocyanoethenyl]-1H-indole + succinate + 2 CO2 + H2O
Glossary: (2S)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-isocyanopropanoate = L-tryptophan isonitrile
Other name(s): ambI3 (gene name); famH3 (gene name)
Systematic name: (2S)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-isocyanopropanoate,2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (decarboxylating, 3-[(Z)-2-isocyanoethenyl]-1H-indole-forming)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the cyanobacterium Fischerella ambigua UTEX 1903, participates in the biosynthesis of hapalindole-type alkaloids. The enzyme catalyses an Fe2+, 2-oxoglutarate-dependent monooxygenation at C-3, which is followed by decarboxylation and dehydration, resulting in the generation of a cis C-C double bond. cf. EC 1.14.20.12, L-tryptophan isonitrile desaturase/decarboxylase (3-[(E)-2-isocyanoethenyl]-1H-indole-forming).
References:
1.  Hillwig, M.L., Zhu, Q. and Liu, X. Biosynthesis of ambiguine indole alkaloids in cyanobacterium Fischerella ambigua. ACS Chem. Biol. 9 (2014) 372–377. [PMID: 24180436]
2.  Chang, W.C., Sanyal, D., Huang, J.L., Ittiamornkul, K., Zhu, Q. and Liu, X. In vitro stepwise reconstitution of amino acid derived vinyl isocyanide biosynthesis: detection of an elusive intermediate. Org. Lett. 19 (2017) 1208–1211. [PMID: 28212039]
[EC 1.14.20.11 created 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.20.12     
Accepted name: 3-[(E)-2-isocyanoethenyl]-1H-indole synthase
Reaction: (2S)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-isocyanopropanoate + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = 3-[(E)-2-isocyanoethenyl]-1H-indole + succinate + 2 CO2 + H2O
Glossary: (2S)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-isocyanopropanoate = L-tryptophan isonitrile
Other name(s): isnB (gene name)
Systematic name: (2S)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-isocyanopropanoate,2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (decarboxylating, 3-[(E)-2-isocyanoethenyl]-1H-indole-forming)
Comments: The enzyme has been characterized from an unidentified soil bacterium. It catalyses an Fe2+, 2-oxoglutarate-dependent monooxygenation at C-3, which is followed by decarboxylation and dehydration, resulting in the generation of a trans C-C double bond. cf. EC 1.14.20.11, L-tryptophan isonitrile desaturase/decarboxylase (3-[(Z)-2-isocyanoethenyl]-1H-indole-forming).
References:
1.  Brady, S.F. and Clardy, J. Cloning and heterologous expression of isocyanide biosynthetic genes from environmental DNA. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 44 (2005) 7063–7065. [PMID: 16206308]
2.  Chang, W.C., Sanyal, D., Huang, J.L., Ittiamornkul, K., Zhu, Q. and Liu, X. In vitro stepwise reconstitution of amino acid derived vinyl isocyanide biosynthesis: detection of an elusive intermediate. Org. Lett. 19 (2017) 1208–1211. [PMID: 28212039]
[EC 1.14.20.12 created 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.20.13     
Accepted name: 6β-hydroxyhyoscyamine epoxidase
Reaction: (6S)-6β-hydroxyhyoscyamine + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = scopolamine + succinate + CO2 + H2O
Glossary: scopolamine = hyoscine = (1R,2R,4S,5S,7s)-9-methyl-3-oxa-9-azatricyclo[3.3.1.02,4]nonan-7-yl (2S)-3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoate
Other name(s): hydroxyhyoscyamine dioxygenase; (6S)-6-hydroxyhyoscyamine,2-oxoglutarate oxidoreductase (epoxide-forming)
Systematic name: (6S)-6β-hydroxyhyoscyamine,2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (epoxide-forming)
Comments: Requires Fe2+ and ascorbate.
References:
1.  Hashimoto, T., Kohno, J. and Yamada, Y. 6β-Hydroxyhyoscyamine epoxidase from cultured roots of Hyoscyamus niger. Phytochemistry 28 (1989) 1077–1082.
[EC 1.14.20.13 created 1992 as EC 1.14.11.14, transferred 2018 to EC 1.14.20.13]
 
 
EC 1.14.20.14     
Accepted name: hapalindole-type alkaloid chlorinase
Reaction: (1) hapalindole U + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 + chloride = hapalindole G + succinate + CO2 + H2O
(2)12-epi-fischerindole U + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 + chloride = 12-epi-fischerindole G + succinate + CO2 + H2O
Glossary: 12-epi-fischerindole U = (6aS,9S,10R,10aS)-9-ethenyl-10-isocyano-6,6,9-trimethyl-5,6,6a,7,8,9,10,10a-octahydroindeno[2,1-b]indole
12-epi-fischerindole G = (6aR,8R,9S,10R,10aS)-8-chloro-9-ethenyl-10-isocyano-6,6,9-trimethyl-5,6,6a,7,8,9,10,10a-octahydroindeno[2,1-b]indole
Other name(s): ambO5 (gene name); welO5 (gene name)
Systematic name: 12-epi-fischerindole U,2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (13-halogenating)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from hapalindole-type alkaloids-producing cyanobacteria, is a specialized iron(II)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase that catalyses the chlorination of its substrates in a reaction that requires oxygen, chloride ions, iron(II) and 2-oxoglutarate.
References:
1.  Hillwig, M.L. and Liu, X. A new family of iron-dependent halogenases acts on freestanding substrates. Nat. Chem. Biol. 10 (2014) 921–923. [PMID: 25218740]
2.  Zhu, Q., Hillwig, M.L., Doi, Y. and Liu, X. Aliphatic halogenase enables late-stage C-H functionalization: selective synthesis of a brominated fischerindole alkaloid with enhanced antibacterial activity. Chembiochem 17 (2016) 466–470. [PMID: 26749394]
3.  Hillwig, M.L., Zhu, Q., Ittiamornkul, K. and Liu, X. Discovery of a promiscuous non-heme iron halogenase in ambiguine alkaloid biogenesis: implication for an evolvable enzyme family for late-stage halogenation of aliphatic carbons in small molecules. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55 (2016) 5780–5784. [PMID: 27027281]
[EC 1.14.20.14 created 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.20.15     
Accepted name: L-threonyl-[L-threonyl-carrier protein] 4-chlorinase
Reaction: an L-threonyl-[L-threonyl-carrier protein] + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 + Cl- = a 4-chloro-L-threonyl-[L-threonyl-carrier protein] + succinate + CO2 + H2O
Other name(s): syrB2 (gene name)
Systematic name: L-threonyl-[L-threonyl-carrier protein],2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-halogenating)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, participates in syringomycin E biosynthesis. The enzyme is a specialized iron(II)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase that catalyses the chlorination of its substrate in a reaction that requires oxygen, chloride ions, ferrous iron and 2-oxoglutarate.
References:
1.  Vaillancourt, F.H., Yin, J. and Walsh, C.T. SyrB2 in syringomycin E biosynthesis is a nonheme FeII α-ketoglutarate- and O2-dependent halogenase. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 102 (2005) 10111–10116. [PMID: 16002467]
[EC 1.14.20.15 created 2018]
 
 


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